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J'\t.J' .6 r' 

U r. 

J . r 

Louis Oscar Roty. 

(11th June, 1846— 23pd March, 1911). 

Porirait-PlaquetU by A. Patey. 







B.C. 500 A.D. 1900 








17 & 18 Piccadilly, W. 





Coin-, Gem-, and Seal-Engravers, Ancient and Modern, 
luith References to their Works. 

B.C. 500 — A.D. 1900 


R. Vide ROFFIN, NICOLAS. Mint-engraver at Toulouse, 1553. 

R. Videl. B. RAVASCHIERO. Mint-master at Naples, arc. 1 5 60- 1 580. 

R. Vide HILDEBRAND RtJCK or RUCKE. Mint-master at Marburg, 
t 1593- 

R. Vide T.RAWLINS. 1 600- 1670. British Coin- and Medal-engraver. 

R. Vide H. ROUSSEL. Medallist at Paris, 1654-1711. 

R. Vide J. A. REPHUN. Mint-master at Darmstadt, 1693-1705. 

R. Vide RAMAGE. Coin-engraver at London, 1649. The R occurs 
on Cromwell Farthings. 

R. Vide ROETTIER. Several members of this famous family of 
Medallists signed their productions thus, circ. 1660-1770. 

R. Vide REGNARD. French MedaUist, circ. 1692. 

R. Vide I. C. ROTH. Medallist at Darmstadt, 1696-1707. 

FORRER. — Biographical Notices oj Medallists. — V. ( 

— 2 — 

R. Vide B. RICHTER. Medallist at Stockholm, Paris and Vienna, 
R. Fide G. C. REUSS. Mint-engraver at Bremen, 1708-1710. 
R. Vide S. REINHARD. Medallist at Brunswick, 1704-17 18. 
R. Vide I. P. RAST. Mint-master at Stuttgart, 1746- 1762. 
R. Videl. A. ROTH. Medallist at Darmstadt, 1740-1765. 
R. Vide C. L. RUCKDESCHEL. Mint-master at Baireuth, 17^7-1768. 
R. Vide J. C. REICH. Medallist at Furth, 1758-1814. 
R. Vide JOHANN MATTHIAS REICH. Medallist at Fiirth, 1792. 
R. Vide I. V. RIESING. Medallist at Wiirzburg, 1763-1789. 
R. Vide C. E. RIESING. Medallist at Wiirzburg, 1793-1798. 
R. Vide A. REMSHARD. Medallist at Augsburg, 1763-1765. 
R. Vide G. N. RIEDNER. Mint-master at Nuremberg, 1764- 1793. 
R. Vide P. RODESHEIM. Mint-master at Diisseldorf, 1 783-1 804. 
R. Vide REISS. Medallist at Gmiind, 1838. 

R. Vide RABAUSCH. Medallist at Augsburg, middle years of the 
nineteenth century. 

R. Vide J. RIESS. Medallist at Darmstadt, aVr. 1880. 

R. T/Wt; JOHANN RIES. Medallist at Munich, circ. 1849-t 1889. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, Muni-Ahkuriuugen, Berlin, 1896. 

E/. Vide LORENZ ROSENBAUM. Goldsmith at Augsburg, circ. 

R {French). A Portrait-badge of Bonaparte, as First Consul, is 
thus signed. It is figured in Trisor dennmismatiqiie, 84, 6. 

R {Swiss). This artist's initial occurs on a Medal of the Society 
of Arts of Geneva, early part of the nineteenth century. Vide Poole, 
Catalogue of Swiss Coins ^ p. 233, n°25. 

■p^. Vide RDTILIO GACCI. Spanish Medallist of the early part of 
the seventeenth century. Cf. RUTILIO injra. 

R (The Master R). Possibly an Austrian Medallist, who was 
working circ. 1565, and by whom are several religious medals. 
Some have ascribed these to the Augsburg Goldsmith, Lorenz 
Rosenbaum, but no doubt in error. Fiala suggests the name of 

— 3 — 

REUTER. Among the medals signed R I may mention : i. Birth of 
Christ; ^. Adam and Eve eating of the tree of knowledge; dated 
. (the dies are still preserved at the Vienna Mint); — 
2. Birthof Christ;I^.-f-EGO.svM.viA.etc. Christ carrying the cross; 
— 3. A variety of the obv. type; — 4. Obv. -\- salvator.mvndi. 
Facing bust of Christ; ^L. Christ with cross and cup; — 5. Obv. 
christi tod 1ST MEiN LEBEN. Christ on the cross between Mary and 
John; ^L. Christ carrying the flag of victory standing on orb; — 
6. David and Goliath; ^. Christ and the Dragon; — 7. Christ 
healing the daughter of the Canaanite woman ; I^. Christ and the 
Samaritan woman at the well of Sychar ; — 8. Obv. ihesvm.crv- 
ciFixvM etc. The Angel announcing Christ's resurrection to the 
women; ^. primo.die.sabbathi etc. Christ appearing to the 
women; — 9. Christ's circumcision; I^. Christ's baptism in the 
Jordan; — ro. Moses and the brazen serpent; ^L. Christ's cruci- 
fixion, dated, 1551, and others. 

Some ot the originals of these medals exhibit very fine work. 

Bibliography. — E. Fiala, Beschreihtmg der Max Donehauers'che Sammlung. 

R. This signature occurs on a silver impression of the Neuchiitel 
Pistole of Frederick William I. of Prussia, 1712. Von Schrotter 

Silver impression of a Neuchatel Pistole, 171 2. 

suggests the name of Karl Christian Reisen as that of the Engraver 
of this piece. At any rate it is not the work of one of the Prussian 
official Mint-engravers. 

Bibliography. — Von Schroetter, Die Mun^Jtrdgung in Neuenburg in den Jahren 
1713, 14 und ij, Zeitschrift fur Nuntistiiatik. 

A. R. or /R. Vide ALFONSO RUSPAGGIARI. ot Reggio. Medallist, 
circ. 1 565-1 575. 

A. R. Vide ANDREAS REIMAR. Mint-master at Wismar, 1580- 

A. R. Vidr ABRAHAM RIESE. Saxon Medallist, circ. 15 90- 162 5. 

— 4 — 

A. R. Fide AGOSTINO RIVAROLO. Mint-master at Parma, 1614- 
16 17, and Ferrara, 161 9. 

A. R. F/V/f ABRAHAM REMSHARD. Augsburg Medallist, circ. 1763- 
1765. Also A. R. F. 

BR. Vide. NICHOLAS BRIOT. 15 79-1 646. Medallist and Coin-engrav- 
er at Paris, London, Nancy, &c. Also N. B. 

B. R. r/W<? BENEDICT RICHTER. 1670-1735. Medallist at Stockholm, 
Paris, and Berlin; later. Court Medallist and Mint-engraver at 

B. R. Vide BALTHASAR REINHARD. Mint-warden at Cassel, 1765- 
1774, then Mint-master there, 1775-1783; later at Detmold, 

BR. or RRPT . Vid£ BRENET. 1773-1846. Medallist at Paris. 

BR. F. Vide F. H. BRANDT. 1789-1845. Medallist at La Chaux-de- 
Fonds, worked at Berlin. 

C. R. Vide RABAUSCH. Medallist at Augsburg, circ. 1838-1870. 

C.R. Vide CASPAR RYTKER. Mint-master at Olkusz, 1593-1604. 

C. R. and acorn. Vide CONSTANTIN ROTH. Mint-master at Dresden, 

C. R. Vide C. R. ROETTIER. Medallist, born in 1691, succeeded 
Norbert Roettier in 1727. 

C. R. Vide CARL RADNITZKY. Medallist at Vienna, second half ot 
the nineteenth century. 

C. R. Vide JOHANN CHRISTIAN REICH. 1740-1814. Medallist at 

C. R. D. Vide CHARLOTTE REBECCA DAMISET. Die-sinker at Hanau, 
1 761-1765 ; died at Paris. 

D. R. Vide DAVID REICH. 1715-1771. Medallist at St. Gall. 

DR. F. Vide J. P. DROZ. 1746-1823. Medallist of La Chaux-de- 
Fonds, who worked at Paris, Birmingham and London, and from 
1793 until his death again at Paris. 

DK or DR ? Riippel has read this signature on a Portrait-medal of 
Heinrich Bartelsz of Frankfort-on-Main, 1636. He remarks that 
two others medals, now lost, of Paul Birkenholtz, 1634, ^^id his 
wife Frau Elizabeth, n^e Bartels, are by the same hand. 

Bibliography. — Erman, Deutsche Medaillcure, 1884. — Riippel, Beschreibung 
uml Abbildung Jer Schaumuuien, welch' ^iim Angedenken von Bewohnern Frankfurts 
gefertigl wurdeti, Frank furt-a-M., 1855. 

F. R. Vide FRANCHINI and RIVAROLA. Mint-masters at Ferrara, 

F. R. Fide FRIEDRICH RICHTER. Mint-master at Brunswick, 
1 800-1 8 14, and Director of the Mint, from 18 14 to 1820. 

G. R. Vide GIUSEPPE RAVASCHIERO. Mint-director at Naples, cicr. 

G. R. Vide GIORGIO RANCETTI. Medallist at Rome, circ. 1 590-1610. 

G R. Vide GERHARD ROGGE. Medallist, and Mint-master at Danzig, 
1639-1656, and Thorn, 1645-1648. 

G. R. Vide GEORG RIEDNER. Mint-master at Nuremberg, 1764- 
1793. Also G. N. R. 

G. R. Vide GEORG REICH. Mint-master at St Gall, 1729-173 8. 

H. AR. Vide HEINRICH ALBERT REINECKE. Mint-master at Qued- 
linburg, circ. 1676. 

H.R. Vide HANS REINHARD the Elder. Medallist at Leipzig, circ. 

HR. Vide HANS REINHARD the Younger. Medallist at Leipzig, circ. 

H. R. Vide HILDEBRAND RUCKER or RtCKE. Mint-master at Mar- 
burg, 1588-t 1593- 

HR. Vide HANS RtCKE the Elder. Mint-master at Harburg, circ. 

HR. Vide HEINRICH RAPUSCH. Goldsmith at Berlin, circ. 1579- 

H. R. Vide HERMANN RYTKER. Mint-master at Krakau, 1596- 

H. R. or HR. Vide HEINRICH VON REHNEN. Mint-master at Berlin, 
1603-1605, and Dresden, 1605-1624. 

H.R. Vide HANS RIEGER. Mint-warden at Breslau, 1615-1635. 

H, R. Vide HANS RUCKE. Mint-master at Harburg, circ. 16 10, 
Bremervorde, 16 16- 161 8, Moisburg, 1622- 1626, and again Har- 
burg, 1626-1627. 

H. R. Vide HANS RIDDER. Mint-master at Liibeck, 1673-17 15. 

— 6 — 

H. R. or H. R. F. ride HENRI ROUSSEL. Medallist at Paris, circ. 

H. R. Vide HEKTOR ROSSLER. Mint-master at Darmstadt, 1817. 

HR. H. Fide Vol. II, p. 560. Medallist of the Rhine country, r/rr. 

ff^ (H. F. R.). This signature occurs on a somewhat rough medal of 
Albert V. of Bavaria, 1554 (reproduced in the Gutekunst, Cata- 
logue, 181 5). Fide Erman, p. 64. 

I. R. Fide JOHANN RETHE. Medallist at Stockholm, 163 2- 16 57. 

I. R. Fide JOSEPH ROETTIER. Medallist in England and France, 
1 66 i-f 1703. 

I. R. Fide JOHANN RETEKE. Medallist at Hamburg, nVr. 1660- 
-{• 1720. 

I. R. Fide JOACHIM RUFTMEYER. Mint-master at Hamburg, 1692- 

I. R. Fide JOACHIM RANISCH. Medallist at Dresden, 1685. 

I. R. Fide JOHANN REICHEL. Medallist at Warsaw, end of the 
eighteenth century. 

I. R. FideJOEkJiH RIES. Medallist at Munich, 1849-t 1889. 

I. R. FiW<' JOHANN RIESS. Medallist at Darmstadt, 1880. 

I. R. E. Fide JOHANN REINHARD ENGELHARDT. Medallist at Bres- 
lau, 1690; died at Stettin, 1713. 

I. R. F. Fide JACOB REICHEL. Medallist at St. Petersburg, 181 5. 

I. R. This signature has been noticed by Prof. Erman on a fine 
oval medal of John George III. of Saxony, bearing analogy of style 
with Leygebe's work. The letters might be also IB or IH or even hB, 
as they are not easily decipherable on the reproduction of the medal 

^, 8)- 

in Tresor(?\. 44, 8). Fide Erman, p. 91 

I. R. FECIT (Brit.). A medal of Dean Swift, 1738, is thus signed 
(^Med. III., II, ^). It is cast and roughly executed. On the obv. is 
a medallion of Dean Swift supported by Hibernia and History ; 
Genii above; I^. Hibernia seated to left; ex. mdccxxxviii | i.r. 


;^ (ILR). Monogram, sometimes inclined backwards. This signa- 
ture occurs on two small medals of Prince Elector Augustus of 

— 7 - 

Saxony, 1556, the models of which are preserved in the German- 
isches Museum. 

Diva Maria et Divus Maximilianus, reges Bohemiae conjuges. 

Prof. Erman has met with the same monogram on a medal of 
Count Palatine Frederick, 1559 (Berlin Museum) and on the 
charming medal representing the Diva Maria and Divus Maximilia- 
nus, "reges Bohemiae conjuges"' (Dannenberg. Berlin Museum. 
Catal. Wellenheim, n° 6903). Fide Vol. IV, p. 486. 

SCR. Fide GEORG DANIEL ROETENBECK. Medallist at Nuremberg, 
1645-t 1705. 

K. R. Fide KNOLL and RIEDENER. Mint-warden and master at 
Nuremberg, 1777-1793. 

KR. Fide CHRISTIAN JOSEPH KRUGER Junior. Medallist at Dres- 
den, 1785-1814. 

L. R. Fide LUDWIG ROLLIN. Mint-master at Cassel, 1724-1744. 

L. R. FideLORLiiZ RUCKDESCHEL. Mint-master at Bayreuth, 1745- 
1765. Also C. L. R. 

L. R. Fide ILR supra. Probable signature of a Saxon Medallist, 
circ. 1559. 

M. R. Fide MICHAEL RENNESCH. Mint-master to the Counts of 
Reuss, 1623. 

M. R. or MR. Fide MARTIN REIMANN. Mint-master at Coburg, 
1633-1679. Perhaps the same, 1658-1672, at Saalfeld. 

N. R. Fide NORBERT ROETTIER. Medallist at Brussels, London 
and Paris, 1672- 172 5. 

P. R. Fide PHILIP ROETTIER. Medallist in London, 1680, Brus- 
sels, and Antwerp, f 1732. 

p. R. Vide PETER RAST. Mint-master at Stuttgart, 1746-1762. 
Also I.P.R. 

P.R. Fide PETER RtJDESHEIM. Mint-master at Dusseldorf, 1783- 

S. R. Vide STEPHAN REINHARD. Medallist at Brunswick, 1704- 

S. R. Vide SCHOLZand RIEDNER at Nuremberg, 1764-1770. 

Sr. Vide T. STOCKMAR Mint-master at Dusseldorf, 1805-1818. 

R (T. R.). Vide THOMAS RAWLINS. Medallist and Coin-engraver 
in London, «Vf. 1644-t 1670. 

T. TzW^ PIERRE JOSEPH TIOLIER. Medallist at Paris, 1763-7 181 6. 

T. Vide PIERRE NICOLAS TIOLIER. Medallist at Paris, born in 

T. R. Vide THOMAS RAMM. Mint-master at Riga, 1535, 1547- 

T. R. (?) Vide TOBIAS RENTSCH. Mint-warden-general at Saalfeld, 
circ. 1599. 

T. R. Vide TOMMASO ROGLIO. Mint-engraver at Passerano in 
Piedmont, 1581. 

T. R. Vide ERASMUS THOMAS REUSS. Medallist at Berlin, 1646- 

W. R. F/t/^ WILHELM RITTER. Mint-master at Munster, 1714- 

W. R. VideVflLELLK RATHS. Mint-master at Danzig. 1753-54. 

Z. R. Vide ZUkViO RIVER. Mint-inspector at Venice, 1693-94. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

R. A. F. Vide R. ARONDEAUX. Flemish Medallist, circ. 1678- 1702. 

R. A. Vide RICHARD. Signature on a Portrait-medal of D"^ J. B. A. 
Stroehlin, Geneva, 1891. 

RAAB, HEINRICH {Germ.). Goldsmith and Line-engraver at 
Nuremberg, 1640- 1650. He executed models for Engravers and 
Goldsmiths. He signed his copper plates HUE. 

Bibliography. — Haglcr, Moiiogramntisteii, 1881 ; III, 1404, 1453. 


- 9 - 

RAB, ANDREAS (Austr.). Assistant-Engraver at the Mint of 
Kremnitz, 1 580-1636. He was born in 1560. 

RAB, S. {Germ.). Die-sinker at Frankfort-on-M., 1598. Fide 
Nagler, Man. 1881 ; V, 281. 

RABAUSCH, C. (Germ.). Medallist in the employ of the Drentwett 
Die-sinking establishment at Augsburg, 1838- 1870. His signature 
RABAUSCH F. or C. R. F. occurs on the following medals : Grant of a 
Constitution to Austria, 1849 ; — Seventh Centenary of Maria Zell, 
16. July 1857, and Visit there of the Emperor and Empress; — 
Bad Kissingen, 1842; — Silver Wedding of Prince Carl Egon zu 
Fiirstenberg and Princess Amalie of Baden, 19. April 1848; — Inau- 
guration of a Monument in the Park of Donaueschingen ; — Mili- 
tary Manoeuvres at Augsburg, 1846; — Augsburg Town Hall, 
1870, &c. 

Bibliography. — KuW, op. cit., II, 719. — Die Medaillen und Miinien des Gesammt- 
hauses fVittelslnich, Munchen, 1901. — Mitth. des Klubs der Munz- und Medaillen- 
freunde in Wien, 1898, pp. 256, 305. — Fr. Dollinger, Die FUrsteiibergischen 
Mun\en und Medaillen, 1905. 

RABEL, CHRISTOPH (Germ.). Warden of the Mint at Ratisbon, 

RABENSTEIN, ANDREAS (Aiistr.). Mint-master at Kuttenberg, 

RABENSTEIN, HANS GEORG (Austr.). A native of Bohemia, Seal- 
and Coin- engraver at Gratz, circ. 1666-1676. 

Bibliography. — C. Oesterreicher, Regesten ^u J. Newald's Publicationen Ober 
osterreichische MHu^prdgtingen im ersten Viertel des XV III. Jahrhunderts, Mitth. des 
Klubs, &c., 1901, p. 172. 

RABENSTEINER, ANDREAS IGNATZ (Austr.). Mint-engraver at 
Prague, 1685, 1690, 1693. He was a native of Kuttenberg. where 
his name occurs as Warden and also as Engraver of the Mint, 
1685, 1693, 1714. He died 24. March. 1725. 

RABENSTEINER, HANS GLO^G (Austr.). Mint-master to the Counts 
ofSchlick at Plan, 1645. He also worked at Gratz, and died before 

RABENSTEINER, I6NAZ (Austr.). Mint-warden and Engraver at 
Kuttenberg, 1712, 1714. By him are dies of Bohemian Groschen and 
Kreutzer of Charles VI. struck there in those two years. Probably 
the same as Andreas. 

Bibliography. — Katalog der Mitn^en- und Medaillen-Stempel-Sammlung des KK 

Hauplnmn-amtes in Wien, 1901, 

RABLAIS, JACQUES (French). Mint-engraver at Paris, 1582. Prob- 

— 10 — 

ably the same person as Jacques Rablan, mentioned by Barre, who 
calls him a Goldsmith, ^ide A. Barre, Graveurs en medaUles de la 
Reiiaissauce fran^aisey Ann. num., 1867, p. 177. 

RABOTAU, GUILLAUME {French). Mint-master at Nantes, 1534. 
He coined Douzains for Brittany in that year, Jehan Taupier was 
appointed in his place, 27. April 1534. 

RACAGNE (French). Provost of moneyers at the Paris Mint, 1622. 

RACINE DE BOSCHERVILLE, PIERRE (French). Mint-engraver at 
Rouen, 1713-1720. 

RAGLE, CLAUDE ANTOINE (French). Son of Etienne Racle, born at 
Nancy, 19. August 1665; Engraver at the Mint of Nancy from 
1688 to 1695. 

RACLE, £tienne I (French). Brother of Jean Racle; Mint-engraver 
at Metz, 1626-1632. 

RACLE, £tienne II (French). Born at Brouvaine in Lorraine; 
son of Jean Racle. He was appointed Mint-engraver at Nancy on 
7. December 1660, and in 1670 Mint-engraver at Metz. The 
Vienna Mint Museum still preserves dies by him for the Charles 
d'or ot 1663, and Demi-Ecu of 1668. 

Bibliography. — Henri Lepage, Notes et documents stir les graveurs de monnaies 
et tnediiilles et la fabrication des monnaies des dues de Ijirraine. Nancy, 1875. 

RACLE, JEAN (French), Medallist, and Engraver of coins, seals, 
jetons, &c., born at Brevennes, Lorraine, and son of Jean Racle. 
He appears to have been first employed at the Mint of Sedan, 
under Nicolas Marteau. In 1626 he was already Mint-engraver at 
Nancy. Isaac Briot and Racle were entrusted by the King with the 
coinage of * milled' silver in 1643, in which year they issued pieces 
of 2 Sols 6 Deniers, On that occasion he received the appointment 
of Mint- master and Valet to the King. The Duke of Lorraine raised 
him to the peerage in 1653. In 1660, he ceded his post of Engraver 
to his brother Etienne, and died in 1670. 

The Nancy Public Library preserves the dies of eight jetons 
engraved by this artist, four of which refer to the city itself and 
are dated 1634, 1635, 1637 and 1640. The signature is I. R. F. 

Lepage quotes from numerous contemporaneous records in con- 
nexion with the life and works of Jean Racle, and other members 
of the same family. 

Bibliography. — Lepage, op. cit. 

RACLE, NICOLAS (French). Goldsmith of Nancy, son of Jean 
Racle. He filled the post of Mint-engraver at Nancy, circ. 1634-1663. 

— ir — 

and issued numerous jetons. In 1663 he was, with Claude Vautrin, 
one of the contractors for the coinage of that city. 

RAGLE, REMI (French). Goldsmith and Engraver of Nancy, 
where he worked from circ. 1634 to 1652, and cut many jetons. In 
1652 he was appointed Engraver at the Paris Mint. 

Bibliography. — N. Rondot, L'S medailleurs et les graveiirs de monnaies, &c. 
Paris, 1904. 

RADCLYFFE (Biil.). Die-sinker and Engraver of tokens at Birm- 
ingham, during tlie latter end of the eighteenth century (Vide 
W. J. Davis, JVarwickshirc Token Coinage). 

RADKOVIC, JOSEPH (Austr.). A merchant of Agram, who issued 
medals, engraved by Adolf Miiller of Vienna ; amongst others : 
Visit of the Crown Prince Rudolph of Austria and Consort, to 
Agram, 1888; — Visit of the Emperor Joseph I. to Croatia, 1888 
(2 var). The medals are signed : JOS. RADKOVIC. 

RADNITZKY, KARL (Aiistr.). Sculptor and xMedallist, born at 
Vienna, 17. Xovember 1818, died 10. January 1901. He studied at 
the Gymnasium of his native city, and was apprenticed at the Mint, 
where he worked under Josef Daniel Boehm, 1844- 1848. In 1848, 
immediately after the accession of the Emperor Francis Joseph, he 

Portrait-medalet of C. Radnitzky, by A. Scharff. 

was called to Olmutz to model the sovereign's portrait, from which 
he was commissioned to engrave dies for the new large Medals of 
Military Merit. From 1848 to 1853 he filled the post of Assistant- 
engraver at the Vienna Mint, and cut amongst others the dies for 
the large Medals of Civil Merit, as well as coin-dies. For many years 
he filled the chair of Professor of modelHng and medal-engraving 
at the Vienna Academy of Decorative Arts. 

In the early eighties he retired on a pension, but there are sever- 
al medallic works by him of a later date. He formed pupils of note, 
in the front rank of whom I may mention Prof. Tautenhayn and 

— 12 — 

A. Scharff, who however did not adhere to his style and became 
greatly his superior in artistic merit. 

J. C. Arneth, director of the Vienna Museum, 185 1. 

— 13 — 

Radnitzky's works are very numerous and not of equal merit ; 
some are purely personal, others commemorate historical events, 
and many are Prize Medals for Exhibitions, Agricultural and Indus- 
trial societies, &c. His first medal of note, executed in 1843, depicts 
Rubens, and shows on ^L. a representation of the Genius of pain- 
ting. For this he won the Reichel Prize. The following medallic 
works by this talented artist have come under my notice, but the 
list is very incomplete, as Radnitzky himself seems to have been 
adverse to the publication of a catalogue of his medals : 1843. 
P. P. Rubens; — 1846. Commemorative medal of the sixth centen- 
ary of the Transfer of the body of the Duke Frederick II. to the 
Heiligenkreuz monastery; — 1847. Rifle Meeting (I. Kaiserl. 
Freischiessen) at Bregenz ; — Jenny Lind ; — Josef Freiherr von 
Hammer-Purgstall; — Priestly Jubilee of the Abbot Michael 11. 
Arneth of St. Florian ; — Richard Wagner and Franz Liszt ; — 
Franz Listz ; — Joseph Klieber; — Medal for Members of the 
Literary' and Artistic Club "Concordia" of Vienna ; — 1848. Arch- 
duke John, administrator of the Empire ; — Proclamation Medals 
of the Emperor Francis Joseph; — Pattern i Gulden piece (proba- 
bly from the model executed by Radnitzky at Olmiitz) ; — Num- 
erous Portraits of the youthful Emperor (Vide N°* 5877-5897 of the 
Vienna Mint Catalogue of Dies, Puncheons, &c.) ; — Portrait- 
medals of Francis Joseph ; — Josef von Gorres, writer ; — J. C. V. 
Lassaulx, architect ; — Commemorative medals of the Revolution 
at Vienna, 1848- 1849 (at least two types) ; — Medals for Military 
and Civil Merit (several sizes); — 1849. Grant of Municipal 
autonomy in Austria; — Religious medals (Gnadenpfennige) 
of Mariahilf Church; — 1850. Jenny Lind; — Dies and 
Puncheons for medals with musical emblems; — 185 1. M"' Rachel, 
the celebrated tragedian ; — J. C. Arneth, director of the Vienna 
Museum (illustrated); — 1852. Missionary work at St. Polten ; — 
Festival of Corpus Christi at Budapest, 10 June 1852; — Return 
of the Emperor from Hungary to Vienna; — 1853. Attempt 
on the life of Francis Joseph ; — The Bishopric of Agram raised to an 
Archbishopric; — Josef Alexander Freiherr von Helfert; — 1854. 
Marriage Medals of the Emperor Francis Joseph with the Princess 
Elizabeth of Bavaria (various types and sizes) ; — Portrait-medal 
of Francis Joseph (diam. : 65 mill.); — J. E. Veith, ecclesiastic ; — 
Medal on the Dogma of the Holy Conception; — 1855. Another, 
on the Dogma; — 1856. Medal on the Concordat (sev. var.); — 
Dedication of the Cathedral at Gran by Cardinal Scitovszky ; — 
Congress of German naturalists and physicians at Vienna; — 1857. 
Journey of the Emperor and Empress to the districts of Jazygen and 
Kumanen ; — Jubilee of the Vienna Agricultural Society ; — Prize 
medal of the Agricultural Society at Beraun in Bohemia ; — Carl 

— 14 - 

Freiherr von Bruck; — Double Thaler on the completion of the 
Austrian Southern Railway, Vienna to Trieste (sev. var.); 1644 
specimens struck; — 1858. Birth of the Crown Prince Rudolf, 
21. August 1858; — Leon Prince Sapicha ;— Agricultural Show at 
Tonok-Szent-Miklos ; — Rebuilding of the St. Demetrius Church 
at Crajova; — Rebuilding of the Metropolitan Church at Crajova; 

— Prize Medal of the Pomological Club of the sea coast; — Horti- 
cultural Society of the sea coast ;— Prince Milosch Obrenovitch of 
Servia; — 1859. Inauguration of the Archduke Charles Monument 
at Vienna; — Archduke Charles Louis, governor of Tyrol; Medal 
for the XX. Tyrolian Company; — Medal for the sailors of the 
Novara Expedition around the world; — John Cardinal Scitovszky; 
Prince Primate of Gran ; — 50*'' Anniversary of Johann Kempen, 
Freiherr von Fichtenstamm ; — Centenary Festival of Schiller at 
Vienna; — Recall of Austrian regiments from Italy; — i860. 
Portrait-medals of the Emperor Francis Joseph ; — Second Centen- 
ary' of the Pilgrimage of Maria Taferl ; — Eligius Freiherr von 
Munch-Bellinghausen (Friedrich Halm) ; — Enthronization of Fer- 
dinand Julius, bishop of Olmiitz ; — Plaquette ; Study of a youth 
at his study; — 1861. Prize Medal of the Agricultural Exhibition at 
Torok-Szent-Miklos; — Jubilee of the Minerva Society at Trieste; 

— 1862. Prize Medal of the Agricultural Exhibition at Vienna (sev. 
var.); — 1863. Archduke Maximilian Josef of Austria-Este, Grand 
Master of the Teutonic Order; — Enthronization of Archduke 
William, Prize Medal of the Upper Austria Industrial Exhibition at 
Linz; — Academy of Decorative Arts; — Religious Medalets of 
various types; — Christening Medals; — Medals with represen- 
tations of Saints, Angels, etc. ; — Medals of Christ; — Truth ; — 
Studies afterancient coins: Quadriga, 2YPAK02I0N; Head of Pallas 
Athene ; Pegasos ; Head of Herakles ; Head of Diana ; Head of Alex- 
ander the Great ; Zeus enthroned; Pallas Athene standing; Athlete 
standing; — LaevinusTorrentius, bishop of Antwerp; — Madonna 
and Child; — A Lady in ij^^ century costume ; — 1864. Memor- 
ial Medal of the Archduchess Hildegard ; — Johann Wilhelm 
Freiherr von Mannagetta ; — Carl Friedrich Phil, von Martius, 
naturalist ; — Carl Freiherr von Scheuchenstuel ; — Prize Medals 
of the Agricultural Exhibition at Vienna ; — Tenth Hungarian 
Congress of Naturalists and Physicians; — 1865. Dedication of the 
Prince Eugene Memorial at Vienna ; — Fifth centenary of the Uni- 
versity of Vienna; — Official Medal for services in Land Economy; 

— Hungarian Academy of Sciences at Budapest ; — Hungarian 
National Theatre at Budapest; — 1866. Portrait-medals of the 
Emperor Francis Joseph ; — Prince William of Lippe-Schaumburg's 
medal for services in the War of 1866; — Memorial Medal of Wolf- 
gang Carl Emanuel von Graffenried ; — Study for a St. George's 

Thaler; — 1867. Hungarian Coronation of the King and Queen; 

— Memorial Medal of the Archduke Maximilian, Emperor of 
Mexico Tio. April i864--|- 19. June 1867); — Golden Wedding of 
J. S. and Elise Kohn; — Joseph Wertheimer ; — Centenary of the 
Agricultural Society of Krain; — 1868. Josef Em. Hilscher, writer 
(fat Milan, 2. November 1857); — Isidor von Siemusz-Pietruski, 
founder of the Galician Land Bank; — Proclamation Medals (var. 
types); — Medal of the Agricultural Exhibition of the Raab Circle ; 

— 1869. Betty Jeitteles; -- Agricultural Show at Waidhofen a. d. 
Ybbs; — Agricultural Show at Wieselburg (2 sizes); — Religious 
Medals ; — The Voigtlander Medal of the Vienna Photographic 
Society; — Medal of Honour of the K. K. Academy of Decorative 
Arts of Vienna; — 1870. Centenary of the Mining Academy at 
Schemnitz; — The Beethoven Festival at Vienna; — Dr. med. 
Prof. Franz Ritter v. Guntner; — Freiherr von Konigswarter; — 
Prize Medal of the Chamber of Commerce of Reichenberg; — 
1871. Medal of Merit of the K. K. Austrian Museum of Industrial 
and Fine Arts of Vienna; — Prize Medal of the Agricultural Society 
of Vienna (2 sizes) ; — Prize Medal of the K. K. Agricultural 
Society ot Linz for services in Horticulture (sev. var) ; — Public 
Rejoicings Medal of Linz; — Official Medal for services in the 
domain of Agriculture (State Prize); — Others with legends in 
Bohemian, and Polish ; — Foundation of the " Scuola di Disegno" 
at Trieste; — Prize Medal for the ''Scuola di disegno" at Trieste; — 
80*'' Birthday of Franz Grillparzer ; — Prize Medal of the Agricul- 
tural Society ofHeidenreichstein; — Industrial Exhibition at Trieste; 

— Prize Medal of the Agricultural Show at Trieste ; — Prize Medal 
for Maros Vasarhely; — Prize Medal for a Hungarian Exhibition ; 

— Building of the National Theatre at Kolozsvar; — English 
Prize Medals ; — Ludwig August Frankl, poet; — Prof. J. Skoda ; 

— Franz Toldy, Hungarian writer; — 1872. Agricultural Exhibi- 
tion; — 1873. Maharadjah of Jeypore; — Franz Liszt; — Baron 
Schwarz-Senborn ; — Industrial Exhibition of the Catholic Asso- 
ciation of Vienna ; — Inauguration of a Museum for Arts and 
Industries at Vienna; — Prize Medal of the Exhibition at Wiener- 
Neustadt; — 1874. G. Czuczorand J. Fogarasi, historians ; — 1875. 
50 years' Jubilee of Prince Bishop of Breslau, Heinrich Foerster; 
■ — Prize Medal of the Agricultural Society of Marchegg ; — Relig- 
ious Medals; — King Mathias of Hungar}' ; — Pope Clement X. 
(a study); — Maria Theresia; — Countess Potocka ; — Pius IX.. 

— Austria ; — Vindobona ; — Genius of Music ; — A large number 
ot portraits, buildings, animals, heraldic emblems, &c.; — 1876. 
Anastasius Griin, Graf Auersperg; ■ — Richard Wagner; — 1 1'*' cen- 
tenar}^ of the Foundation of the Abbey of Kremsmunster ; — Sal- 
vator Medals of the Municipality of Vienna; — 1877. Prize Medal 

— i6 — 

of the Society of Arts and Industries at Graz; — Agricultural and 
Industrial Exhibition at Lemberg; — Opening of the new Academy 
Buildings at Vienna ; — Prize Medal of the Organizers of Lemberg 
Exhibition ; — Count Stefan Karolyi ; — Victoria, Queen of Great 
Britain; — Peter Paul Rubens; — Rule Britannia; — Albrecht 
Diirer; — 1878. Franz Schubert; — Erection of a Votive Church 

at Vienna; — 1879. Centenary of the Annexation to Hungary of 
the southern territories; — 1882. D"^ Hermann Rollett, writer ; — 
1883. Second General Exhibition ; — Prize Medal of the Orni- 
thological Club at Vienna; — 1888. Prize Medal of the Agricultu- 
ral Society of Mank; — Undated. Lombardo-Venetian and Central 
Italian Railways ; — The Railway line from Brunn to Vienna ; — 
M. G. Saphir, Portrait-medal. 

Radnitzky signed his medals variously as follows : C. R.; — C. R. F.; 
P., etc. 

This artist was one of the most prominent Austrian medallists of 
the nineteenth century, and his name will long be held in vene- 
ration amongst his numerous pupils who have brought Viennese 
medallic art to such a high standard of perfection. 

Bibliography. — Katalog der K. K. Mun:^en- uiid MedaiUen-Stempd-Satmnhmg 
in fVign, 1904. — Domanig, op.cit. — Mittheil. des Klubs, 1801-1906. — A. Moyaux, 
Les Chemins de fer et leurs medailles commetnoralives, EruxcUes, 1905. — Various 
Sale Catalogues. 

RADNITZKY, KARL (Anstr.) Nephew of the last, and also an 
Engraver (especially Gem-engraver), by whom I have however only 
seen an oval memorial medal of Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria, 
1889, and a medal on his death, both signed : C. RADNITZKY JUN. 
He is an official at the Ministry of France, Member of the Society 
of Decorative Artists of Vienna, and K. K. Engraver of armorial 
bearings to the Court. 

— I' 

RAEBER, HANS RUDOLF (^icw). Locksmith andMoneyer of Aarau, 
who acted as Mint-master there from 1 6 14 to 16 18, under the Mint- 
contractor Caspar Willading. 

RAEBURN, SIR HENRY (Brit.). Painter, born at Stockbridge, Edin- 
burji^h, 1756, died at London, 1823. He was apprenticed to a gold- 
smith, and gave early promise of his abihties as an artist ; went to 
Italy, made the acquaintance of Reynolds, and settled in Edinburgh 
after two years' absence. He became famous as one of the greatest 
painters of the day, and was knighted by Gtorge IV. a short time 
Wore his death. One of his best known portraits is that of Sir 
Walter Scott. 

Raeburn was in the habit of occasionally practising modelling, 
and one of his portraits, executed in Tassie's enamel paste, has 
usually been regarded as modelled by his hand. '* It is executed in 

Sir Henry Kacburn. 

a much simpler and treer manner than the signed medallions ot 
Tassie, with a handling which, e^pecially in the treatment of the 
hair, is markedly suggestive of Raeburn's own * square touch ' as a 
painter. It is not tilled with the impressed Roman letters which we 
generally find on the truncation of Tassie's larger medallions ; nor 
is it marked with the Tassie F. or the capital T., which usually 
distinguish his works; but bears simply the title, H. Raeburn, 1792, 
incised in a running handwriting ". 

Henry Raeburn, the younger, believed that this medallion was 
executed by the painter himself. 

Bibliography. — J. M. Gray, James and William Tassie, Edinburgh, 1894. 

RAEL, JOSSE DE (Belg.^. Mint-master at Bruges, in conjunction 
with Mirc le Bungneieur, December 1474 to 20. December 1477. 

L. FoKiEi. — Biographical Noticu ef MtJallisii. — V. l 

— 18 — 

RAESVELDT, RITTERVAN {Belg.). Mint-master at Bruges, I2. July 
1 5 80 to I. November 1582. 

RAFFAELI, J. F. {French). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
residing at Paris. He is mentioned, by M. Marx, in his work, 
Les Mddiilleurs frani-ais, and one of his plaquettes, representing 
"Two Workmen drinking at a public bar", is reproduced in the 
same author's Medailleursf ran^ais contemporains, PI. XXXI. 

RAFFEGEAUD, SYLVAIN {French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Nantes ; pupil of Ottin. By him are a number of Portrait-medallions, 
two of whch were exhibited at the Salon in 1874 and 1882. One 
represents D' Mougeot. 

RAFFAN, JLAH (French). Mint-master at Bourg, 1395. His distina- 
ive mark is a small cross between the words in the legends. 

RAFFIN, FRkHQOlS (French). Goldsmith of Toulouse, Mint-engrav- 
er there, 1532-1569. 

RAFFIN, NICOLAS (French). Son of Fran(;ois Raffin, also a Gold- 
smith and Engraver at the Mint of Toulouse from 15 62- 15 69. 

RAFFIN, PIERRE (Fr<;«^/?). Mint-engraver at Toulouse, 15 50- 1562. 

RAGUSIO or RAGUSA, PAOLO DA. Fide PAOLO supra. Paulus de 
Ragusio, as he is also named, was working circ. 1456. His signa- 
ture : OPVS PAVLI. DE RAGVSIO occurs on two Portrait-medals of 
Federigo di Montefcltro, and Alfonso V., King of Aragon, 
Sicily and Naples. Both medals were executed in the year 1450; 
they entirely correspond in size, style and inscription ; and both 
were produced at Naples. " Although not works of distinguished 
merit ", says C. von Fabriczy, " both are nevertheless pleasing 
achievements of a very able artist ". 

" On the medal of Federigo Montefeltre, the famous general is 
designated as the commander of the Neapolitan army, a dignity 
which was conferred on him in 1450, and he is further represented 
with his nose still unbroken, showing that the medal was made in 
that year, towards the enJ of which he suffered this injury and the 
loss of an eye at a fete given in Urbino to commemorate the acces- 
sion of Francesco Sforza to the Dukedom of Milan. 

Bibliography. —, op. cil. — C. von Fabriczv, Italian Medals, 
Engl, edit., 1904. — Friedlander, Schaumunien der italieniscJien Renaissance. — 
I. B. Supine, ll Medagliere Mediceo. — Armaiid, Medatlleurs italiens, &c. Num. 
Chron., 1884. 

RAEMI, FRANgOIS PIERRE (Swiss). Moneyer at Freiburg, 1707- 

— 19 — 

RAEMI, JEAN ULRICH(5M/m). Moneyer (Mint-master) at Freiburg, 

RAGOT, LOUIS (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at Paris : 
pupil of Hiolin. At the Salon of 1882 he exhibited a very beautiful 
Portrait-medallion of a Child. 

RAGUET, EUGfiNE £miLE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born 
at Saoles d'Olonne (Vendee); pupil of Guilbert. A very fine 
Portrait-medallion of M. Teugar was exhibited by him at the Salon 
of 1891. 

RAHDERS, HANS (also RADERS, or RADES) (Germ.). Goldsmith ot 
Hanover; appointed Mint-master on i. December 1621, but only 
remained in office for one month. 

Bibliography. — Bahrfeldt, Beitrage :^ur Muvxgeschichte der Jutieburgischen 


RAICK, GEORG (Austr.). Mint-master at Jicin, 1629, under 
Albrecht von Waldstein (Wallenstein). 

RAIMER, HANS. Vide REIMER infra. Goldsmith and Medallist of 
Munich, circ. 1520. 

RAIMONDI, MARC ANTONIO (Ital.). Born at Bologna, circ. 1475 ; 
died before 1534. One of the chief Engravers of the Italian Renais- 
sance. He engraved after Raphael, Giulio Romano, Albrecht Durer, 
and others. 

Duchesne ascribes to this Engraver three Plates in niello work : 
Triumph of Neptune; — Two Cupids ; — Amymone captured by 

RAINER, HANS (Gervi.). A native of Nuremberg ; Warden of the 
Mint at Munich, 1507. 

RAISSIGUIER, EMILE PAUL (Fr(!«<:/?). Contemporary Sculptor, born 
at Oran (Algeria) ; pupil of Jouffroy. At ihe Paris Salon, 1908, he 
exhibited a bronze Plaquette, Virgo Immaculata. 

RAISSON (French). Lemonade-manufiicturer of Paris, General 
Secretary of the Department from September 1792 to February 1793. 
He was appointed Director of the Manufacture of Assignats 
in 1793. 

RAJANI, H. R. H. Prince (Siam.). Director-general ot the Royal 
Mint, at Bangkok, 1906. 

RAM, LUOOVIGO (Ital.). Mint-master at Naples, under Charles V. 


On Carlini of 1533 by Domenico della Musica his signature 
occurs, and also on Tari and Carlini of 1542. 

RAMAGE, DAVID (5n7.). Possibly of Scottish origin; a member 
of the company of Moneyers of London, 1649, and himself a clever 
Engraver,to whom are ascribed some Pattern coins, issued at the time 
of Blondeau's mtroduciion to the Mint of his new process for the 
coinage, and which were intended to show that foreign aid was 
not required. " Though these pieces were very inferior in neatness ot 
execution to those of Blondeau, the opposition was successful and he 
left the kingdom. The pattern for a Halt-crown which he produced is 
the first piece struck in this country which bore an inscription upon its 
edge. After this successful resistance to the introduction of improve- 
ment, coins continued to be struck by the same inefficient process 
as before, till the year 1662 " (Hawkins, Silver Coins of Em^land, 
1887, p. 378). 

Under Cromwell, Ramage appears to have been a well-known 
'Maker of harthings', and in a document referred to by Henfrey, 
he is styled ' Rammage Farthing-maker in the Tower'. 

This Engraver died probably in 1662, "as on the 5'^ November 
in that year a warrant was issued by Charles II., ordering the 
removal from the Mint buildings of " the widow and children of 
David Ramiige, who, as Wee are informed, have obstructed Our 
Service and been very obstinate. " 

Ramage's Trial pieces are: COMMONWEALTH . Half Crown, 1651. 
Obv. Mm. mullet on both sides, the -commonwealth -of -England. 


Pattern Half Crown, by Ramage. 

Shield of St. George within wreath of laurel ; I^. gavrded - with • 
ANGELES- 165 1. Shields of St. George and Ireland supported by an 
angel with outspread wings ; the shields at their lower end decorated 
with scroll ornament ; edge inscribed trvth * and * peace * 165 i * 
(Riiding, PI. xxxn, 2 ; illustrated). Varieties exist ; one is with plain 

2. Shilling, 165 1. Type and legends exactly as the Half Crown, 

— 21 — 

and probably from the same dies, but struck on a much thinner 
blank and with the edge engrailed. Varieties exist with plain edge, 
etc. (Rud., PI. xxxii, 3). 

3. Sixpence (or Farthing), 165 1. Obv. Mm. mullet on both 
sides. TRVTH * AND * PEACE * St. George's shield within beaded 
circle; ^L. Similar legend, the Irish shield within beaded circle, 
edge inscribed with similar motto followed by the date 165 1, a 
mullet before and after each word (Rud., PI. xxxii, i). 

4. JE. Farthing. Similar type, but the edge not inscribed (Snell., 
Coppper Coins, PI. 6, 6. — Mont., Copper Coins, p. 30, 4). 

5. JE. Farthing. Obv. Mm. mullet; thvs • v-nited • invincible. 
Three pillars linked together, surmounted respectively by a cross, 
a harp and a thistle; R under central pillar; ^. Mm. mullet ; 
AND GOD. DIRECT QvR CORSE. Ship in full sail to left. Several varieties 
exist, some without the signature R (^Vide iMontagu Sale Catalogue, 
IV, July 1897, 41-43)- 

Commonwealth Farthing, by Ramage (?) 

The R on this Commonwealth Farthing has been taken by most 
writers, including Mr. Montagu, to represent Rawlins ; but Henfrey 
in my opinion, appears to have given conclusive proofs that the 
Engraver must be Ramage, who was at the time " Farthing maker" 
at the Mint, and who probably cut dies for the other issues of 
Commonwealth Farthings, and later for those of Cromwell. Besides 
the improbability of a Royalist making patterns for the Common- 
wealth and the Protector's coins, Rawlins was scarcely in a position 
to be able to make these at the time they were actually made, for a 
letter written by him on the 27*'' February 1657-8 proves that he 
was then in extreme distress, and imprisoned in a low prison in 
London called the " Hole in St. Martin ' (Henfrey, op. cii., p. 159). 
We further find in a contemporary document that Ramage is accused 
of aiming at suppressing all Tools for making Farthings but his own, 
. . . that so he may have the sole Trade in his hands . . . 

IRL., Laureate and draped bust of the Protector to left, the top of 
head extending beyond the inner circle, lozenges in legend ; 1^. Mm. 

— 22 

mullet, THVS-VNiTED- INVINCIBLE. Three pillars linked together, 
surmounted respectively by a cross, a harp, and a thistle; below 
central pillar, .r. 

Cromwell Farthing. 

lozenges in 

7. JE. Farthing. Obv. olivar-pro-eng-sc-irl, 
legend. Bust of the Protector as on the preceding piece; 1^. cha 
RiTiE-AND-CHANGK, lozenges in legend. Crowned shield of arms as 
on the silver coins of Cromwell. 

Cromwell Farthing. 

8. JE. Farthing. Obv. Mm. mullet; olivar-pro-eng-sc-irl-, 
lozenges in legend, Laureate and draped bust of the Protector 
similar to the preceding but entirely within the inner circle; 
^L. No Mm. charitie- AND CHANGE. Crowncd shield ot arms as on 
last piece. 

Cromwell Farthing. 

9. M. Farthing. Obv. As n° 6. ^. and god direct our corse. 
A three-masted ship sailing to the left, with a flag on the stern and 
one on each mast ; mullet at the commencement of the legend 
(Henfrey, PI. iv, n° 9). 
. 10. /E. Farthing. Obv. oliver • pro • eng • sco • & ire. Bust to 

— 23 — 

left, laureate, with drapery round the neck ; I^. Garnished and 
crowned shield quartered with arms of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland; legend, convenient change. 165 i. Unique; in the British 
Museum Collection. — The date is not correct ; the coin was pro- 
bably a private pattern, made in 1658, the type being copied from 
Simon's crown. 

Silver impressions of Ramage's Pattern Farthings of Cromwell 
some times occur. All these Pattern pieces by Ramage are rare. The 
latest prices realized for specimens at the Murdoch Sale (1903) 
were as follows : 165 1 Halt Crown € 25 ; Shilling £ 19 and € 20; 
Sixpence £ 2.4.0; Cromwell Farthings, from £ 2.4,0 to €. 15 
according to types. 

As Ramage did not die until 1662 and the I^. thvs-vnited- 
INVINCIBLE- occurs on Charles II'.s early Farthings, we may presume 
that Ramage is the Engraver of this first issue of Charles II. Farthings. 
One of these is even signed r. under the king's head. Montagu 
describes five types of Pattern Farthings, two of which are dated 
1660 : — 

CHARLES II. II. iE. Pattern Farthing. Mm. rose; svch • god • loves, 
lozenge in legend, Crowne.i bust of Charles II to left; beneath, r.; 
J^. Mm. rose, thvs vnited invincible, lozenges in legend, Three 
pillars linked, surmounted respectively by a cross, harp and a thistle 
(Mont. n° 3). 

12. yE. Pattern Farthing. Obv. As last, but no R beneath ; 
I^. TRVTH AND PEACK. A tose crowned between c r crowned ; 
under the rose, the date 1660 (Mont. n° 4). 

13. iE. Pattern Farthing. -Mm. rose; carolvs- 11 -rex, mullet 
after carolvs, and after 11, lozenge after rex. Crowned bust of 
Charles II. to left; ^. Mm. rose, thvs • vnited • invincible, type of 
the three pillars as on n° 11 (Mont. n° 5). 

Pattern Farthing of Charles II. 

14. JE. Pattern Farthing. No legend. Three pillars linked, sur- 
mounted respectively by a cross, harp, and a thistle ; at sides c — r 
crowned ; above, crown ; I^same type (Mont. n° 6). 

!<). JE. Pattern Farthing. 1660. Mm. ro^e; trvth- and -peace 
mullet after trvth, and after and, lozenge after peace, expanded 
rose under crown between c — r crowned; below, the date 1660; 

— 24 — 

^. Mm. rose, thvs • vnited • invincible, type of the three pillars 
(Mont. n° 7). Also one dated 1661. 

Pattern Farthing of Charles II, 1660. 

These Pattern Farthings exist also in silver, and there are varieties. 

A series of Bristol Farthing Tokens, dated 1652, 1660 and 1662 
are probably by Ramage and not by Rawlins. They are signed R 
on obv. Boyne describes eight varieties. The same type was struck 
also in 1670, but without the engraver's initial. 

By Ramage are possibly also Farthing Tokens of Gloucester, 
Oxford, and London (Broad St., Houndsditch, St. Paul's Church- 
yard, and the Wardrobe) which are usually given to Rawlins. 

Ramage was of British origin : the name is common enough in 


Bibliography. — Hawkins, Silver Coins of England, 1887. — H. W. Henfrey, 
Numismata Cromwelliana, Coins, Medals and Seals of Oliver Cromwell, London, 
1877. — Montagu, Copper Coins oj England, London, 1895. — Crowther, A 
Guide to English Pattern Coins, London, 1887. — H. Montagu's Sale Catalogue, 
1896. — Murdoch Sale Catalogue, 1905 — Boyne, Traders' Tokens of the seventeenth 
century, Williamson's edition, 1889, 1, p. 241. 

RAMBAUD, JOSEPH PIERRE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born at Allevard (Isere) ; pupil of Irvoy, Jouffroy and Chapu. He 
is the author of numerous Portrait-medallions ; some were exhibit- 
ed at the Paris Salon : 1880. M""= C***; — 1885, Mon ami 
F6lix, etc. 

RAMBAUD, M"^ MATHILDE (French). Contemporary Modeller, 
born at Nantes; pupil of Falguiere. She has exhibited Portrait- 
medallions at the Paris Salon. 


RAMELLI, BENEDETTO (Hal.). A native of Ferrara, Damaskeener, 
Embosser and Engraver in precious stones, who worked also at 
Paris, and resided circ. 15 30-1 53 5 at Lyons In 1538 he executed a 
Portrait-medallion of Francis L, King of France; it is thus described 
by Rondot: franciscvs • i . d . g . francor . rex . 1537 (size: 124 mill.). 
Ramelli was paid 300 Livres tournois for this work. There are 
replicas slightly modified, of this medal. 

— 25 — 

After Francis I.'s death, one of the singers of his chapel appro- 
priated to himself this medallion by changing the date into 1547. 
He had casts made, which he signed : P : AMSTERDAM : CANTOR: 
REGIVS : FACIEBAT. A specimen is in the Munich Cabinet. 

Ramelli's damaskeen work is justly famous, but the medallion 
of Francis I. is rough in execution and of mediocre modelUng. 

Bibliography. — Rondot, Midailleun lyonnais. — Rondot et De La Tour, 
op. cit. 

RAMER, ADAM (Belg.). Mint-master at Namur, in conjunction 
with Jacques de Hellemmes, 16. July 1425 to 18. May 1426. 

RAMIER, SEbaSTIEN (French). Mint-engraver at Paris, and 
Medallist, circ. 1659- 1665. He engraved medals and jetons with 
the bust of Queen Anne ot Austria, 1659. 

RAMM, THOMAS (Germ.). Mint-master at Riga, 1535 (?)-i547- 
1557. He signed : T.R. 

RAMOS, MANUEL DE MORAES DA SILVA (Porl.). Mint-master and 
Engraver at Porto, during the third quarter of the nineteenth 
century. Arrested on suspicion of having forged banknotes, he 
retired to Covilha, where he spent the last years of his life, and 
died, 26. September 1872. 

Ramos engraved a number of medals, amongst which : Visit of 
the King and Queen to Porto, 1852; — Royal Humane Society 
Medal, 1852 ; — Presentation Medal to the King of Italy, with 
bust of Charles Albert, 1854, ^^c- 

Bibliography. — A. C. Teixeira de Aragao, Descripfdo geral e historica das 
Moedas cunhades em nome dos Rets, Regentes e Govei nadores de Portugal. Lisboa, 

RAMSAUER, GEORG (Germ.). Mint-master at Munich, 1435. 

RAMSAY, PATRICK (Brit.) was executed at Edinburgh in 1567, 
with Andrew Murray, for having imported false Hardheads. 

RAMSET, BABAJI (Ind.). A native Indian Coin-engraver, who 
was employed at the Bombay Mint, from 1845 to 1867. 

RAN Vide RANCETTI infra. 

RANARY, PALAMEde (Frew/;). Mint-master at Marseilles, 1593. 


RANCETTI, GIORGIO (ItaL). Florentine Goldsmith and Medallist 
(circ. 15 50-161 1). He was first employed at the Medicean Court, 
and in 1594 he removed to Rome, where he was appointed 

— 26 — 

Engraver of coins to Pope Clement VIII. He remained in office, 
under Clement VIII. 's second successor, Paul V., until 1611. 

This artist executed no less than twenty-five medals of 
Clement VIIL,and one of Paul V., which dates from the last year of 
his life. These medals are : Clement VIIL (1592-1605): i. ^L. an- 
NONA PVBLICA. Female figure to 1.. holding three ears of corn and 
cornucopiae (signed on obv. GIOR.RAN.); — 2. ab.origine.mvndi. 

Restoration of Civita-Vecchia, by Giorgio Rancetti. 

CI3.ID.XCIIII. Abel sacrificing; — 3. ^. consecratio. Pope 
consecrating an altar (commemoration ot the Consecration by 
Clement VIII. of the Grand Altar in St. Peter's, Rome, 26. July 
1594): — 4. ^- EXVRGAT D.ET.DissiP.iNiM.Eivs. The Pope hand- 
ing a standard to a warrior (On 4. June 1594 the Pope invested 
Giovanni Francesco Aldobrandini, captain-general of the Church, 
with the command of the Papal army starting for Hungary); — 
5. ^. ET.NON.POENiTFBiT EVM " CO . xciii. Melchizedek and Abra- 
ham (signed on obv. GIOR.RAN.FIOREN.); — 6. rvthenis.receptis. 
ciD iD.xcvi. The Pope receiving two Russian bishops (signed on 
obv. GIORGIO.RAN.) ; — 7. Obv. Bust to 1. with different legend, 
otherwise as n° 3 (unsigned); — 8. ^. ferraria.recepta. View 
of the city of Ferrara (signed on obv. GIOR.RAN. "This medal was 
struck to commemorate the reversion of the Duchy of Ferrara to 
the Pope on the death of Alfonso II. d'Este and of the Pope's entry 
into the city on May 8'^, 1598. The fact that the artist was unable 
to devise anything else for the reverse than a view of the city 
surrounded by its walls, which is besides altogether paltry and 
utterly devoid of monumental character, is significant of the poverty 
of the period in artistically effective ideas. We must, however, do 
our master the justice to admit that all his reverses do not show the 
same insignificance and poverty of thought. Where he has to 
depict papal ceremonies, however, and allegories of Peace, the Faith, 
and subjects of the like nature, he errs, as a rule, in overcrowd- 

— 27 — 

ing the compositions with tiny figures, and thus making them con- 
fused, or else satisfies himself with one stiff figure borrowed 
without scruple from ihe allegories which the paintmg and sculp- 
ture of his day produced in thousands upon thousands" {Corn, von 
Fabriciy, Italian Medals, Engl. edit. p. 194); — 9. ^. ferraria. 
RECVPERATA, Type as n° 8 (obv. signed : GIOR.RANC); — 
10.^. FERRARIA RECVPERATA. General, standing to r., handing the 
city's keys to a cardinal (obv. signed : GIOR.RAN.); — 11. ^L. ego- 
vos-REFiciAM. Christ blessing pilgrims kneeling in front of the 
Holy Gate; in ex. : m.d.c. (signed on obv. GIORG.R.) ; — 

12. ^. iVBiLEi-iNDiCTio. The Pope enthroned causing the Jubilee 
to be proclaimed; ex. : an. m.d.c. (signed : GIOR.RAN."); — 

13. ^L. LAVDATE-NOMEN- DOMINI. Angel holding olive-brauch above a 
throng of pilgrims entering through the Holy Gate ; beneath : 
MDC. ; — 14. B^. iNTROiTE-iN exvltatione . The Pope kneeling 
in front ot the Holy Gate with his flock; beneath : a-mdc; — 


Holy Gate walled up; — 16. B6. absolvto- anno-ivbilei. The 
Pope, accompanied by prelates, about to wall up the Holy Gate; 
ex. : DCi.ciD (N°* 12-16 all refer to the celebration of the Jubilee 
year 1600); — 17. ^. velliko-emisso- a-mdc. Bridge on the 
Vellino, near Rieti; — 18. j^. pax -et-salvs- a -domino. The 
Church, as Peace, setting fire to a heap of arms; ex. : m.dci. 
(Allusion to the Peace contracted in 1601, by the intervention of 
cardinal Aldobrandini, between Henry IV. of France and Duke 
Charles Emanuel I. of Savoy) ; — 19. ^L. vnvs-devsvna- fides. 
Religion, crowned, standing to left ; beneath : m-dcii ; — 20. Type 
of n° 18, but with date, an.xi on obv.; — 21. ^L. salva nos 
domine. Christ asleep in the storm; — 22. I^. da • q.vod - ivbes . 
The Pope with his flock kneeling before Christ ; beneath : 
MDCiii; — 23. ^L. VNVS -devs-vna- FIDES mdcii. Religion (signed 
on obv. GIOR.R.); — 24. ^L. portv • centvm - cellarvm • instav- 
rato- a-mdciv. Civita-Vecchia harbour (signed on obv. : 
GIOR.RAN.; illtistraled); — Paid V. (i 605-1 621). Medal, signed 
G.R. and dated from, the sixth year of his pontificate. 

Most ot these medals are 33 mill, in diameter, but others vary 
from 32 to 42 mill. 

Rancetti was Engraver ot the coins at the Zecca from 1594 to 

In contemporary documents, his name occurs as GIORGIO DI 
ANTONIO RANCETTI. He appears to have been a clever Goldsmith, 
and to have been entrusted with important orders from the Pope 
and the pontifical Court. 

Bibliography. — A. Heiss, Les Medailleurs de la Renaissance. Florence 11. — 
Armand, op. cit — I. B. Supino, op. cit. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Blanchet, 
op. cit. — Sale Catalogues. 

— 28 — 

RANTWIC, BERNARD {Germ.). Goldsmith and Medallist, who 
worked in London, in the first half of the sixteenth century. " He 

<^ A'^.-. 

Sir Richard Shelley, 1577. 

niadc",saysMr Grueber, " medallic portraits which were cast and 
afterwards chased. The only two which have come under my notice 

— 29 — 

are : Sir Richard Shelley, 1577; signed on obv. BERN.RANTWIC.F. 
illustrated); — Cardinal Prince FedericoCesi, founder of the Acade- 
miadeiLincei; signed : B.RANT. (in Mr. Max Rosenheim's collection). 
The Murdoch specimen of the Shelley medal realized M 28. 5 .0. 
Bibliography. — Franks and Grueber, Medallic Illustrations &c. 

RANISCH, JOHANN {Germ.). Medallist at Dresden, latter end of 
the seventeenth century. He worked principally for Duke Maurice 
William zu Zeiiz, of whose reign exist some commemorative medals 
by this Engraver. He is sa.d to have signed his medals : I.R. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cil. 

RANKIN (Brit.). A London Die-sinker, circ. 1820, in which year 
he signed two medals, one on the Accession of George IV., and 
another on the Return of Queen Caroline to England, 5. June, 
1820. The work is mediocre. 

RANOTTE, ANTONINE {Fremh). Widow of the Mint-master 
Bourge, and herself acting as Mint-master at Chambery, in 1572, 
with the letters BB as her special mark. 

RAOULIN, CHARLOT {French). Goldsmith and Seal-engraver to 
King Rene of Anjou (1408-1450). His son, Antoine R., and another 
member of the same family, Guillemin or Guillaume R., also 
worked as Seal-engravers to the Sicilian King. Chariot Raoulin is 
supposed to have engraved coin- dies for Rene (circ. 1440- 1448). 
Blancard ascribes to this Engraver the execution of the gold Florin 
of Provence with the effigy of St. Magdalene. 

Bibliography. — Lecoy de la Marche, Les Sceaux. — N. Rondot et H. De 
La Tour, op. cit. 

RAPHAEL (RAFFAELE SANZIO) {Ital.). Celebrated Painter, 
Sculptor, and Architect, born at Urbino, in 1483, died at Rome 
from fever, which he caught in the excavations in 1520. He 
studied under Perugino, visited Florence in 1504 and chiefly lived 
there till 1508, when at the bidding of Pope Julius II he went to 
Rome, where he spent the rest of his short life and founded a 
school, from which issued many eminent artists. 

Raphael has left behind a number of masterpieces : the Di<;pute 
of the Holy Sacrament, the Transfiguration, the frescoes in the 
Sallae and Loggie of the Vatican, admirable Portraits and Madon- 
nas which have become classical. His works were the fruits of the 
study ot the masters that preceded him, particularly Perugino and 
the Florentines, and perhaps only towards the end of his career 
might his work be called his own. 

The influence of this great artist, who has been called the most 
perfect of the Italian Masters, made itself widely felt in every 

— 30 — 

domain of art, not excluding that ot the medallist. No medals or 
designs for medals can be directly traced to him, but the famous 
Medallists and Coin-engravers, his contemporarits, who were with 
him working for the Papal Court, borrowed from his style that 
keen observation of nature and study of her beauties, as seen from 
the point of view presented by the artist's own idea and feeUng. 
Bibliography. — Vasari, III, &c. 

RAPIN, AIM£E {Swiss). A Genevese Sculptor and Medallist, 
whose excellent work in various directions has brought her 
name in evidence among contemporary Swiss artists. She has 
exhibited more than once already at the Paris Salon, and also at 
Berlin and Munich. In portraiture she has been very successful. 
By her are several beautifully modelled Portrait-meials ; amongst 

Johann Sebastian Bach. 

which : E. Naville; — Raoul Pictet; — Jules Salmson ; — 
J. S. Bach (illustrated); — D"" Reverdin ; — Count Szymanowski, 

Bibliography. — The Studio, XXVIII, p. 147. 

RAPPOLT, HANS (Germ.). Mint-master and Engraver at Breuberg 
(Erbach), 1622-1623. 

RAPUSCH, or RAPPOST, HEINRICH (Germ.). Goldsmith and 


Medallist, who was working for the Court of BerUn, and appointed 
there in 1579 for a term of ten years. He died at Wolfenbiitttl in 
1 61 6. His monogram H R occurs on a medal of inferior work, 

John George of Brandenburg and Consort. 

dated 1588, representing John George of Brandenburg and Christian 1. 
of Saxony, both with their consorts (obv. illustrated; Berlin). This 
medal is catalogued under Hans Reinhard Jun"" by D' Pick. Similar, 
unsigned medals of John George and Joachim Frederick are no 
doubt by this Engraver, sa*ys Erman. 

The name of this artist occurs also under the forms Rappuss, 
Rappusch, Rappusen, Rappost, and Rappes. 

Domanig states that there were two goldsmiths and medallists 
of the name of Heinrich Rapusch or Rapost, father and son. 

P. J. Meier ascribes to Rapusch also an oval Memorial medal ot 
Henry Julius, Duke of Brunswick, Coadjutor ot Halberstadt, 161 3 
and another of the latter's consort. Duchess Elizabeth, but on the 
other hand Erbstein thinks the John George and Christian I. medal 
is by Hans Reinhard Junior. 

D' Pick further gives to Rappost a Portrait-medal of Frederick 
Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbiittel, 161 5, in the Gotha 
Museum, and another of the same Duke, 161 3, is described in 
Hamburger, Mufi:(en u. Mcdaillen-Sammlung des Hern D' Antoine 
Feill, Hamburg, II, 190b, lot 1456. 

Bibliography. — Erman, Deutsche Medailleiire, p. 73. — Menadier, op. cit., 
n° 81. — Meier, Untersicchnngen fiber die Medaillensammlung des Her:(ifl. Museums 
m 5raM«jc/w«/jf, Blatter fur Munzfreunde, 2896, pp 2038-62; 2069-72. — Prof. 
D"" B. Pick, Catalogue of the Medals in th- Kunslgewerhe-Auslellung at Dresden^ 1906. 
— Domanig, Die Deutsche Meduille, 1907. 

fr RARONE (ItaL). A medal of Ruggiero Settimo, 1848 ; ^L. indi- 
PENDENZA E LiBERTA is ascribed by signor Raito to this Engraver, 
whose name is otherwise unknown to me. 

— 32 — 

RASETO, JOHANNES DE (JtaL). Mint-master atNyon, 1407-1410. 

RASCHKE, PAUL (G^rm.). Mint-engraver at Breslau, 1572; he died 
about 1586, in which year his widow's name for the first time 
occurs in official documents. 

RASItRES, G£RARD DE (Belg.). Mint-master-general for Brabant, 

RASIERES, ROMBAUT DE (Beig.). Seal-engraver and Die-cutter at 
the Mint of Antwerp, art. i599-i6oo.In 1599 he was commissioned 
to model in wax three medals with the effigies of the Archdukes, 
three ot which were to represent ihein enthroned; to these a fifth 
was addt.d later on. Pmchart suggests that they were Patterns for 

This Engraver is also the author of two jetons issued for the 
Inauguration of the Infanta Isabella and Archduke Albert, and of 
the Seals and Counter-seals of Brabant used by the Archdukes, and 
erroneously attributed to Jacques Jonghelinck. 

Rombaut de Rasieres prepared in 1599 models and puncheons 
for the Archdukes' coinage, such as the pieces of 50, 40 and 20 sous, 
and the Double and Single Ducats, for the mints of Antwerp, 
Bruges and Maestricht. 

Vredius mentions aTheodoredeRosiers (probably R. de Rasieres), 
whom he praises as a clever Silver Chaser. 

Bibliography. — A. Pinchart, Biographies des graveurs beiges. Rev. beige num., 
i8S5, P- 379- 

RASNA, GEORG DER AELTERE VON (Bohem.). Mint-engraver at 
Kuttenberg, from circ. 1557 until his death in 1599. He also worked 
for the Mints of Joachimsthal and Prague. By him are coin-dies 
and also medals ot Rudolf II. ; — Christoph Putz von Kirchamegg, 
1584; — Elizabeth Schlick, countess Bassano, 1578; — Matthias 
Thalmann, 1595 ; — Religious medals, etc. 

Bibliography. — E. Fiala, op. cit. 

RASNA, LUDWIG CARL VON {Bohem.'). Mint-master at Kuttenberg, 
circ. 1565-1379; privy-mark, eagle's head. In 1565 he supplied new 
coin-dies for the Prague mint. 

RASOIR, JEAN (Belg.). Mint-master at Ghent, in conjunction with 
Pierre de Haulteville, 1.^26. 

RAST, PETER. F/V/^ JOB ANN PETER RAST. Mint-master at Stutt- 
gart, I, •46- 1702. 

RASPAGGIARI. Vide RUSPAGGIARI. Medallist of the third quarter 
of the sixteenth century. 

— 33 — 


RASTROM, GUSTAV {Swed.'). Die-sinker, whose initials G.R. occur 
on a medal of Charles XV. of Sweden, issued as a Piize Medal ot 
the Swedish Hunters' Society, founded 1830. 

RAST, JOHANN PETER (Germ.). Mint-master at Stuttgart, 1746- 
1762. His initials I.P.R., P.R. or only R occur on coins issued 
by him. A Thaler of Duke Charles Eugene of Wurtemberg, 1760, 
is signed P.R. 

RASTOUX, HENRI (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Nismes (Card) ; pupil of J. Felon. At the Paris Salon of 1883 he 
exhibited a Portrait-medallion of a Lady . 

RASUMNY, FfiLIX (Russ.). Sculptor and Medallist, born at Sebas- 
topol (Russia) m 1870 ; settled in France at an early age; entered 
the Ecole des Arts decoratifs, Paris, to study drawing and sculpture 
under the direction of Prof. Gauthier and Aim^ Millet, and, later, 
learned medal-engraving with Paulin Tasset. 

He first exhibited at the Snlon in 1887, sending in that year 
several Portrait-medallions of children, and a Medal of the Virgin, 
which was very successful. At the Universal Exhibition (1900) he 
obtained a Silver medal, and he was again rewarded in 1906 
(^ Plaquette). 

This artist contributed not a Httle to the vogue of the medal as 
an article of jewellery. He has executed a great number of artistic 
and religious medals. Prize medals for Sports, Automobilism, 
Music, Photography, etc., the medals for which were made in 
connection with the Paris firm of A. Duseaux &Co. 

Among Rasumny's best productions are : La Fensee; — Spring ; 

— Flora; — Christ; — Virgo; — Vierge au Lys ; — Marriage 
medal; — Ophelia; — Night; — St. George, and many portraits. 

I have noted the following medallic works by this artist in the 
Paris Salon Catalogues: 1890. Two medals, metal; — 1891. Con- 
courshippique, silver medal; — Head of the Virgin, bronze ; — Three 
Portrait-medallions of Children; — 1892. Eleven medals and 
medalHons in silver and bronze; — 1893. St. Michael; — M. R. 
D***; — Christopher Columbus ; — Concours nautique; — Head 
of Christ; — La Gloire; — Concoursdes Coureurs; — St. Thomas 
Aquino; — Vierge du Rosaire, after Lorenzo; — M. S. A.*** ; — 
Mme M. D***; — M">« Rasumny; — St. Hubert; — Notre-Dame 
de Lourdes;— 1894. M- J- P***;— M""' S. R*** ;— 189 5. M.S. A***; 

— Symphonie pastorale; — Portrait of a Child, J. R***; ~ M. J. 
K***; — M. L. D***; — M. A. D***; — M. Pavlasky, poet; — 
Plaquette, Ste Genevieve; — Medal, Notre-Dame-de-Lourdes; — 
Medal, S. C. de j^sus; —Head of Virgin ; — 1896. Head of Virgin; 

— Medaille d'Escrime; — Plaquette Medallion, M""= K*** ; — 

L. FoRRER. — Biographical Notiut of Mtdallirtt. — V. 3 

— 34 — 

Medal of the Exhibition ot French and Russian Artists ; — Pla- 
quetie, Madonna, for Christening ceremonies ;— M.K***, plaquette; 

— Medal of the Choral Society, Lyre de Belleville; — Plaquette, 
Le Reve; — M""= R***, pkquette; — Diana, medal;— 1897. 
Madonna; — Music; —Firemen's Medal; — Christening Medal; 

— Diana, bronze medallion ; — Diana, hunting medal ; — Joan of 
Arc; — Spring; — St. George; — Music ; — M""^ la Comtesse de 
Abaunzau ; — Portraits of Messrs Dreyfus, Charles and Louis ; — 
Head of Republic;— 1898, M. Piel;— M. Dubuisson; — M. Adler; 

— Mater Divina ; — Virgo; — Virgin : Ave Maria; — St. Cathe- 
rine; — Joan of Arc ; — Head of Republic; — Flora; — Spring; 

— 1899. Joan of Arc , — St. George ; — Virgo ; — Vierge au lys; 

— Head of Christ ; — First Communion ; — St. Catherine ; — 
Flora; — Thought; —Love; — Psyche; — Coquetterie ; — 


Holy Women at the Sepulchre. 

Cyrano de Bergerac; — Parisienne; — Ophelia; — Marguerite; — 
1901. Plaquette, Communion de St. Jean; — Plaquette, Regina 
Virginum; — La Rose; — La Vague; — Nebuleuse; — Eve ; — 
Bacchante ; — Rifle Meeting Medal ; — Cyclists' medal ; — Prize 
Medals for Horticulture, Agriculture, Photography, etc.; — The 
French Republic ; — St. Hubert ; — Ave Maria ; — Eve and 
Bacchante ; — Music ; — Ecce Homo ; — St. Anthony of Padua ; 

— 1905. 32 Medals, Plaquettes, and Portrait-medallions; — 1906. 
16 Plaquettes and Medals, etc. ; — 1907. Four Portrait-plaquettes ; — 
Three Plaquettes, The Holy Family ; — Holy Women at the Sepulchre 
(illustrated) ; — Justice ; — La Liseuse ; — Les trois Ages ; — Study 
of ayounggirl, bronze medallion; — 1908. The French Republic; 

— M™« Rasumny ; — M"' Rasumny ; — M. L***; — M. S* 
Contemplation of the Virgin; — Art, Science and Industry; 


— 35 — 

Messrs Duseaux & Co have published the following productions 
by Rasumny: Patria; — Republique fran^aise; — Sapeurs-Pom- 
piers, — Republique genie; — Genie au merite; — Musique; — 
Encourajjement aux Sports ; — Au merite ; — La Musique ; — Le 
Tir ; — Encouragement au Tir ; — Cyclisme; — Automobilisme ; 

— Gymnastique etTir; — L'Escrime ; — L'Etude ; — Au Merite 
(avec Soleil Levant); — L'Industrie ; — Horticulture; — Agricul- 
ture; — Elevage-Agriculture ; — Secours mutuels, Epargne; — 
Photograpliie ; — Victor Hugo; — Art musicjl; — Les Arts ; — 
Pechcur a la ligne; — Regates; — Sports nautiques; — Industrie ; 

— Encouragement a TAgriculture (with bust of Olivier de Serres); 

— Diane ; — Race canine ; — Race chevaline ; — Lyre ; — Mincrve; 

— Les Sciences; — Le Tireur; — Tir et Instruction militaire; — 
Gymnastique; — Tir et Gymnastique; — Colombophilie; — Les 
Coureurs; — Gloria; — Course pedestre; — Republique C^res; — 
Ste-Cecile; — La Musique; — Horticulture; — Ceres ensei^nant 
I'Agriculture; — Au merite; — Sapeurs-Pompiers ; — Encourage- 
ment au Tir; — Encouragement aux Sports; — Les Arts; — La 
Musique ; — Peche a la ligne; - Sport nautique, etc. 

At the Paris Salon, 1909, Rasumny exhibited a frame of Portrait- 
plaquettes in oxidized silver, and one in ivory. 

M. Rasumny is a clever artist and an mdustrious worker. 
Bibliography. — Information supplied by the Artist. — Catalogues du Salon. 

RASZA, JAN Prof. (Pol.). Medallist and Sculptor, residing at 
Krakau, a pupil of the late A. Scharff. By him are: Portrait-medal 
of Ladislaus Bartynowski, archaeologist and numismatist, 1906 ; — 
Nicolaus Rev von Naglowice, poet; — Portrait-plaquette of 
Wilhelm Creizenach ; — Portrait- medal of Eliza von Orzezko, 
1906, etc. 

RAT (Germ.) Mint-master at Ratisbon, circ. 950-976. 

RATHAUSKT, HANS (^M5/r.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist 
ofVienna, who exhibited at the Frankfort Medallists' Exhibition, 
1900, a cast Portrait-medallion, and minor decorative works. 

RATHS, WILHELM (Germ). Mint-master at Danzig, 175 3-1754. 
His initials W. R. occur on the coins. 

RAUCH, CHRISTIAN (Germ.). An eminent Sculptor and Modeller 
of Berlin (1777-185 1) who is best known by his Statues in bronze 
of Bliicher, at Breslau (1820), and Berlin (1826); A. N Franke, at 
Halle; Diirer, at Nuremberg; Monument of Maximilian I., at 
Munich; Equestrian statue of Frederick the Great (1839-1851), at 
Berlin ; bronze statues of Generals Gneisenau and York, Kant at 
Koenigsberg, and Thaer at Berlin. Of these works Fortnum says 

- 36 - 

that they "are marked by great truthfulness and individuality, har- 
moniously proportioned and ably grouped, but wanting high ideal 
aspiration in suojects beyond the range of monumental portraiture". 
His busts of the Grand Duchess Louise ol Weimar, and ot Goethe, 
served for A. Bovy's medals of these two personages, and Brandt's 
medal of Alexander von Humboldt was also modelled by Rauch. 
Other medallists who were working at Berlin at the same time as 
Rauch copied his bronze works on their medals, and among them 
the most conspicuous are Gottlieb Goetze, Karl Pfeuffer, and 
J. Karl Fischer. 

Bibliography. — Fortnum, Bron:(es in the South Kensington Museum. — Bol- 
zenthal, op. cit. 

RAULT, LOUIS ARMAND (French). Contemporary Chaser, Sculptor, 
and Medallist, born at St. Calais (Sarthe); pupil of the Paris Schools 
of Arts. He has been for the last 25 years connected with the firm 
of Boucheron, in Rue de la Paix, for whom he has executed numerous 
jewels, and statuettes in gold, silver and steel. Some of these works 
have been acquired by the State and are on exhibition in the 
Luxembourg (Paris) and provincial museums. At the Luxembourg 
Museum there is a work by him in gold, repousse and chased. 

Marriage Medal, by Rault. 

'* The Crab and the Siren " ; at the Museum of Decorative Arts, 

a Bas-relief in silver, cast and chased. The Birth of Pegasus, etc. 

Among Rank's medallic works I may mention : The Holy 

Family (a large oval medal in gold repouss^ and chased) ; — 

— 37 - 

Meissonnier (Portrait-plaquette of the painter, issued as a presen- 
tation piece from his friends and admirers ; also in gold, repousse 
and chased). These medals were cut direct in the metal without 
the aid of any machiner}'. 

At the Salon of 1901 he exhibited : Marriage Medal {illus- 
trated) ; — Head of Bellona ; — Plaquettes representing Animals ; 
— Heads of the more important Kings of France, etc.; — 1902. 
Chiens de chasst-, plaquette ; — 1904. Plaquette commemorating 
the Jubilee of the " Moniteur des interets materiels" ; — Combat 
de Cerfs ; — Birds, etc. 

Bibliography. — Injormation kindly supplied by the Artist. — R. Mane, Medail- 
leurs francais, 1889 — Catalogues dii Salon, 1884-1906. 

RAUM, ALFRED {Germ.). Contemporary Sculptor, residing at 
Berlin, who exhibited a Christening medal at the ' Berlin Kunst- 
Ausstellung', 1907. 

RADSCH, HANS {Germ.). Mint-engraver at Breslau, 1669, 1681. 

RAVASCHIERI, GERMANO {Ital.). Director of the Mint at Naples 
under Philip II., and successor to his father, Giovanni Baptista. He 
may have engraved some of the dies of the coins for wnich he is 
responsible, and which are signed : GR. 

RAVASCHIERI, GIOVANNI BAPTISTA {Ital.). Director of the Mint 
at Naples, 1525-1560. His initials I.B.R. (IBR) occur on NeapoHtan 
coins of Charles V. and Philip II., 1554, and other dates: Ducats, 
Half Ducats, Carlini, Tari, etc. Some of the currency he was respon- 
sible for was engraved by Ennece {q. v.). 

RAVEMANN, FRAU {Germ.). Medallist of the first half ot the 
eighteenth century, by whom is a Portrait-medal of Prince Elector 
Frederick Augustus of Saxony, commemorating the Retreat of the 
Swedes from Saxony, 1707. Both Ammon and Flad mention her 
name, but apparently very little is known about her. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Ammon, op. cit. — Flads, BerOhmte 
Medailleurs, p. 26. 

RAVENNA, SEVERO DA {Ilal.). Gem-engraver of the sixteenth 
century, mentioned by Pomponius Gauricus, who styles him 
sculptoi-, scalptor, caelator, and extols him above all his rivals. King 
states that "he is probably that pupil of Marc Antonio's who 
engraved the copper-plates with the monogram S.R.". Fide SEVERO. 

Bibliography. — King, Antique Gems attd Rings, 1872. 

RAVIER, GUILLAUME {French). Metal-engraver at Lyons, circ, 
1528-15^1, where he engraved armorial bearings of that city in 

- 38 - 

RAVIER, JEHAN (French). Mint-master and warden at Chalons- 
sur-Marne 1423-4, 1428. 

RAWLE, G. (Brit.). Schlickeysen-Pallmann mention this name as 
that of a London Medallist of the second half of the eighteenth 
century, but I have not come across any medals by him. 

RAWLINS, THOMAS (Brit.). Medallist, Coin-, Gem-, and Seal- 
engraver, also a Playwright, born about 1620 (some say 1600), 
died in London in 1670. He was apprenticed as a Goldsmith and 
Gem-engraver and is said to have been a pupil of Nicholas Briot, 
with whom he worked for some years at the Koyal Mint. An 
ardent Royalist, he served both Charles L and Charles II, under- 
going great hardships during the Commonwealth. His earliest dated 
medal, that of William Wade, is of 1641. On the outbreak of the 
Civil War, he followed Charles I. to Oxford. In 1645 he was 
commissioned to cut various dies for medals (Badge of the Forlorn 
Hope; Meeting of Charles I. and Henrietta Maria at Kineton ; 
Medal 6f Sir Robert Welch; Taking ol Bristol by Prince Rupert), 
and in the previous year he had engraved a Medal on the Declara- 
tion of Parliament, but his signature does not occur on coins until 


^ /am^^'. 

The Juxon Medal of Charles I., by Rawlins. 

1644, when he produced the famous Crown piece, known as the 
'Oxford Crown (description and illustration infra) from the view 
of Oxford which he introduced on the reverse, beneath the ordinary 
equestrian tj^pe.Prom henceforth the ariist appears to have cut most 
of the dies for the coins minted at Oxforo, many of which are 
signed by him. He was formally appointed Chief-engraver of the 
mint in the twenty-third year of Charles I. (March 1647-March 
1648) evidently after the death of Briot. Between 1642 and 1648 he 
was actively employed in making Royal badges, as well as medals 
and badges for the King's adherents. 

To the last year of Charles I. probably belongs the artist's famous 

— 39 — 

* unique' pattern for a ' five Broad piece', the so-called* J uxon Medal', 
which was supposed to have been given by the King on his scaffold 
to Bishop Juxon as a mark of regard for the attachment and atten- 
tion he had shewn him. It is now in the British Museum. 

On the death of Charles I., Rawlins appears to have fled to 
France, but in 1652 we find him again in England earning a pre- 
carious livelihood by doing die-sinker's woik, principally engraving 
tradesmen's tokens for the towns of Bristol, Gloucester, Oxford, and 
London, if these tokens, varieties of which are signed R, do not 
belong to Ramage, another Engraver, who was employed at the 
Mint, and was known as " Farthing-maker in the Tower ".From a 
letter written by Rawlms to John Evelyn for assistance, 27. February 
1657, we learn that he was then in extreme distress, and imprisoned 
for debt in a low prison in London, called the "Hole in St. 
Martin". Evelyn, who had met the Engraver in Paris, endorsed 
the letter as bemg from " Mr. Thos Rawlins. . . an excellent artist, 
but debash'd fellow". (Wroth, p. 326). 

At the Restoration Rawlins was reinstated in his former place at 
the Mint, and held it till his death in 1670. He was styled Chief- 
engraver, while Thomas Simon held the appointment of" Chiet 
Engraver of Arms and Seals". Rawiins had a residence in the Mint. 
He was married, and W^dpole (/Anecdotes, I, 401) mentions a print 
of his wife inscribed ' Dorothea Narbona, uxor D. Thomae Rawlins 
supremi S'ulptoris sigilli Carol. 1 et Carol II; this, says Wroth, was 
probably identical with the engraving by Anton van der Does in 
the print room at the British Museum. 

On June 15, 1660 (Cfl/. State Papers, Dom. 1660-1, p. 78) 
Rawlins wis ordered to engrave the King's effigies for the coins. He 
may possibly have designed and engraved in the same year five 
patterns for copper Farthings of Charles IL, which I however prefer 
to ascribe to Ramage {g. v.y Between July 30 and September 24 
of that year 1660, Rawlins was engaged in cutting a privy seal for 
Ireland and five judicial seals for the Welsh Counties. For these six 
seals he was paid 274 I. 2 s. 6 d. (Wroth, p. 326). In the year of 
his death, 1670, the artist was preparing new dies for Charles II. 

I borrow from Mr. Wroth's monograph on Rawlins (^Dict. Nat. 
Biog. XLvii) the following details concerning the Engraver's literary 
achievements : " Rawlins first comes into notice in 1640, when he 
published "The Rebellion", a tragedy which is stated on the title- 
page to have been acted nine days together and divers times since 
oy his Majesty's company of revels. It is * far from a bad play', 
though the verse is rather halting and bombastic (Genest, English 
Stage, X, 1 13-14). The scene is laid in Seville, and a prominent 
part is taken in the play by the tailors of that city. '* The Rebellion" 
(London, 1640, 4to, reprinted in * The Ancient British Drama', 

— 40 - 

vol. m., and in Dodsley's * Old English Plays', vol. XIV) was 
dedicated by Rawlins to his "honoured kinsman Robert Ducie,esq. 
of Aston, Staffordshire". 

" Two Comedies, both printed after the year of Rawlins' death, 
are usually assigned to him : i. ' Tom Essence, or the Modish Life' 
(sometimes erroneously attributed to Raven scro ft), a successful play 
which owes much to Moliere's ' Cocu ima^inaire'; it was licensed 
for performanceat Dorset Garden on 4. November 1676, and printed 
in 1677, 4t'.). 2. * Tunbridge Wells, or a Day's Courtship', an 
indifferent comedy, printed in 1678, 4to. A collection of poems 
called * Calanthe ' (subjoined to Good Friday, being ' Meditations 
on that Day', 1648, 8vo) is signed T.R., initials which Oldys iden- 
tified with Thomas Rawlins. Complimentary verses by Rawlins are 
prefixed to 'Messallina', a tragedy oy his friend Nathaniel Richards, 
and to Lovelace's ' Lucada'" (Wroth, p. 327). 

Rawlins signed his coins and tokens with an R ; so ; • R or <^, 

His medals, which are usually cast and chased, are signed R; — 
T.R : or with his full name. 

"In technical finish and sureness of touch", says Mr. Wroth, 
"Rawlins is inferior to Thomas Simon, the great Medallist of the 
Commons, yet much of his work is decidedly pleasing and elegant. 
Evelyn says that he excelled in medals and in intaglios, and in 
Flecknoe's * Miscellanies ' there is a poem on that excellent 
cymelist or sculptor in gold and precious stones, Thomas Rawlins " 
(Wroth, p. 327). 

The following is a list of the artist's principal known works in 
coins and medals. 


GOLD. Charles 1. Only Pattern Coins. 

I. Pattern Sovereign or "Five Broad piece", the so-called Juxon 
Medal (illustrated). Obv. carol vs. d'.mag'.brit'.fran'.et. hiber- 

The Juxon Medal, or Pattern Five-Broad piece*. 

* Another reproduction of this Juxon medal is given on p. 38. 

— 41 — 

niae'.rex. Bust of King to left, bareheaded, in falling lace collar, 
armour and scarf across the breast. 

^. FLORENT. CONCORDIA. REGNA. The royal arms in high relief 
on an oval garnished shield, crowned ; at the sides c r, both crowned; 
mm. rose; engrailed border on both sides; edge plain. Weight: 
732 grs. Unique. In the British Museum. Purchased for the National 
Collection by Messrs. Spink and Son at the Montagu Sale (Cat. 
Nov. 1896, lot 352, realized ^ 770). 

This tine coin was said to have been presented by Charles I. to 
Bishop Juxon on the scaffold just before his execution. Its pedigree 
is well authenticated up to the present day, but the tradition of the 
occa>ion on which the King- gave the piece to his faithful prelate 
may or may not rest on the actual fact, as *' according to some old 
authorities the parting present sent by Charles to his son was the 
" George", containing his mother's portrait". 

The likeness of Charles I. on the ' Juxon medal ' is very good, 
but cannot compare with the portraits executed by Briot, after 

There is an interesting notice of this coin by Mr. W. J. Webster 
in Spink's Numismatic Circular, V, col. 2059. 

2. Pattern Broad. Mm. lis; same type and^. legend, as on the 
preceding coin, but reading onobv. carglvs-d'.g'.mag'.brit'.fra'. 
ET- hi'. REX. Weight: 178 grs. {Fide Montagu Sale Cat., lot 353. — 
Murdoch Sale Cat., June 1903, lot 286; — SnelHng, P^//^r«j, 
PI. VI, 4 var. omitting the value xx, etc.). 

Pattern Broad, by Rawiins. 

3. Pattern Broad. Mm. plume. Obv. carolvs-d'.g'.mag'.bri*. 
fr'.et-hib'.rex. Bust of Kmg to left, head bare, in lace collar, 
armour, scarf across the breast ; behind, xx. ^L. florent. Concordia. 
REGNA. Royal arms on oval garnished shield in high relief; above, 
crown ; at sides c r, not crowned, and small letters. Weight : 1 5 2 |grs. 
(Snelling, Patterns, PI. vi, 4). There are varieties. 

4. Pattern Broad. Mm. plume. Similar type and legends to the 
preceding coin, but on the obv. the bust of the king is crowned 
and he wears falling collar, not laced, armour and mantle tied on 

— 4^ — 

shoulder; two inner circles, one plain, the other beaded, and reading 
brit'. for BRi'. Weight: 141 grs. (Snelling, PI. vi, 5). Only two 
specimens known. 

Pattern Broad, by Rawlins. 

SILVER. Charles I. i. Pattern Broad. Same type as the gold 
Pattern Broad N° 2; (Snelling, PL vi, 4x;^r.). 

2. Pattern Broad. Same type as the gold Pattern Broad (N" 3), 
with XX behind head (Snelling, PI. vi, 4). 

3. Pattern Crown, Oxford, 1644. Mm. (obv.only), floreate cross, 


^l fW J)i 0' 


'/ 'v.- 



Uxlord Pattern Crown, 1644, by Rawlins. 

lozenges), king on horseback to left, holding long sword sloping 
backwards, with the view of ihe City of Oxford beneath, oxon in 
minute letters between two steeples ; under the horse's off forefoot 
R {Rawlins); R6. exvrgat devs dissipentvr inimici (a large spray 
of flowers between each word), the *' Declaration", relig.prot. 
LEG ang. LIBER PARL, in two lines across the field and between 
double scrolls decorated with flowers and leaves; above, v. and 
three plumes; below, 1644, ^^e figures of the date curved (Ruding, 


PI. XXIV, i). Only eleven specimens known (Fide Bergne's list in 
Num. Chron., vol. XVII). 

— 43 - 

"This coin is very beautifully executed, with great spirit and 
attention to details" (Hawkins, p. 319). 

4, Pattern Half Crown (?) Obv. carolvs. d : g : mag : br : fr : et 
HI : REX. Bust of Charles I. to left, lovelock on left shoulder, in 
falling lace colour, armour, and scarf across the breast ; mm. cross. 
^. Royal arms, within the garter; crown above; within a laurel 
border. Cast and chased. ^L. in imit.ition of engraving. S'ze : 1.35 
or 1.40 in. JR^. and Lead. A specimen in the Montagu Collection 
had the mm. i and was struck on a very thick flan (^Med. III., 
p. 373, 266). 

Pattern Half Crown, by Rawlins. 

5. Pattern Half Crown (?) Obv. As last; mm. Lozenge. I^. Royal 
arms in garnished shield, within the Garter, between the supporters; 
above, helmet with lambrequins, crown and crest ; below, motto: 
DiEV.ET.MON. DROIT. Sizc : 1. 4 in. JR.. Cast and chased; I^. in 
imitation of engraving {Med. Ill , p. 373, 267). 

6. Pattern Half CrawnQ) Obv. As last, with legend : carolvs: 
D : g: mag : brit : fra : et.hib. rex. fide : ^L. Full blown rose 
within a laurel-wreath border. Size : i .4 in. JB^. Cast and chased ; 
^L. in imitation of engraving (.M^. ///., p. 374, 268). 

7. Pattern Shilling Q) Obv. Bust of Charles L to left, as n" 4; 
legend ending in rx ; ^L. Royal arms, within the garter, beyond 
which the garniture of the shield extends; crown above. Size : i . i 
in. JB^. Cast and chased; ^. in imitation of engraving (Med. III., 
p. 372, n« 265). 

Pattern Shilling, by Rawlins. 

— 44 — 

8. Pattern Shilling, Oxford, 1644. Mm. (obv.) plume, IJ^,. rose, 
obv. CAROLVS.D : G : MAG : BRi : FR : ET.HIB : REX (stops, lozenges), 
Bust of the king, to left, crowned, in lace collar and armour ; on 
shoulder, r (Rawlins); ^. exvrgat.&c. " Declaration" relig : 
PROT : LEG : ANG : LIBER : PAR in three lines between two parallel 
lines; above, three plumes with rosette each side of the outer ones; 

below, ■ ^J^'^' (stops, lozenges). An extremely rare coin. 

Oxford Pattern Shilling, 1644, by Rawlins. 

9. Shilling. Oxford, 1644. Similar type, with Bust in figured 
armour, lion's head on shoulder piece, falling laced collar, scart 
looped up in front ; R (for Rawlins) on the truncation of the arm, 
lozenges after words (Hawkins, p. 346, n" 8). A specimen in Miss 
Helen Farquhar's Collection. 

10. Groat^ Oxford, 1645. Obv. carolvs.d : g : m : b : fr : et : 
hi: rex. Crowned bust of King to left; bt^hind, iiii ; beneath .R. 
1^6. exvrgat . devs. dissipentvr . iNiMici. Within compartment, 
relig. PRO I leg.ang I liber par. Above, plume; beneath; 1645. 
There are varieties (Ruding, PI. xxiv, n° 10). 

11. Groat, Oxford, 1646. Similar type with large bust of King 
dividing legend. There are varieties (Snelling, PI. xi, n° 15). 

12. Threepence^ Oxford, 1644. Bust like the Groat with lion- 
headed armour; r (for Rawlins) under the bust; no plume in front 
mm. lis; legend : ^. No mm. ; legend commen- 
cing at side, ang.lib.par- ; date, 1644 (Hawkins, 
p. 357, n" 2). 

13. Threepence, signed R, with Oxford Obv. and Aberystwith ^L. 
(Spink's Num. Circ, 11, 518). 

The above are, so far as I hive been able to find out, the only 
signed silver coins known by Rawlins, but I would suiigest, from 
similarity of design and execution, that some ot the fine Oxford 
issues (possibly the fine work " Pound " and " Half Pound") may 
have been engraved by this artist, who superintended that Mint, 
although Briot and other engravers may have been responsible for 
most of the coins. 

— 45 — 

COPPER- Rawlins is supposed to have engraved, during the Com- 
monwealth, and after his return from France, in 1652, Town Tokens 
for Bristol, Gloucester and Oxford, and also to have produced 
dies for London Tradesmen'^ Tokens of Broad St., Houndsditch, 
St. Paul's Churchyard, and the Wardrobe (Boyne, Tradesviens 
Tokens, ed. Williamson). He is also credited with having engraved 
Pattern Farthings of Cromwell, which however I preter to ascribe 
to Ramage {q. v.) as well as Pattern Farthings of Charles II., with 
similar reverses to the Cromwell Farthings (^f^Ue Description of 
these coins under Ramage, supra). 


1 64 1. William Wade; signed : T. R.fe; no ^L.; possibly unique 
(Gotha Museum). This may be a portrait of the William Wade 
who afterwards commanded in the army of the Parliament, and 
for his services received in 1653 a grant of lands in Westmeath 
and King's County, Ireland; — 1642. Declaration of Parliament; 
Bust of Charles I. ; legend incuse : Should hear both houses of parlia- 

William Wade, 1641. 

ment for true Religion and subjects freedom stand; ^. The two 
houses of Parliament with the King and Speaker; cast and chased ; 
— Battle of Edgehill?; Half length figure of Charles I.; ^. King 
on horseback; two thm plates united; cast and chased (i"65 X 
I • 2 5 in) ; — 1 643 . Military Reward, Bado;e of the * Forlorn Hope ' 
{illustrated). It was issued under a special warrant of the King to 
the Wardens of the Mint at Oxford, dated May 18, 1643, and was 
ordered to be worn ' on the breast of every man who shall be certified 
under the hands of their Commanders-in-Chief to have done us 
faithful service m the forlorn hope'. Though the badge was ordered 
to be restricted to this purpose only, the obverse was issued sepa- 
rately to be worn as a memorial of the King; — Military Reward; 
oHv. Busts conjoined to r. of Charles I. and his son. Prince 
Charles ; ^L. Similar ; both sides signed : T. R. (i . 7 X i . 5 in.) ; — 

- 46 - 

Sir Robert Welch; obv. Busts conjoined of King and Prince 
Charles ; ^L. The Royal standard, etc. (only known from a drawing, 
accompanying a warrant from the King to Rawlins for making it; 
— Peace and War; Obv. Bust of Charles I.; ^. Sword and olive- 
branch ; signed : -R- (i • i in.) — Meeting of Charles I. and Queen 

Badge of the ' Forlorn Hope '. 

Henrietta Maria at Kineton; ^. Inscription ; signed : • »• (i •4in.); 
— Takmg of Bristol by Prince Rupert's forces, 27. July 1643; 
struck at Oxford (2 varieties) ; obv. Bust of Charles I. ; ^L. View 
of Bristol (Aff^f. ///., I, p. 307, n°' 131 and 132); — 1644. Sir 


Death ot Charles I., 1649. 

William Parkhurst (^illustrated Vol. IV, p. 388) ; signed : T. Rawlins. 
Sculps. 0X0N.1644. " There are two examples of this uniface medal 
in the British Museum, one ot which consists of a very thin plate 
of silver, technically called a slieU"(Mf^. III., I, p. 311); — 1645. 

— 47 — 

Chief Justice Sir Robert Heath ; signed : R- ; — Simon Beal (not 
signed, but perhaps by Rawlins; — 1647. Thomas Harper ; uniface ; 
signed : T. R. (unique); — 1649. Betrothal of Charles Louis, 
Elector Palatine, and Charlotte of Hesse-Cassel (2 varieties). It is 

Memorial Badge of Charles 1. 

suggested that these medaleis (0.85 in.) are possibly by Thomas 
Rawlins (M^^. ///., p. 339); — Death of Charles I. (illustrated) ; 
cast and chased ; — Another ; obv. Bust of Charles I. ; ^L. constan- 
TiA CAESARis IAN.30.1648. Salamander amidst flames (165 in.). 

Memorial Badge of Charles I. 

Cast and chased, and with a ring for suspension; — Another; obv. 
Bust of Charles I.; I^. immotatrivmphans. Rock, buffeted by 
winds, waves and thunderstorms; signed on obv., R. and on ^. 
rawl.f. ; — Another; obv. Bust of Charles I., holding in his hand 


a crown of thorns and scroll with motto : christi.tracto ; legend 
in two circles: janii : 30' 1648.CAROLVS, etc. ; ^L. Rock buffeted 
by winds and waves (105 in.)- This medal, which is cast, was 
issued to be worn as a memorial of the King; — Another; obv. 

Memorial Badge of Charles I and Henrietta Maria. 

Bust of Charles L, as last ; ^. Inscription engraved : Jan : 30 1648. 
Qui SAS'CTVS Vivens el qui post funera martyr Pro tumulo nostrum 
CAROLE pectus habe. (i * i in.); unique; — Another; Bust ot 
Charles I. to left ; ^. finis coromat opvs. Bust of Prince Charles, 

Memorial Badge of Charles I and Maria Henrietu. 

three quarters to right ( I ' 35 in.);obv. cast and chased;]^, engraved; 
— Another; Bust of Charles 1. to left; ^. Inscription engraved : 
Jan. 30. 1^48, etc. (i ^X i ' r>) ; cast and chased, and with a ring 
for suspension (^i^ed. III., n" 149) ; — Memorial of Charles I. ; obv. 

- 49 — 

Bust of Charles I. ; ^L. florebvnt Royal Arms in a shield within 
the Garter; below, monogram, R. (1-4 x i'i5in.) ; cast and 
chased; — Loyalist Memorial, 1649; obv. carolvs-id : g. etc. 
Bust of Charles I. to r, ; beneath : R; ^. carolvs-ii etc. Phoenix 
rising from flames ; above, ex cineribvs ( i " i 5 in .) ; — BADGES. I. 
Charles I. and Henrietta Maria ; obv. Bust of Charles I. to r. ; 
BL. Bust of Henrietta Maria; signed:!. RAWLINS F. (145 x ri5 
in.; Med. III., p. 354, 215); — 2. Another; obv. Bust of Charles I., 
crowned, etc. (i-S^Xi^sin.; Med. 111., p. 355, 216; illustrated); 

— 3. Another; obv. Crowned bust of Charles I.; behind, mono- 
gram of T. R.; dated, 1644; ^L. Bust of Henrietta Maria ; below, 
monogram of T. R. (145 X i"25 in.; Med. III., p. 357, 221.); 

— 4. Charles I. ; obv. Bust to right ; ^. Three crowns (i '3 in ; 

Memorial Badge of Charles I and Henrietta Maria. 

Med. III. , p. 3 5 9, 229) ; — 5 . Bust to r. ; below monogram of T. R. ; 
^. Plain ([ 6 in. ; illustrated); — 6. Bust of Charles I. to r. ; on 

Memorial Badge of Charles I. and Henrietta Maria. 

truncation : T. R.; ^L. Plain (i '2 in.; Med. III., p. 370, 257); — 7. 
Charles 1. and Prince Charles; their busts on either side ; signed 

FoRKEK. — Biographical Not ias of Uedallists. - V. 4 

on I^. R. (105 X 8 in. ; Med. III., p. 371, 261) ; — 8. Prince 
Charles; Bust to 1.; below, R. F.; ^L. Plain (1-95 X 1-5 in.; 

Badge of Prince Charles. 

illustrated). A specimen in the Bodleian collection is signed : -R.fe. ; 
Another variety, formerly in Messrs Spink's Collection, illustrated. 



Badge of Prince Charles. 

— 9. Unindentified Portrait Badge, dated 1645 ; Bust to r. ; no ^., 
{illustrated; Spink's Num. Circ, xii, 7241); — 1655. Sir Robert 
and Lady Bolles; their busts on either side; signed on obv. 
T. RAWLINS. F.1655. and on I^. 16.T RAWLINS.?. 55 (i 8 in.; Med. 
III., 420, 59); — 1658. Sir Henry Slingesby, beheaded 8. June 
1658; (i'85 X 1-55 in.; illustrated'). Probably the work of 
Thomas Rawlins; — 1661. Coronation of Charles II. " dixi 
cvstodiam"; obv. Bust of Charles II., to 1., crowned; below, R; 

— 51 — 

^L. Charles II. as a shepherd, crook in hand (i 35 in. ; Med. III.; 
p. 474, n** 80); — Another; a variety, xxui. april. 1661 (i '25 in., 
Med. III., p. 475,n°8i); — Another, signed R, and edge inscribed : 

CORONATO.PASTORE.OVAT.OVILE. 1 66 1 (1-25 in.; Med. Ill.,p. 4'J<), 

Memorial of Sir Henry Slingesby, 1658. 

n° 82); — 1665 . Dominion of the Sea; obv. Bust of Charles II. ; 
on truncation, T. R. ; j^. Ship in full sail (i "6 X 1*5 in. ; Med. 
Ill.y p. 506, 144). Medal granted to English naval officers who 
distinguished themselves in the naval fight against Admiral Wasse- 
naar van Obdam. 

Miss Helen Farquhar has given in the British Numismatic Journal, 
vol. II, pp. 243-290, a very full account and description of the 
memorial badges of Charles I., and his successfully shown that 
Rawlins made use of Van Dyck's and other portraits for his designs. 


On 15. June 1660 Rawlins was ordered to engrave the king's 
effigies for the coins (^Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1660-1, p. 78). Fiom 
30. July to 24 September of that same year he was engaged in 
engraving a Privy-seal for Ireland and five judicial Seals for the 
Welsh Counties. For these six Seals he was paid 274 /. 2s. 6 d. 
(ib. 1660-1, pp. 185, 299; 1663-4, PP- 105, 257) (Wroth, loc. 
cit.). There is no doubt that during the Commonwealth the 
Engraver earned his livelihood by cutting private seals and badges, 
or "suspension medalets, which the disheartened cavaliers wore in 
remembrance of their beloved sovereign" (B. Nightingale, Thomas 
Rawlins, and the Honorary Medals of the Commonwealth, Num.Chron., 
XIII, p. 129 sqq.). 

Rawlins, although a very talented artist, was an uneven worker. 

— 52 — 

and some of his productions betray no doubt the great haste with 

which he had to execute the King's commands. 

Bibliography. — W. W. Wroth, Thomas Rawlins, Diet. Nat. Biog., xlvii, 
326. — Walpole, Anecdotes of Painting, i, 400, 401. — Hawkins, ed. Franks- 
Grueber, Medallic Illustrations. — Numismatic Chronicle, iv, 123-125 ; xiil, 129 f. 

— Grueber, Guide to English Medals in the Brit. Mas. — Redgrave, Dictionary of 
Artists. — Ruding, Annals, &c. — Kenyon, op. cit. — Hawkins, op. cit. — 
Hunter, Giorus Vatum, Addit. Ms. 24187, ff. 32-3. — Evelyn, Numistnata, p. 239. 

— Oldys, S'oies and Collections, ed. Yeowell, ii'63, p. 33. — Langbaine, English 
Dram. Pods, i6g9, p. 117. — Baker, Biogr. Dram. — Genest, English Stage. — 
British Museum Catalogue : Coins, Medals, and Tokens, by Rau-lins, in Brit. Mus. 

— Helen Farquhar, Portraiture of the Stuarts on the Royalist Badges, Brit. Num. 
Journ., II, 243-290. — Montagu, English Copper Coins, 2n<led., p. 35. — Nagler, 
Monogrammistm, 1881, V, 831, 837. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Catalogus der 
Nederlandsche en op Nederland betrekhing hebbende Gedenkpenningen, 1903-5. 

RAY, GEORG. Fide GIORGIO RANGETTI supra . Name misread by 
Ammon . 

RAT£ {Belg.) . Engraver of Bruges, by whom is an oval bronze 
Prize medal, thus signed, of the nineteenth century, and described 
by M. Van den Broeck in Revue beige de numismatique, 1S96, p. 468. 
He also engraved a medal commemorating the Epidemic of Cholera 
at Monceau. Belgium, 1849. 

RAYNAUD, CAMILLE {French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Cordes (Tarn) ; pupil of Falguiere. At the Salon of 1895 ^ noticed 
by him a fine Portrait-medallion of a young girl, entitled 

RAZZANTI, PIETRO DI NERI (ItaL). A Florentine Gem-engraver, 
born in 142$. He returned to Florence in 1477 after an absence of 
several years, and obtained an exemption of state dues on the condi- 
tion of his opening a school for the teaching of his art. He was still 
living in 1480. Milanesi suggested he may have been the same 
person who signed PETRECINI (^ . v.) the medals of Borso d'Este 
and Gian Francesco Pico della Mirandola, 1460. 

Bibliography. — Armand, op. cit , I, p. 33. 

R. B. Fide RUDOLPH BORNEMANN. Mint-master at Zellerfeld, 
1676-1711 . 

R. B. P'ide RIZZARLO BALBI. Mint-inspector at Venice, 1767-1768. 

R. B. Fide RAIMONDO BEMBO. Mint-inspector at Venice, 1780. 

R. C. F/Jg RAFFAELOCATANEO. Italian Medallist, aVc. 1710. 

R. C. {ItaL). Initials of a Medallist, possibly REGOLO COCCAPANI 
of Capi, a Florentine Goldsmith, orRAFFAELLO CASELLESI, likewise 
a goldsmith of Florence by whom is a Portrait-medal of Camilla 

— 53 — 

Albizzi, dated 1556; obv. Bust of Camilla Albi-'zi; ^. fortvna. 
NON . MVTAT . GENVS . Apollo pursuing Daphne . Vide Vol. I, p. 323. 

Bibliography. — Armand, o/>. cit., I, 187; III, 82. — Heiss, Florence et Us 
Florentins, II, PI. i. 

R. D. F/^e RUDOLPH DORNSTRAUCH. Mint-master at Celle, 1673- 

R. E. Vide RUCKDESCHEL and EBERHARD. Mint-masters at 
Bayreuth, 1766-1768. 

R. E. (E. Vide RUDOLPH ERNST OECKERMANN . Mint-master at 
Danzig, 1760- 1766. 


READY, ROBERT COOPER {Brit.). Modeller, Sigillarist, and Elec- 
trotypisr, horn at Norwich, 28. June 181 1, died at Camden Town, 
London, 15. May 1901. 

Portrait of R. C. Ready, by G. A. Carter. 

From his early youth he had a penchant for mediaeval seals, and 
in the forties found himself relying entirely upon work in connec- 
tion with these and kindred objects of glyptic art. He worked in 
Norwich, and Cambridge, and finally combined his private practice 
with an appointment which he took up at the British Museum 
in 1859 and held till within four years of his decease. He was a 

— 54 — 

pioneer in the work of reproducing coins and medals by the 
electrotype process, and had among his clientele several of the 
Royal houses of Europe, 

A medallic portrait of him was modelled in 1879 by G. A. Carter, 
and the gem-engraver, Luigi Isler, cut his intaglio-portrait. 

READY, AUGUSTUS P. (Brit.) Modeller, and Electrotypist at the 
British Museum. He worked there for many years with his 
father ROBERT RE ADT, and on his death (1901) he succeeded him. 
Both his, and his father's reproductions of coins and medals, 
especially of Greek coins, are so perfectly done, that were it not 
for the difference in weight, they could hardly be detected from 
genuine coins. As a measure of precaution, most of these elec- 
trotypes are stamped with RR,R or MB on the edge. The authorities 
at the British Museum now only supply electrotypes in two 
sections, i. e. obverses separated from the reverses. 

REAL, D£SIR£ (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at Paris. 
He is the author of some Portrait-medallions; one of D"" Real was 
exhibited by him at the Salon of 1883, and another of M"' Veuve 
Francois del Sarto in 1887. 

REAL, LUCINO (Jtal.). Mint-master at Bourg, 1560-1561. 

REBEN(REWEN), HANS (Germ.). Mint-master at Neustadt a. S., 

REBER, ANDREAS (Germ.). In conjunction with Adam and 
Friedrich Schafer he was instructed to work the Mints of Neisse and 
Teschen, 10. August 1621, for a term of three years, but in 
September 1622 they had to transfer their rights to a company of 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, Schlesiens neuere Mun;;geschichte. 

RECIPON, GEORGES (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Paris; pupil of his father, Dumont, Thomas and Francois, I have 
noted the following medallic works by him : 1896. The Shepherd 
and the Sea ; — The Grasshopper and the Ant ; — 1897. M. E. 
Allez ; — M"* E . AUez ; — 1898. M-^ U*** ; — Symbol of Marriage, 

RtCAMIER, MADAME DE (Fr^-mrA). 1777-1849. Celebrated for her 
wit, virtue, and beauty; she became at fifteen the wife of a rich 
banker in Paris; her salon was the meeting place of all the literary 
and artistic celebrities of her time, she was a friend of Madame de 
Stael,and Chateaubriand whom she soothed in his declming years. 
Her features have been preserved to us by Canova, Gerard, Louis 
David; Pradier, and David d'Angers have also both modelled her 

— 55 — 

portrait, and Augustin Dupre is said to have immortalised lier 
further as the prototype for his figure of Liberty or the Republic 
on the coinage of the first French Republic. 

Obv. of Five Centime piece, an. III. (enlarged). 

RECORDON, PIERRE (French). " Maistre fondeur ordinaire de 
I'artillerie de France " at Lyons, and author of cast Medallions. He 
worked circ. 1608- 1627. 

RECKINGEN, J. VON {Dutch). Medallist of the end of the seven- 
teenth century, by whom is a commemorative medal; dated 1695, 
on the Pcaceof East Friesland, concluded between Christian Eberhard 
of East Friesland and the States (Dirks Repert. II, 2413. Knijphausen 
L 6533). 

RED, JOHN (^wgr,). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, born 
at Boston, pupil of Chapu ; now domiciled at Berck-sur-Mer. He 
executed numerous works of decorative art and Portrait-medallions. 
Three medallions were exhibited by him at the Paris Salon : 1891. 
La Pri^re; — 1893. Ferveur; — 1894. Extase. 

REDE, ROGER DE (Brit.). Mint-master at St. Edmundsbury from 
the 25"' year of Edward I. to the 12''' of Edward II. 

REDDESLOB, ULRICH AUGUST (Austr.). Assistant-engraver at the 
Mint of Vienna, 1765-1767, and First Assistant, 1767-1780. The 
Vienna Mint Museum preserves dies for Memorial Jetons of 
Francis I., 1765 (signed : A. R. F.) by him. 

- 56 - 

REDELMAYER (or REDELMEYER), FRANZ (Austr.). Pupil at the 
School of Engraving of the Vienna Mint, 1770-1775; Assistant- 
engraver, 1775-1779; appointed in 1779 Mint-engraver at Karlsburg, 
where he was still at work in 1797. 

REDON, GILLES (French). Mint-master at Tours, 15 23-1 5 32. 

REED, SIR BARTHOLOMEW. VideKEkUL supra (Brit.). Sir Bartholo- 
mew Reade (also Reed, Rede, or Reid), Goldsmith, Alderman and 
Mayor of the City of London, 1301-2. Sheriff in 1497. He was 
Master of the Royal Mint, London, under Edward IV., Richard IIL 
and Henry VIL, circ. 1481-1493. Ruding gives interesting infor- 
mation about his activity at the Mint. In the first year of Henry VIL, 
1485, Sir Giles Daubeney and Bartholomew Reed 'Svere appointed 
joint-masters and workers of the mint, to coin pieces of the same 
description as had been coined under Edward IV., and in 1489 the 
same persons — Sir Giles having now become Lord Daubeney — 
were ordered to make a new money of gold according to the point 
and form of a piece of lead annexed to the Letters Patent. The 
new money was to be of standard fineness, to be double the 
weight of the Ryal, and to be called the Sovereign, and was to be 
current for 205"(Kenyon, p. 74). 

Anno 22 of Edward IV, Reed's name occurs as Warden of the 

Bibliography. — Chaffers, Gilda Aurijabrortim. — Ruding, op.cit. — Kenyon, 
op. cil. 

REES, SEBASTIAN (Germ.). Mint-master at Ortenberg, 1622. 

Mantua, who was working circ. 1562. Only three medals are 
ascribed with certainly to him, which are signed : TIM. REF. 
MANT. F.; TIM.R. M. F. and T.R. respectively. Two are described by 
Armand, and the third, which is in the British Museum collection 
was reproduced by Mr. G. F. Hill in the Numismatic Chronicle, 
1902, PI. I, 3. 

These medals are : Teodoro dualla and Aurelio Piosna, 1562; 
obv. Half-figures conjoined to right ; I^. avgvst. greg. pastorib. 
VIGIL. Victory above landscape ; below : TIM. REF. MANT. F. (diam. : 
30.5 mill.); —Teodoro Qualla, 1562 ; obv. Half figure of Qualla 
to right; on a scroll below, TIM.R. M. R.; ^L. ad vberiora hinc 
EVOCATi Shepherd driving his flock (diam. : 68.5 mill ) ; — 
Timotheus Refatus (illustrated); obv. timot.refatvs.svi.ips. 
EFPiGiATOR. Bust to r. of the artist, tonsured, and bearded, in 
monkish dress: on the truncation, 1566. '^L. non vltra vires. 
Arabian camel lying down to 1. ; beside it, two corded packages; 

— 57 — 

in the background, trees. Signature, before the beginning of the 
inscription, T. R. (diam. : 23 mill. — British Museum). 

Refatus, says Mr. Hill, seems to have been under German 
influence, and has certain mannerisms, such as the introduction of 
trees bent by the wind in an otherwise still landscape. 

Certain medals, signed T. R. have been erroneously ascribed to 

Titnotheus Refatus. 

Timotheus Refatus. Mr. Hill has shown that, on account of dissi- 
milarity of style, this identification must be rejected. Armand already 
hesitated to admit it, both on chronological grounds and difl^erence 
of workmanship. The^medals thus signed are : Diego de Solis; obv. 
Bust tor., cuirassed ; I^. nil desperandvm.t.r. Right arm'holding 
wand, pointing towards the sun ; below, a landscape (diam. : 
45 mill.; Berlin Museum); — Benedetto Lomellini, cardinal; 
obv. Bust to r. wearing camail; I^. mansvetvdo Gentleness; signed 
T.R. on both sides diam. : 34 5 X 28.5 ; Brit. Mus. — Bibl.'Nat.); 
— Camillo Orsini, 1569; uniface ; signed : T.R. (45 mill.; Bed. 
Mus.) ; — Ulisse di Teseo Aldrovandi ; I^, sensibvs naec imis res 
EST NON PARVA REPONiT. Cock ; signed T. R.on both sides (42 mill. ; 
Brit. Mus.; Berl. Mus.); — Diana Ghisi (Scultori); obv. diana 

Horatio Tigrino. 

maxtvana . T . R . Bust to r. ; ]^. AES iNCiDiMvs (j;V).Hand engraving 
figure of the Madonna and Child on anovalcopper plate; signed :T. R. 
on both sides (diam. : 40 mill.) ; Brit. Mus. (obv.) Berl. Mus. (^L-); 
— Horatio Tigrino; rev. hoc age Terminal figure of Athena and 

- 58- 

Greyhound bitch; 32 mill, (kindly communicated to me by 
Mr. Talbot W. Ready of London). Mr. Ready writes:"! can't help 
thinking that the T. R. master and Tim(oteo) Ref(ati) may be one 
and the same; judging perhaps not so much by this one of Tigrino 
as by that of Diego de Solis ". 

Bibliography. — G. F. Hill, Timolhevs Refatus and the Medallist " T. R. ", 
Num. Chron., igo2, pp. 55-61. — Armand, op. cit. — Keary, Guide to the Exhi- 
bition of Italian Medals, p. 76,110 288. —I. B. Supino, op. cit., p. 164, n© 511. 

REFEREN (Bohem.). Bohemian Moneyer in the xi*** century. 

REGA, FILIPO (Ital.). Gem-engraver of the latter end of the 
eighteenth century and early part of the nineteenth. He was born 
at Chieti, on 26. August 176 1, his father's name was Giuseppe; 
his mother was Veneranda Ruggieri ; and he was baptised in the 
Church of St. Erustino^ 

His father owned at Chieti a small provision shop and had earned 
by his probity the esteem of all his clients, but having suffered 
serious pecuniary loss through shipwreck at Sinigaglia, he removed 
to Naples in 1767, where a relative, an antiquity dealer, offered 
him employment. 

Filippo began at an early age to develop artistic taste, which 
prompted his father to settle in Rome, where the youth might 
receive proper tuition, under the direction of Antonio Lichter, and 
his more famous son, Giovanni, with whom the family had become 
acquainted. After fouryears' study he ventured to compete for the 
San Luca prize, was at first unsucces.sful, but was awarded later on 
a second prize in the competition of the third class, for a drawing 
of Raphael's famous Prophet in St. Augustine's Church. 

He thereupon was advised by Lichter to learn modelling, in 
which he distinguished himself. In sculpture he won again the San 
Luca second prize, the subject being a Bas-relief representing 
Abraham receiving the three Angels in the plain of Mamre. 

After devoting eight years to the study of drawing and modelling, 
Rega turned to Gem-engraving, in which art Lichter instructed him 
for three years. 

Rega's family had now been residing in Rome for twelve years, 
when Giuseppe decided to return to Naples, and resume dealmg 
in antiquities. 

Filippo was twenty-six when in 1787 he was entrusted with his 
first oflRcial order. The King of the Two-Sicilies commissioned 
him to cut in stone the portrait of his son, the hereditary prince 
Francesco. This he executed on a fine chrysolite, which was 
surrounded by a frame of large brilliants to form a pendant, which 
was sent as a present to the Prince's betrothed, Clementina of 

— 59 — 

About this time, the British minister, Sir William Hamilton, 
who had known Filipo from his childhood, returned from a journey 
to London, and immediately entrusted the artist to engrave the 
portrait of the famous Lady Hamilton. This he did with such exqui- 
site taste that he not only fully satisfied his patron and bene- 
factor, but won a reputation which soon brought him to affluence 
and prosperity. Lord Bristol ordered a replica of Lady Hamilton's 
portrait in cameo ; her husband had two more ; and a fourth was 
made for Admiral Nelson. 

The next work of merit was a portrait-cameo of Maria Clemen- 
tina, consort of Francesco, on a stone of three strata, which gave 
great satisfaction, and was remarkable for the charming blending of 
the colours of the various strata. This production was followed by 
Portraits of Sir William Hamilton, Prince Augustus of Great Britain, 
son of George IIL, Ferdinand and Caroline, King and Queen of 
the Two-Sicilies. 

In 1804 Rega was elected a Corresponding member of the French 

When the French invaded Naples, Joseph Bonaparte ordered the 
artist to engrave his portrait. He did two Medallions, and cut in 
stone the portraits of all the members of the Royal family. On 
Murat's accession he also made several Portrait- camci of him, which 
were particularly successful. A portrait of Caroline Murat was 
executed in commission for the Emperor Napoleon I. 

On his departure for Spain, Joseph Bonaparte sent Rega a decora- 
tion from Bayonne. 

The artist married at 27 the daughter of D. Filippo Tagliolini, 
first modeller at the Vienna porcelain factory, whom the Empress 
Maria Theresa had sent to Naples on the request of her daugnter. 
Queen Caroline, to undertake artistic work there. Caterina Tnglioni 
was only 15 when she became Rega's wife. She was a talented 
harp player, and had the honour of playing before the Sovereigns 
at Caserta. 

Rega's house at Naples became the rendei-vous of artists and 
notabilities. Kotzebue in his Fiaggi d'ltalia and In Napoli mentions 
both the clever gem-engraver, and his musical consort. 

I possess an autograph letter of Rega, which refers to Kotzbue's 
work. It is dated, 6. February 1833. 

The date of the artist's death is not known, as far as I have 
been able to ascertain. 

Visconti pronounced Rega a most '* admirable artist, some of his 
heads in intaglio rivalling the best of the ancients". 

Rega usually signed his gems, PEfA- He excelled in treating 
mythological subiects. King confirms Visconti's opinion and especially 
praises " a Bacchante's head, that favourite subject with the ancients, 

— 6o — 

full of life and wild inspiration, the treatment of the hair also being 
beyond all praise, and exactly in the true Greek manner". '* This 
piece ", continues King ", conspicuously attests his vast superiority 
over his rival, Marchant, who has treated the same subject, but in 
his usual tame and laboured style ; whereas Rega's, although per- 
fectly finished, displays the utmost freedom of touch. In my own 
collection is a head of Pallas by him, a hippocampus on the helmet, 
a complete Greek gem, on aqua-marine. A large Apollo-head 
(Beverley) displays the true Greek modelling, and even the unattain- 
able velvety polish in the face. It is only the misconceived disposition 
of the hair that betrays its modern creation. Of his full-length figures, 
Ajax in despair, a bull recumbent by his side, is truly wonderful 
both for design and delicacy of finish. Like the others first quoted, it 
might well be taken for antique, but for his signature, PETA, which 
always appears in the field of his gems. His camei also are equally 
impressed with the genuine antique stamp. Visconti makes a special 
exception in his favour when dissenting from Millin's eulogium upon 
the artists of the age, whom he considers far below the best names 
of the Cinque Cento, like II Greco, Bernardo, and Belli, in boldness 
of manner and accuracy of drawing. "Besides, the latter had a 
style of their own, or at least that of their time, whilst the modern 
aie mere servile copyists of the antique, both in their compositions 
and their forms " (King, Antique Gems and /?/w^j, London, 1872, 
p. 441). 

Bibliography. — King, op. cit. — Babelon, of), cit. — L. Forrer, Lincisore, 
Filipo R'-ga, Rassegna numismatica, November 1908, p. 91-94 (from a document 
in which fuller details ot interest are given on Rega and his family). 

REGENSBURGER, HANS {Germ.). Mint-master at Landshut, 1445. 

REGET, JEAN DE {Ital.). A native of Moncalieri ; Mint-master at 
Nyon, 1405-6. 

REGIS, VICTOR (French). Directorof the Mint at Marseilles, 1809- 

REGNARD, A. (French). Medallist of the end of the seventeenth 
century, llondot mentions a Portrait-medal by him of Jacques 
Charlet, seigneur d'Esbly, councillor at the Parliament of Paris, 
dated 1692, and struck in commemoration of the foundation of the 
Church of Esbly. This medal, which is described in Revue vumis- 
matique, y^ series, vol. XIV, 1896, pp. 326-330, is of some 
importance artistically. There is also one of Guillaume de Nesmond, 
signed : A. R., 1693. 

Bibliography. — Rondot et De La Tour, op. cit. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 
REGNADLT, ANTHOINE {French). Painter and Engraver, mentioned 

— 6i — 

in a document of 1624, at which date he was about twenty-three 
years old, as having engrnved a seal and a puncheon for Olivier, 
the Master of the Monnaie du Moulin. 
Bibliography. -- MazeroUe, Midailkurs JranQais, I. p. 269. 

REGNADLT, ANTOINE {French). Goldsmith and Coin-engraver at 
Paris, r/rc. I567--|- 1615. He settled at Rouen, where he was 
appointed Mint-engraver, first as Guillaume Ancel, his father in 
law's assistant, 14. January 1567, and later as " hereditary 
Engraver ". He also cut dies for Jetons. 

Bibliography. — Rondot, op. cit. — A. Barre, op. cit. 

REGNAULT, HENRI I {French). Son of Antoine Regnault, and his 
successor as Engraver at the Mint of Rouen, 161 5. 

REGNAULT, or REGNAULD, HENRI II {French). Goldsmith of Riom, 
appointed Die-cutter and Engraver at the Mint of that town, 16 19. 

REGNAULT, HUBERT or HUMBERT {French). Son of Antoine 
Regnault, and Engraver at the Rouen Mint, where he officiated 
from 1 63 1 to 1656. 

% REGNAULT, PHILIBERT or PHILIPPE {French). Goldsmith, Engrav- 
er, and Medallist at Paris, last quarter of the sixteenth century. 
In 1582 he was one of the competitors for the office of Engraver- 
general of the coins, which was alloted to Philippe Danfne. In 
1590 he engraved a Pattern Franc of Charles X. {illustrated) which 
Germain Pillon considered as the best piece among those which 
were executed by various engravers in open competition. 

Franc of Charles X., by Philippe Regnault. 

Mazerolle ascribes to this Engraver three medals, one cast and 
two struck, which present the same characteristics in the portrait 
of Charles X. as the Franc, and indeed the puncheon of the Franc 
served as a model for one of the struck medals : Charles X. i. caro- 
Lvs.x.&c. Bust of Cardinal de Bourbon to I.; I^. regale. 
SACERDOTiVM Altar (cast.; diam. 33 inill.; JB^. Bibl. Nat.). The 
obv. is from the Franc die; — 2, Obv. As last; ^. avita . et . ivs . 

— 62 — 

IN ARMis. Royal crown (struck; 43 mill.; JK. Bibl. Nat.); — 
3. Obv. As last; ^L. Charles X. kneeling 
to r. ; behind two other figures (cast. ; 66 and 68 mill. ; iR. and^E. 
Bibl. Nat.). 

Bibliography. — Rondot & De La Tour, op. cit. — Mazerolle, op. cil. — 
Armand, op. cit., II, p. 279, no 5. — Tresor de num., Med. fr., i" partie, 
PI. XXIV, no 4. — Blanchet, Medailles et jetons du sacre. — E. Faivre, Etat actuel 
des ateliers monetaires franfais et leursdifferents, 1894. 

REGNIER, JEAN (French). Director of the Monnaie du Moulin, 
by whom is a Jeton, dated 1636, of the Gourdes Monnaies. 

REGNIER, PIERRE (Fr^wf/;). Director of the Monnaie du Moulin, 
Controller-general of the " boites des monnaies". Medallist, and 
Engraver, was born about 1577, in office circ. 1607-1639, died 
after 1640. His father was Jean Regnier, purse maker in Paris. 
Pierre Regnier was apprenticed to Alexandre Olivier, * to learn 
the art of engraving ', and married his daughter Michelle after 
1 60 1. On the death of Olivier in 1607, he was entrusted with the 
direction of the Mil, except for a short interval during which Gilbert 
Olivier was in office (1608). Between 1608 and 1620 this artist 
engraved the dies for the Doubles and Deniers, which were struck 
in such enormous quantities at that peiiod. In 16 18 he was allowed 
by the Gour des Monnaies to engrave puncheons from models by 
Dupr6 for Pied torts, but on Briot's protest he was ordered by the 
Gouncil of State to limit himself to the duties of his office. During a 
temporary absence of Briot in 1612 he had already been entrusted 

Marriage jeton of Charles I. and Henrietta Maria. 

with the cutting of the dies for Half and Quarter Francs intended 
for the Limoges Mint. In 1625 he agreed to continue his office at 
the mint alternately with Rene Olivier, his brother-in-law, who had 
successfully claimed his rights to his late father's privilege. In rhe 
same year, Regnier was instructed by the King's secretary, Henri 
Auguste de Lomenie, to make commemorative medals of the mar- 
riage of Louis XIlI'.s sister Henrietta M.iria of France with 
Gharles 1. ('* pieces de plaisir pour faire largesse "). Two types ot 
these jetons are known (one illustrated). 

- 63 - 

MazeroUe ascribes to Pierre Regnier the Coronation Medals ot 
Marie de' Medici {one obv. type illustrated), struck in 1610, just 
before Henri IV.'s departure on his Spanish expedition and 
Ravaillac's crime. 

Marie de' Medici, 1610. 

After Briot's flight to England, Regnier secured the post of 
Engraver-general, 1626-1628, but the Gourdes Monnaies failed to 
ratify his nomination, Jean Darmand dit Lorfelin being installed in 
1630. In 1627 ^^ was commissioned to make " pieces de [laisir" 
for Louis Turgot, general des Monnaies, and some of the Portrait- 
medals of Louis XUL issued between 1624 ^"^ ^^28 appear to be 
by the same artist. 

Medal ot Nicolas de Bailleul, provost of the merchants of Paris, 1628. 

On the murder of Ren6 Oliver, at the beginning of 1629, 
Jean Varin was appointed his successor and joint-assistant-engraver 
with Regnier notwithstanding the latter's objections. For ten years 
the two worked conjointly, but in 1639 Regnier resigned, and Varin 
became Engraver-general. 

MazeroUe attributes to Pierre Regnier the following medals: 1610. 
Coronation of Marie de' Medici ; obv. Bust facing, head to r. ; 

- 64 - 

^. SAECVLi . FOELiciTAS . Royal cfown from which issue a laurel- 
branch, oHve-branch and palm; ex. 1610 (49 mill.); — Another, a 
variety (42 ruill. ; obv. illustrated); — Another variety (25 mill.) ; 
— 1614. Marie de' Medici; obv. Bust facing, head to 1. ; ^. cic. 
iLLA.SECVRA.PROCELLis. A bridge; ex. : 1614(43 mill.); — Ano- 
ther, a mule, with obv. similar to last I^., and ^L. ripa . regnatv- 
RVS.VTKAavE. Bridge in construction; ex.: 1614 (43 mill.); — 
161 5. M.irie de' Medici; obv. maria. reg.mode- 
RATRix. Bust facing, head to r. ; ^. -[ gloria . regni . 
1615. Shield of arms (43 mill.); — 1624. Louis XIII.; obv. Bust 

The Louvre, 1624. 

to r. ; ^L. svb.circvit.orbe.fama. Fame to r. (34 mill.); — 
Louis XIII. ; obv. Bust to r. ; ^. posiebant. hang. fata. man vm. 
View of the Louvre; beneath, 1624 (33 mill.) A fine specimen in 
silver realized £ 5 at the sale of Comte de Viry's collection, in 
February 1909; — 1625. Marriage Jeton of Henrietta Maria ot 
France with Charles I. ; obv. Shields of France and England ; 
m. ROSis.LiLiA.iVNGiT.AMOR. Busts face to facc of Charles I. and 
his Q.aeen; ex.: 1625 (27 mill.; illustrated); — Another; obv. 

CA . MAG . ET . HEN . MA . BRIT . REX . ET . REG . BustS face tO face ot 

Charles I. and Henrietta Maria; 1^6. fvndit. amor.lilia mixta. 
Rosis. Cupid; ex. : 1625 (23 mill.). Other varieties of these 
Marriage Jetons were engraved by Nicolas Briot, some of which 
are signed B. or N.B. — 1627. Louis Turgor, general des monnaies ; 
obv. Shield of arms; I^. QvoD.cvRiiE.MONETAR. benesit. Moneta; 
ex.: IN. HOC SVB. HOC. 1627 (47 mill.); — 1628. Nicolas de Bailleul 
(t 1662); obv. Bust of Louis XIII. ; ^. Arms of Paris (39 mill. ; 
illustrated) ; — 163 1 . Marie de' Medici ; obv. Bust facing, head to 1. ; 
1^. iNNOCvis . NON . DEFECiT . VNQVAM. Rustic scenery ; above, crescent 
moon and stars; ex. : 1631 (43 mill.); — Undated. Marie de' Medici; 
^. DiscvTiT . VT . COELO . PHOEBVS . PAX . NVBiLA . TERRis. Labourer 
ploughing in rustic scenery (47 mill.). There are no doubt other 
medals by Regnier but it is difficult to authenticate them. By him 
are further a large number of jetons, amongst which we find : 

- 65 - 

Jetons du Conseil d'Etat, 1609-1626, 1628, 1629, 163 1, 1633 and 
1635; — Jetons for the City of Paris, 1608, 1609, 1611-1613, 
1624, 1625 and 1635 ; — Jetons for the Ordre du Saint-Esprit, 
1602-1606, 1618-1631, and 1633; — Jetons for the Argenterie, 
1614; — Conseil de Navarre, 1614, 1623 and 1624; — Ballet of 
Henriette Maria of France, 161 5; — Claude Mangot, garde des 
Sceaux, 1617; — Guillaume du Vair, garde des sceaux, 1617; — 
Parties casuelles, 1619; — Menus-Plaisirs, 16 19; — Henri de 
Schonberg, comte de Nanteuil, 1620 and 1622; — Chambre des 
Comptes of Paris, 1620; — Meri de Vic, garde des sceaux, 1622; 
— Nicolas Brulart de Sillery, chancellor of France, 1624; — 
Etienne d'Aligre, garde des sceaux. 1624; — Etienne d'Aligre, 
chancellor of France, 1625 ; — Jetons tor the Cour des Monnaies, 
1625-1634; — Claude de Mollier, sieur de Houssay, 1626; — 
Michel de Marillac, 1626; — Antoine Ruze, marquis de Longju- 
meau, 1626; — Michel de Marillac, garde des sceaux, 1626; — 
Jetons for the Kind's Stables, with arms of Roger de Saint-Lary, due 
de Bellegarde, 1631, 1633 and 1635; — Charles de I'Aubepine, 
seigneur de Preaux, garde des sceaux, 1632; — Claude de Bullion, 
garde des sceaux, 1632, — Claude de Bouthillier, 1632; — Pierre 
Seguier, garde des sceaux, 1633, &c. 

The coins which Pierre Regnier engraved are mostly copper 
Doubles and Deniers, but he was occasionally employed also on the 
silver currency. He strongly opposed Briot's introduction of machin- 
ery for the striking of coins in 1624, but apparently from per- 
sonal motives. 

BiBLicxiRAPHY. — E. Mazerollc, Les Medailleurs fratifais, 1902. — A. Blanchet, 
Graveurs en Beam, &c. — Tresor de Numisniatiqtte, Medailles frangaises. — Rondot, 
op. cit. — H. de La Tour, Catalogue des jetons. — A. Barre, loc. cit. 

REGO. This signature occurs on a medal of the Institut Salesien; 
1810 (Bramsen, 11, 1654). 

REGO, DOMINGO ALVES (Portug.). Contemporaneous Medallist, 
residing at Lisbon, born at Leiria, on 12. February 1874. He 
frequented the ' Domingos Sequeira ' industrial school at Leiria 
from 1887 to 1889, where he learned drawing, and began to study 
engraving on copper and bronze, for which art he manifested 
quite early a marked aptitude. In 1891 he went to Lisbon, where 
until 1895 '""^ followed the evening classes of the Academy of Fine 
Arts. In 1894 '""^ entered the Mint as a pupil of the School of 
engraving, directed by the clever Medallist, Venancio Pedro de 
Macedo Alves, and began to work as a Line- and Medal-engraver. 

Rego is an excellent Engraver, with a perfect mastery of the 
graving-tool. He signs A. REGO in full, and sometimes only with 
his initials, A. R., or quite shortly R. 

L. FoRRER. — Biograpkital Notices of Medallists. — V. j 

— 66 ^ 

Among his productions I may mention : Medal of the Society for 
prevention of cruelty to Children; — Antonio de Lisboa, 1895 ; — 

Industrial Exhibition at Porto, 1897. 

Industrial Exhibition at Porto, iS^j (illustroted); — Medal of the 
Centenary of the Discovery of the Cape route to India, 1898 ; — 
Historical and Geographical Institute ot Bahia, medal on the fourth 
centenar}' of the Discovery of Brazil, 1900; — Pilgrimage to 
Sameiro, 1904; — Agricultural Show at Coimbra, 1904; — Visit 
of President Loubet to Lisbon, 1905 ; — Ecole de Tir at Chaves; 

— Joao Isidro dos Reis, 1906; — Rifle Meeting at Loanda, 1906; 

— D"^ Bernardino Marchado, 1907; — Confraternity of the Holy 
Sacrament of Lisbon cathedral, 1907, &c. 

Bibliography. — Information kindly supplied by Sehor Don Arturo Lamas. 

REGOMMIER, ISAAC (French). General des Monnaies, 1626. 

REGULSKI, F. J. {Pol.). This Medallist of the second half of the 
eighteenth century is mentioned by Bolzenthal, who states that 
Warsaw was the place of his activity, and that his signature 
occurs on a Presentation medal of that city to Count Friedrich 
Wilhelm von Buxhovden, 1795. 

REHN, BERNHARD (G^rm.). Goldsmith of Bamberg, who in 1584 
made a cast reproduction of Valentin Maler's medal of Ernst von 
Mengersdorf, bishop of Bamberg (Erman, op. cit., p. 58, note). 

REHNEN, HEINRICH VON {Germ.). Mint-master, Medallist, and 
Die-cutter of the latter part of the sixteenth century and first two 
decades of the seventeenth. He was a native of Oldenburg, and his 
name occurs also as VON REHNE, or VON REHN. As early as 1584 
he worked for Duke Augustus of Saxony, and in that same year he 

- 67 - 

was transferred to Coburg in the service of Duke John Casimir. In 
1587 we find him employed at the Dresden Mint as ' Conterfecter' 
and Die-cutter. Ten years later (1597) he was appointed by 
the Margrave of Brandenburg Joachim Frederick, Mint-master 
at Coln-on-the-Spree (Berlin). On a Half Thaler of 1595, with 
busts of Christian II., John George and Augustus of Saxony, he 

Portrait-badge of Christian II. and Hedwig. 

signed IvR, but his usual signature at that period, and on the 
currency of Brandenburg, is a swan with closed wings. On the 
death of Hans Biener, Mint-master at Dresden, Heinrich von 
Rehnen was called upon to succeed him, and he filled this post 
from 1605 to 161 r. There he signed f^. 

John George I. of Saxony. 

Among this clever Medallist's works I have noted : 1586/7. 
Augustus, Prince Elector of Saxony ; ^. Christian (iR. gilt. Gotha 
Museum); — 1591 (?). Anna Maria, Consort of Frederick William, 
Duke of Saxony (iR. Altenburg); — 1 59 1 (?). Frederick William and 
Anna Maria (AT. Weimar); — 1592. Portrait-badge of Frederick 

— 68 — 

William; ^. domine conserva me in verbo tvo. Shield of arms 
(AT. Tentzel, L. E., 27, III); — 1593. Oval Portrait-medal of 
Frederick William {JK. Tentzel, L. E., 27, V.); — 1594. John 
George, Prince Elector of Brandenburg (/R. gilt. Gotha); — 1604 
and 1605. Portrait-badges in gold of Christian II.; — 1606, Oval 
Portrait-medal of Christian II. and his consort Hedwig (Tentzel, 
26, III; illustrated); — Undated. Princess Electress Hedwig; — 
^1604). Oval Portrait-medal of Duke John George of Saxony 
(Tentzel, 32, III; illustrated). 

Heinrich von Rehmen's successor as Mint-master at Dresden 
was Hans Jacob, installed on 27. July 1624. Among the coins he 
issued, and possibly prepared the dies of, are the second to sixth 
types of Christian II., Duke of Saxony's series, as well as the first to 
third types of John George I. 

Bibliography. — Tentzel, of>. cit. — Nagler, op. cit. — Erbstein, Eivrterungen 
aufdem Gebiete der sachsischen Mutii- und Medaillen- Geschichte, Dresden, 1888. — 
Pick, Medaillen Katatog, &c. 

REICH, HkyVb (Swiss). Goldsmith, Medallist and Coin-engraver of 
St. Gallen, born in 171 5, died there in 1 771. He was employed at 
the Mint there, and his initials D. R. occur on a Half Batzen of 
1766 and undated Kreuzers. He also engraved some medals, and 
made a model of the abbey of St. Gall. 

Bibliography. — Nagler, op. cit. 

REICH, GEORG {Germ.). Mint-master to Duke Albrecht von Wal- 
lenstein at Sagan, 1629. Possibly this name has been misread for 

REICH, GEORG (JSunss). Medallist and Coin-engraver at St. Gallen, 
where according to SchUckeysen he filled the office of Mint-master 

30 Kreuzer piece of St. Gallen, 1736. 

from 1729 to 1738. The initials GR occur, undoubtedly as those of 
the Engraver, on a Quarter-Thaler or Half-Gulden of 1738, issued 
by Schinner, Master of the Mint, whose arms are on the obv. ; 

- 69 - 

also on Fifteen Kreuzer pieces of 1730, 1732 and 1738; Six Kreuzer 
pieces of 1732; and on Half Batzen of 1730. 

Bibliography. — Poole, Su'iss Coins in the South Kensington. — Corraggioni, 
oft. cit. — Tobler, op. cit. — D^ Brun, Sclnueiierisches Kiinstler Lexikon. 

REICH, JOHANN CHRISTIAN (Germ.). Medallist, bom at Eisenberg 
(Saxe-Altenburg) about 1740, settled at Fiirth in 1758, and died 
in 1 8 14. He probably began as an assistant to a Counter-manufac- 
turer, but started business on his own account about 1770, as shown 
by various counters bearing his name, some ot which refer to the 
famine of 1771/1772, He had a factory of organs, clocks, mathe- 
matical instruments, musical boxes, and other objects. Of that 
period is a series of medals by him dated 1771 and 1772, and 
commemorating also that famine (Hauschild, Beytrag xiir neiieren 

Portrait-medal of J. C. Reich. 

MiinTi-und Medaillengeschichte voni XV Jahrhundert bis jeti^o (180 f)y 
n"' 2863-2869. — PfeifTer and Ruland, Pestihntia in nummisy 
n°* 133-159); further, a tin medal of better work, dated 1773, with 
Hope and Noah's ark on obv. and on I^. Altar with obelisk, and 
another, undated, obv. 'Horst Du Boses schweige still. Sags nicht 
nach es schadet viel'. A mouth and two ears; and ^ ' Wer ohne 
Hader leben will muss horen vie! und schweigen still. Denn darum 
ist der Mensch gebohren mit einem Mundt und zweyen Ohren'. 
But the first medallic works, really worthy of the name, which 
Reich executed, are two medals, dated 1773, on the Abolition of 
the Order of Jesuits and their Expulsion from Prussia, both with the 
portrait of Pope Clement XIV. (Ampach, n°' 6521-22). Then follow 
numerous other medals, among which I will only name the 
following which have come under my notice : Memorial medal of 
Clement XIV., 1774; — Election of JPius VI., 1775 ; — Accession 
of Pius VI., 1775 ; — Peace of Teschen, with busts of Emperor 
Joseph II. and King Frederick II., 1779; — Remission of the Edict 

— 70 — 

of Tolerance by Joseph II, , 1782 (3 var.); — Defence of Gibraltar, 
with bust of George Augustus Elliot, Lord Heathfield, 1783 
(illuslrated) ; — Memorial medal of Duke Max Julius of Brunswick, 
1785 (3 or 4 var.); — Portrait-medal of the aeronaut Blanchard, 

Defence of Gibraltar, 1783. 

1785 ; - 


Memorial medals of Frederick the Great, 1786 (several 
I have seen an unfinished proof struck in steel) ; — 
Accession of King Frederick William II. of Prussia, 1786 (2 or 
3 var.) ; — Birth of Charles Louis, Crown Prince of Bavaria, 1786; 
— Proclamation medal of the same King, 1786 (Aus den Flammen 




View ot Eisenberg. 

wieder auflebend) ; — Annexation of the Principalities of Ansbach 
and Bayreuth, 1791; — Frederick William II. as Margrave of 
Ansbach and Bayreuth, 1792; — Memorial medal of the Prussian 
strategist Joh. Joachim von Zieten, 1786 ; — Catherine II., Czarina 

— 71 - 

of Russia, 1787; — Duke Charles William Ferdinand of Brunswick, 
on his suppression of the riots in Holland and capture of Amster- 
dam, 1787 (2 var.) ; — Prince Frederick Josiah of Coburg's Victory 
over the Turks at Foksan, 1789 ; — K. K. General Field Marshal 
Laudon's Capture of Belgrade, 1789; — Archduke Charles of 
Austria (^L. seinem Hermann das dankbare vaterland) ; — Pope 
Pius VI., 1789 ; — Coronation Medal of Leopold II., 1790 (a large 
medal); — Leopold 11. 's Coronation as King of Hungary, 1790; 

— Coronation at Prague of Leopold 11. as King of Bohemia, 179 1 ; 

— Convention of Pillnitz, 179 1 (2 var.) ; — Leopold II. and Fred- 
erick William II., I79i,\vith their busts, on the same Convention, 
1791 ; — View of Eisenberg, the Medallist's native town, on his 
Visit, in 1788 (pbv. Ulustrated); — Coronation of Emperor Francis II, 
at Frankfort-on-Main, 1792 (sev. var.); — Freiherr Prince von 
Hardenberg, 1792 ; — Landgrave William IX. of Hesse-Cassel, on 
the recapture of Frankfort from the French, 1792 ; — Counters 
with busts of Louis XV., Louis XVI., Marie Antoinette, etc. ; — 
Memorial Medal of Louis XVI., 1793 (sev. var.); — Visit of Fred- 
erick William III., of Prussia with Queen Louise to Furth, 1799; 

— Peace of Luneville ; — Napoleon at Austerlitz ; — Frederick 
William III. ; — Napoleon I. ; — Nelson ; — Suvarow ; — etc. 
Some of these medals were engraved in conjunction with Johann 
Christian Reich's son, Johann Martin, by whom is the^. of the 
artist's Portrait-medal, reproduced above. 

To the above list I might add still further: — Coronation of Joseph 
II., 1764 (signed : R. F.) ; — School for the poor at Fiirth, 1775 ; — 
Thanksgivingjeton, 1773; — PeaceofKutschukKainardschi, between 
Russia and Turkey, 1774 ; — Preliminaries of the Peace of Foksan, 
1774 ; — State of the World in 1778 ; '■ — Peace of Teschen, 1779 ; 

— Edict of Tolerance promulgated, 1782; —End of the American 
War of Independence, 1783 ; — Drought of 1784 (sev. var.) ; — 
Member's Jewel of the famous Lodge 'Minerva of the three Palms', 
Leipzig; — Peace of Luneville, 1801 ; — Stadthauptmann Majer 
of Hall in Suabia; — Alexander, Margrave of Brandenburg ; — St. 
Rupert; — Jetons for Salzburg,. Uffenheim, etc. ; — Charles, Pri- 
mate of the Rhine Confederation, 1807 ; — Nic. Schlimbach, 
1808 ; — Peace of Versailles, etc., and numerous Personal medals, 
also Portrait-medallions in wax, one of which I have seen of 
Alexander von Humboldt. 

J . C . Reich's signature occurs in various forms on his medals : 
R. ; — R. F. : — REICH ; — I. C. REICH FE. ; — I. C. REICH F. ; — lOH. 
CHR. REICH and on J. M. Reich's Portrait-medal of his father he 
is designated : lOH. CHRIST. REICH. H(och). F(urstlich). ANSPACH. 

One can only confirm Bolzenthal's appreciation of this Medallist's 
work, that it does not rank verv hiah in artistic merit. 

Bibliography. — M. Meissner, Ueher den Hochjurstlich Ansbachisclxtt Hofme- 
dailleur Johann Oiristian Reich, Blatter fur Munzfreunde, 1894. — E. Fiala, Be- 
schreibung 3i.c. — Cochran-Patrick, op. cit. — Murdoch Medals Sale Catalogue, 1904. 
— Bramsen. op. cit. — P. Joseph u. E. Fellner, op. cit. — Catalog us der Neder- 
landsche &c. — F. Friedensburgu. H. Seger,o/>. cit. — Nagler, op. cit. — Bolzenthal, 
op. cit. — Domanig, op. cit. — Menadier, op. cit. — Hennin, Histoire numisma- 
tique de la Revolution fran(aise . — Marvin, Masonic Medals, 1880. — Meusel, Neues 
Kunstler-Lexikon . 

REICH, JOHANN MATTHIAS (Germ.). Medallist; son of Johann 
Christian Reich, and his collaborator from about 1789 to 1800, 
was born at Furth in 1768. Meissner states that many of the medals 
signed R. or REICH, and issued between 1789 and 1800, as well as 
numerous Counters, were the work of both father and son conjointly. 
The signatures I. M. R. and I. M. REICH occur on the I^. of Johann 
Christian's Portrait-medal, 1789 : DES VATTERS WERTH VOM SOHN 
Portrait on the obv, (illustrated under J. C. Reich) is by the father. 
Hennin ascribes to the son Memorial medals of Louis XVI. and 
Marie Antoinette, 1793, signed R. (sev. var.); Louis XVL, 1793 ; 
Louis XVIL, etc. and says that he emigrated in 1800 to the United 
States, settling at Philadelphia. 

Bibliography. — As above. 

REICHARDT, GEORG (Germ.') of Saalfeld (Thuringia); Mint-master 
at Sagan, circ. 1639-1660; contracted also for the coinage of Bres- 
lau, Oppeln, 1654 and 1658; Neisse, 1657 and 1660; and Oels, 
1661 . His special mark on the coins issued by him is a Swan. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, op. cit. 

REICHEL, JOHANN JACOB (Germ.). Medallist at Warsaw, towards 
the end of the eighteenth century. He signed his medallic produc- 
tions : I. R. or I. I. R. He is probably the same Engraver, whom 
Schlickeysen calls JACOB REICHEL, and who was working at St. 
Petersburg, circ. 181 5. There is by this artist a series of Portrait- 
medals of the Kings of Poland; and one of Sigismund IIL, King of 
Sweden, is described in Hildebrand's Catalogue oj Swedish medals, i, 
p- 72. n° 49. 

REICHER (Atistr.). Moneyer at Vienna, 1382-71397. 

REICHER, HANS (Austr.). Son of the preceding; Moneyer at 
Vienna, 1404-1406. 

REIFFEL, ADAM (G^r /;;.). Seal- and Gem-engraver, who was occa- 
sionally employed at the Munich Mint, circ. 1625. 

REIHL, CHRISTOPH (Germ.). Mint-warden at Mannheim, 1746. 

— 73 - 

REIMANN, MARTIN (Germ.). Mint-master at Coburg, 163 3-1639; 
possibly the same, or his son, of the same name, was Mint-master 
at Saalfeld, 1658-1672. The coins (Thaler, Ducat, Gulden), dated 
1673, and reproduced in Tentzel {Saxouia nnmismatica, PL i, 
n°' III, IV and vi), are signed MR, except the Ducat. They belong 
to the time of Ernest the Pious, after Duke Frederick had undertaken 
the regency of the newly annexed Altenburg district. Reimann may 
have been the Engraver as well as the Issuer of these coins. 

BiBLioGKAPHV. — ScliHckeysen-Pallniann, op. cit. — B. Pick, Die Sdxiumfntien 
Friedrichs 1. von Sachsen-Gotha und AlUnhurg, 1904, pp. 2, 5. 

REIMAR, ANDREAS {Germ.). Mint-master at Wismar, 1580-1597. 
His coins are usually signed /R. 

REIMER, HANS (Germ.). Goldsmith of Munich, a native of 
Mecklenburg, who worked circ. 15 57-1 598 for Dukes Albert V. 

(15 50-1 579) and his successor, William V. (i 579-1 598). He cannot 
properly be called a Medallist, but he cast Presentation medals 
(possibly after his own models) and mounted them as Pendants, &c. 

Between 1557 and 1597 the Bavarian National Archives contain 
many records of payments made to him for all kind of goldsmith's 
and medallic work : 1560 (20 ' Eerpfenninge ', one of the weight 
of 5 Ducats), 1 56 1 (10 large gold ' Gnadenpfenninge ' with portrait 
of Albert V., and several other medals), 1562 (10 ' Gnadenpten- 
ninge'), 1565 (15 ' Gnadenpfenningen '), 1566 (' Ehrpfenning fiir 
den Ruedolf), 1567 (i 'Gnadenpfenning'ofa value of 10 Kronen), 
1568 (various ' Ehrenpfenninge '), 1569, 1570, 1571 ('Gnaden- 
pfenninge'), 1573(10 large and 10 small 'Gnadenpfenninge', etc.), 
1574 (various ' Gnadenpfenninge ', etc.), 1575 ( " zur Giessung 
etlicher guldiner Pfenning "), 1576 (3 'Ehrpfenninge ' ; also 19 
large and 23 small 'Ehrpfenninge', and a gold "Pfenning' dedi- 
cated to the Princely Counsellor Sebastian Ridler in Burghausen), 
1578 (30 large and 50 small 'Gnadenpfenninge' with the Duke's 
portrait), 1581 ("per mererlei Arbeit" for Duke William), 1585 
("per Macherlohn etlicher goldner Pfenninge mit Bildniss Herzogs 
Wilhelm. One of these Pcrtrait-medals may have been used in the 
Pendant of the three brothers, illustrated above), 1589 ('Ehr' or 
'Gnadenpfenninge' with portrait of Duke William), 1591 (24 
'Gnadenpfenninge'), 1594, 1596, 1597 (for goldsmith's work), etc. 

From comparison with a honestone Medallion, signed HR in the 
Ducal Library at Gotha, D"" Habich has been able to ascribe to 
Hans Reimer a medallic jewel of Duke Ernest of Bavaria, archbishop 
of Cologne (1583-1612) and bishop of Liege (1581-1612). This 
medal {Medaillen uud Miin:^en cies Gesammthauses IVittelsbach, I, 
p. 82, n° 565 ; obv. illustrated) which forms part of a Presentation 

— 74 — 

Pendant of the three brothers, Dukes William V., Ferdinand, and 
Ernest, to the Duchess their mother, has on obv. a bust of Duke 
Ernest, and on I^. Orb and a representation of the Fall. 

D' Julius Cahn has further attributed to Hans Reimer a Medallic 
Jewel, in the British Museum, of the Emperor Rudolf II., 1584; 
signed -H-R-, lozenge shaped, 30 X 30 mill. {Berliner Miinibldtterf 
pp. 329-331; Numistnatic Chronicle, 1904, p. 59, PI. vr, 5). 

Following the suggestions of J. V. Kull, P. J. Meier, A. Erman 

Jewelled Medallic Badge, attributed to Hans Reimer. 

and other writers, I said (Vol. II, p. 369) that the monogram M 
on Portrait-medals of Duke Albert V. of Bavaria, 1554, has been 
misread for HR and that these medals, as well as those of Margarethe 
von Fraunhofen (Beierlein, Beriihmte Bayern, part. V, PI. i, 10), 
Wilhelm Prant von Pranthausen (in Vienna Medal Cabinet"), and 
Hans von Pfaffenhausen, f 1563 (medal known to exist, but of 
which no specimen has yet been found) were the work of Hans 
Reimer. D' Habich, who has had the opportunity of carefully 

— 75 — 

examining several specimens of these medals is absolutely convinced 
that the monogram is HT and the attribution to Hans Reimer 
therefore falls to the ground. The name of HANS AESSLINGER, 
sculptor to the court of Albert V. has been suggested as that of the 
artist, by the same writer, but without any material proof in 

As to the Portrait-medal of Frankenstein (Erman, PI. viii, 5) 
which is also signed H. R., the work is again quite different to that 

Portrait-medal of Albert V. of Bavaria, by the artist HA, possibly //a«i Aesslinger. 

of Hans Reimer, and Erman's attribution to Hans Reinhard Junior 
is possibly, or even probably, correct. 

Hans Reimer was undoubtedly a very clever and gifted craftsman. 

Bibliography. — D^Georg Habich, Hans Reimer. Bed. Munzbl., 1902, 1903. 

— Dr Julius Cahn, Ein Beitrag lum JVerke Hans Reimers, Berl. Mzbl,, 1905. — 
J. V. Kull, Die Goldschmiede und Medaillenkiinstler in den HoJiahlamts-rechtiungen 
m MUnclxn ijsi-^^So, Mitth. der Bayerischen Numism. Ges., xix, pp. 25-45. 

— Kull (586), XVI, XVII, 156, XIX, 25-56. — Rosenberg, Merk~eichen, 228. 

REIMS, CLAUDE DE (French). General des Monnaies, 1578. 
REINARTUS (Germ.). Moneyer at Coburg, 1 338-1 348. 

REINBURG, JOHANN WENZEL VON (Bohem.). Mint-master-general 

for Bohemia, 1678-1681. 

REINECKE, HEINRICH ALBERT (Germ.). Mint-master at Quedlin- 
burg, circ. 1676. 

REINEL, JOHANN BAPTIST (Germ.). Sculptor of the second half of 
the eighteenth century, and the modeller of a Portrait-medal of 
the physician J. C. Pelloutier, Berlin, 1763 (Bolzenthal, p. 276). 

REINEMER UND SPIEGEL (Austr.). Manufacturers and Medal- 
publishers of Vienna, whose signature R, & Sp. I have noticed on 

- 76 — 

two Rifle Meeting Prize Medals of Schwechat, June 1900 (Erster 
Niederosterreichischer Verbandschiessen) and Vienna, August 1900 
(Secessionistischer Anhiinger auf das Kaiserschiessen des Niederost- 
erreichischen Landes-Schiitzenverbandes). Both medals are neatly 
executed in Renaissance style. 

REINHARD (Bohetn.). Moneyer, or Mint-master at Prague, 1300. 

REINHARDUS {Germ.). Monetarius consul et cives at Arnstet 
(Arnstadt, Schwarzburg), 1320. 

REINHARD, BALTHASAR (Germ.). Warden of the Mint at Cassel, 
1765-1774, and Mint-master there, 1775-1783 ; later. Mint-master 
at Detmold, 1789-1811. His initials B. R, occur on the coins he 
issued at both mints. I have noticed them on Thalers and subsidiary 
currency of Frederick William Leopold, Prince of Lippe, 1791, and 
Prize Gulden of 1793. 

REESE & CO {Amer.), issued a brass token as follows : 
Obv. S. W. Reese and Co, 
Rubber Stamps 
72 Page 
Catalogue Free 
28 Church St. N.Y. 
VjL. Brass Checks of Every Description 
Door Plates 
&c. &c. 
The above firm is still in existence at 44 Vesey St. N. Y. City. 

REINHARD, HANS (Germ.). One of the best known of German 
Renaissance medallists, whose works, so far as they exist, range 

Xvlte*' X 

Portrait-medal of Hans Rejnhard(?) 
probably by himself, 1568. 

— 77 — 

from 1535 to 1568. To D' E. G. Gersdorf is the honour due 
of having discovered his name, in the Annals of the Leipzig Corpo- 

Johann Frederick, Duke of Saxony, 1535. 

Cardinal Albrecht von Brandenburg, 1536. 

ration of Goldsmiths, as the author of fine medallic works, the 
earliest of which were executed in commission for Dukes Johann 

- 78 - 

Friedrich and Maurice of Saxony, and Cardinal Albrecht von 
Brandenburg. These fine productions are variously signed : H.R., 
or HR, and also • fR, which letters, on Tentzel's suggestion, had 
formerly been attributed to a certain Heinrich Rfitz, an altogether 
imaginary person. 

Hans Reinhard the Elder was probably born at Wittenberg, not 
much later than 15 lo ; he spent there his early life, and may have 
been a pupil of Lucas Cranach, whose influence is strongly felt in 
his works; he settled at Leipzig at latest in 1539, where he married 
a widow with fair means, became a pupil of the goldsmith 

The Fall. 

Treutler, and 1547 was made himself a ' Meister'. He is supposed to 
have died on 29. January 1581. 

His medallic productions occur in box- wood medallions, silver, 
bronze, and lead medals. The list of his works I am able to give 
here is far from complete, but it comprises all that is known up 
to the present, including the most recent additions which Prot. 
D' Pick has been kind enough to bring to my knowledge. 

1535. Johann Friedrich der Grossmiitige, Duke of Saxony; box- 
wood medallion, with reverse (Gotha Museum) ; — The same, in 
silver, gilt in parts, with mount and loop for suspension (Weimar) ; 
— The same ; Reverse type only (Leipzig University); — Another, 
(Berlin; obv. illustrated \ Trisor de num., 20, 5); — Another, 

— 79 — 

unpublished variety, was sold by Messrs Sotheby, Wilkinson and 
Hodge, Hawkins sale, 31. March 1909, for £ 8.15.0; — Box- 

The Fall and Crucifixion, 1536. 

wood Portrait-medallion of the same (Gotha Museum) ; — Cardi- 
nal Albrecht von Brandenburg, archbishop of Mayence (Berlin ; 

— 8o — 

Heraeus, Bildnisse der regierenden Ffirskn und beriihmter Manner, 
Wien, 1828; PI. I, 9; obv. illustrated) \ — 1536. The Fall and 
Crucifixion; executed in commission for Prince Elector Johann 

Emperor Charles v., 1537. 

Friedrich (Berlin; tvjo varieties illustrated). Numerous varieties and 
dates exist of this medal, which is known in two sizes, 66 and 
54 mill. A proof or trial-piece in lead without any chasing and 

— 8i — 

engraved inscription, was exhibited by D' Pick at the ' 3. Deutsche 
Kunst^ewerbe-Aiisstelhing, Dresden, 1906 ', from the Gotha Museum, 
with three other specimens, one in silver, lettering cast with the 
type, &c., the second, silver gilt, undated, engraved inscription, 
and in unfinished state, and the third, without border and with 
inscription in field, 1536; — i)37- Charles V. (Berlin; illustrated; 
Trisor, 20, 5). This medal occurs in silver and copper alloy; — 
Charles V. and his brother, king Ferdinand. These portraits, 
although of beautiful execution, were evidently done after 
paintings, and not from life; — 15 38-1 5 39. Various Religious 
Medals: Moses and the burning bush; ^L. Adoration of the three 
holy Kings (Berlin). Several varieties known {one illustrated'); — 
Abraham's sacrifice of his son Isaac ; I^. The Crucifixion (Dresden 
Exhibition, from the Steeger collection ; J^. gilt, with loop and 

Frederick Myconius. 

ring for suspension). A specimen, dated 1539, was represented in 
the FeUx collection. — 15 39- Allegorical Representation from the 
Apocalypse; obv. Christ as judge of the World; ^L. God enthron- 
ed amidst the saints (Berlin Museum); — 1539- Friedrich Myco- 
nius, a theologian of Gotha (^. specimen in Gotha ; ^. by 
another artist; another, in Berlin Museum); — King Ferdinand 
(Berlin; Trisor, 23, 7); — 1541. Christian III., King of Denmark; 
— 1547. Satirical medal, described by Gersdorf, but not by Erman; 
Cardinal and Fool (f/ Jc D"" Pick's monograph); — Charles V. (Berlin 
Museum). Several varieties are known. One lozenge-shaped was 
sold at Nuremberg, October 1906 (Sale Catalogue C. F. Gebert, 
lot 545; illustrated);— 1544. The so-called "Dreifaltigkei-tsthaler" 
executed in commission for Duke Maurice of Saxony. Cast in 
silver; some of the figures being soldered on and the details having 

L. FORRBS. — Biographical Noticis of MtdnllisU. — V. 6 

— 82 — 

been finished with the chisel. Only seven originals are known to 
D^ Jul. Cahn (June 1905); those in the cabinets of Weimar, Gotha, 
Dresden, and Berlin; the Engelhardt specimen (Catal., n° 242), 

Moses and the Adoration. 

and that ot the Pogge-D' Belli collections, now in the cabinet of 
Herr Carl Nathan Mayer of Offenbach. I may add an eighth speci- 
men, which was exhibited at the Burlington Fine Arts Club 1906 

- 83 - 

Exhibition of German Renaissance Art. This medallion was imitated 
in the seventeenth century in the Netherlands, in the technique of 
Pieter van Abeele or his school, and it is evident that the specimens 

Charles V., Portrait-badge, 1547. 

reproduced by Van Mieris, Nederlandsche Forsten, III, p. 87, and 
Bolzenthal, PI. xii, were such copies and not originals. It is 

Charles V. 

however now known also that Hans Reinhard himself made 
reproductions, of three different years, for Duke Maurice's succes- 
sor. Prince Elector Augustus of Saxony; one is dated 1561 (in 

- 84 - 

Mr. Ad. E. Caiin's cabinet, June 1905; described in Bt. fur 
Mifreunde, 1905, p. 3341 ; 103 mill, diam.; weight : 272, 5 gr.); 
a second one, of 1569 (in the Victoria and Albert Museum, South 
Kensington, London) shows various alterations, and the body of 
Christ much larger; diam. 116 mill. ; and the third one, with date 
1574 (Metzler-Frankfurter Kunstgewerbeverein collections) is 
entirely modified in the type as well as in the inscriptions (repro- 
duced by D"" Jul. Cahn, Katalo^ der Sammlung Metiler, PI. xiii. 

Obv. The so-called ' Dreifaltigkeit ' Medal, by Hans Reinhard. 

71). This specimen is signed HR and appears to be the last known 
work of the great Master. — To his son, Hans Reinhard junior, 
another ' Dreifaltigkeit ' medal, made by order of Ulrich Mordeisen, 
a Leipzig lawyer, is attributed by D' B. Pick; this has on the ^L. 
Christ with the banner of Victory, — At the Dresden Fine Arts 
Exhibition, 1906, a silver-gilt specimen of the 1544 'Dreifaltig- 
keitsthaler ', from Gotha, was shown ; the crucifix and sceptre are 
soldered on this piece^ which is very much chased. 

-85 - 

D' Pick suggests that Hans Reinhard executed his * Trinity 
Medal' while serving at Leipzig as an apprentice under Treutler. 

Dated 1544 is also a Portrait-medal of Hieronymus Loter, 
architect to the Leipzig Council (lead ; Gotha) which has been 
tentatively attributed to Reinhard; a reverse of a similar medal, in 
silver, is in the Werner collection at Leipzig. Of the same year 
Erman describes another satirical medal bv the Master, with Cardi- 

Rev. The so-called ' Dreifaltigkeit ' Medal, by Hans Reinhard. 

nal's Head and Head of a Fool ; '' effigies cardinum mundi " 

Between 1547 and 1581 there are no signed medals by Hans 
Reinhard, but D"" Pick suggests the attribution to him of a medalet, 
dated 1568, bearing the Master's own portrait {JR.. gilt. Gotha; 
illustrated from a plaster cast kindly sent me by D"" Pick). 

In the Erbstein Sale Catalogue a Portrait-medal of Marcus 
Krampf, 1562, is described as in the art of Hans Reinhardt. 

— 86 — 

Domanig gives to this artist a medal of King Ludwig II. of 
Hungary and his consort Maria, and another of King Christian II. of 
Denmark, but neither is signed, and I find no other writer confirm- 
ing this attribution. Hans Reinhard found many imitators, especially 
of his religious medals. Among the best of these imitations are 
those by the " Joachimsthal Masters". 

*' An artist well-acquainted with the technicalities of goldsmith's 
work could alone have produced such works as those of Hans 
Reinhard ", says Bolzenthal, and D"" B. Pick remarks that " he is 
the only Saxon artist, of the best period of German Medallic Art, 
whose works are worthy to be placed by the side of those of his 
contemporaries of South Germany ". Pinchart calls him the cleverest 
German Chaser of the time. 

Bibliography. — D"" E. G. Gersdorf, Zur Medaillenkiinde. DerMeiUer H. R. 
iSSS-^S47f Blatter fur Munzfreunde, Juli 1872, pp. '220-223. — Erman, Deutsche 
MedaiUeiire, 1884, p. 44. — Dr Jul. Cahn, Die Dreifaltigkeitsmedaille Hans 
Reinharts, Bl. fur Munzfreunde, 1905, pp. 3339-43- — Hamburger, Raritaten- 
Catahg, IV, 37, 353. — S. Rosenberg, Belli Sale Catalogue, 1904. — Bolzenthal, 
op. cit. — D"" Eug. Merzbacher, Kunst-Medaillen-Katahg, 1900. — Ad. Hess 
Nachf, Felix Sammlung. — Domanig, Portrdtmedaillen des Eribauses Oesterreich. 
— Ad. Hess Nachf., Reimmann Sale Catalogue, 1892. — D^ Julius Cahn, Catalog der 
Samviluiig W. P. Met^ler. — E. Fiala, Beschreihuug der Savnulung Bohmischer 
Miin:(en und Medaillen des H. Max Donehaiier. — Prof. D"" Pick, Katalog Deutscher 
Medaillen, Kunstgewerhe-Austellung in Dresden, 1906. — Pinchart, La medaille en 
Belgique 8ic. — Nagler, Allgemeines-Kfinstler-Lexikon, 1839. — Ibid , Monogram- 
tnisteti, 1881. — Ammon, op. cit. — Menadier, SchaumQnien des Houses Hohenzol- 
lern, 1901. — Erbstein, Erorterungen &c. — Domanig, Die Deutsche Medaille, 

REINHARD, HANS (the Younger) (Germ.). Son of the last, who 
took the civic oath at Leipzig, 10. November 1584, as 'Hans 
Reinhard, aurifaber, Johannis filius ', and was still living on 
22. November 16 19. He continued his father's business, but does 
not appear to have produced anything remarkable. The * religious 
medals ', modelled by Hans Reinhard the elder were imitated a 
great deal in various places, and most successfully by the so-called 
''Joachimsthaler Masters ". Some of the imitations may have been 
issued by Hans Reinhard junior, to whom Erman ascribes a 
Portrait-medal, dated 1582, of Paul Frankenstein (Berlin Museum; 
illustrated), the style of which bears analogy to a Portrait-medal 
of the Breslau ecclesiastic Ambrosius Moiban and his consort 

D*^ Pick in his Catalogue of German Medals exhibited at the 
'Dresden Kunstgewerbe-Ausstellung ', 1906, has described under 
the name of Hans Reinhard the younger the following medals : 
' Dreifaltigkeitsmedaille ' (^L. Christ with the banner of Victory), 
Medal executed by order of Ulrich Mordeisen, a Leipzig lawyer 
(^); — Christian I. and Sophia (^. John George and Elizabeth 

- 87 - 

of Brandenburg, 1588). This medal, says the writer above-named, 
is attributed by some, Erman amonsgt them,'to the Court-goldsmith 
Heinrich Rapusch of BerUn, Bolzenthal, on the other hand, 
ascribed it to Heinrich Reitz Jun' = Hans Reinhard Junior. It is 
signed BR. This monogram occurs on medals, with portraits of 

Paul Frankenstein. 

Charles I. of Great Britain, and his Queen, 1636, commemorating 
the ' Treaty between the English and Dutch by which the latter 
were to pay i. 30,000 for the permission to fish in the British seas '. 
The British Museum possesses four varieties (one illustrated). They 
are all cast and chased. The compilers o( Medallic Illustrations, ike. 

John George of Brandenburg and consort. 

and of the portfolios of Plates xxiii, n°' 5, 6, ascribe them to 
Heinrich Reitz juniors: Hans Reinhard Junior. 

To the same artist may belong also a Memorial Medal of 
Charles I., 1649 (Med. III., I, |^") with busts of the King and 
Queen similar to those on the Dutch Fishery Medal, 1636. The 

Portrait of Charles I., cut from one of these medals, sometimes 
occurs, having possibly served as an ornament to a snuff-box or book 

Bolzenthal states that Heinrich Reitz Jun"^ = Hans Reinhard 
Junior flourished during the first half of the seventeenth century, 
and that he worked chiefly for Princes of the Houses of Branden- 
burg and Brunswick. He mentions several medals of the Dukes of 
Brunswick, as executed by him, and among them, a Memorial of 
Duke Heinrich Julius, and another of Duke Friedrich Ulrich, on 
the Siege of Brunswick, 1615, 

Dutch Fishery Medal, 1636. 

A Marriage medal, dated 1626, of the Emperor Ferdinand II. and 
Eleonora of Mantua, is likewise signed HR. 
Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Erman, op. cit. — ^rot. D^ Pick, 

- 89 - 

he. cit. — Hawkins, Franks and Grueber, Med. Illustrations, 8cc. — Menadier, 
op. cit. — Erbstein, 0/). cit. — Von Sallet, Tobias Wolff, Zeits. fiir Num., IX. 

REINHARD. STEPHAN ANDREAS {Germ.'). Medallist of the first 
quarter of the eighteenth century, born at Goslar, and a pupil of 
Christian Wermuth. He worked chiefly for the House of Brunswick, 
circ. 1704-1718. His best known medal, which is signed with his 
monogram SR commemorates the Death at the Battle of Schel- 
lenberg of Duke Augustus Ferdinand of Brunswick-Bevern, 1704 
(2 var. ; Brit. Mus.). 

According to Ammon he was also a Coin- and Seal-engraver, and 

signed variously : R.; — S.R.; — SR; — REINHARD. FEC. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Nagler, o/>. cit. — Ammon, op. cit. — 
Medallic Illiist. — Vollstaudig Brauiisclni'. Liineburg. Miin^uiid Medailleii Cabinet, 
nos 499, 544, 573, 649, 693 and Preface, p. XLVi. 

REINISCH, J. (Austr.). Contemporary Medallist of Warnsdorl, by 
whom I have seen : Second Centenary of Reichenberg K.K. Priv. 
Schutzencorps), 1870; — Memorial of JEmperor Ferdinand I., 1875; 
— Silver Wedding of Emperor Francis Joseph and Empress 
Elizabeth, 1879, etc. 

REINMANN, FRITZ (Germ.). Mint-master at Nuremberg, 1422, 
Frankfort and Nordlingen, 1423. 

REIS, CARLOS (Portitg). Contemporar)' Sculptor, born at Torres 
Novas ; pupil of the School of Fine Arts of Lisbon. 

At the Paris Salon of 1904 he exhibited a medallion in bronze, 
' En Priere '. 

REISEN, KARL CHRISTIAN (Dan.). Son of a Danish Engraver, and 
himself a Gem-engraver of note, born in 16S5, died in 1725, at the 
early age of forty. His father was one of the artists who settled in 
England in the suite of William III. 

He has left, says King, a considerable number of works, among 
which one of the best is a Portrait of Charles XII. of Sweden, 
three-quarter face, the drawing of which is correct. A veiled head 
of Faustina Senior (cornelian intaglio) ; — Head of Lucius Verus 
(cornelian intaglio) ; — Head of Charles I. of England (cornelian 
intaglio) are also known from Tassie's reproductions, but, remarks 
King, " all Reisen's intagli are much deficient in finish, owing to 
the excessive rapidity of his mode of execution ". 

Seaton, his pupil, surpassed him greatly. Claus, and Smart, are 
also said to have been apprenticed with him. 

It has been suggested that Reisen also cut coin-dies, or at least a 
silver Pattern for a Neuchatel Pistole, 1712, signed R- (Von Schroet- 

— 90 — 

ter, Die Miin:;J)rdgung in Neuenburg, etc., Zeits. f. Num., XXII, 
p. 73, note 2). 

Bibliography. — King, Antique Gems ami Rings, London, 1872. — Mariette, 
op. cit. — Raspe, Tassie Gems, 1791. — Nagler, op. cit. — Babelon, Pierres gravees, 

REISKER, CASPAR (Germ.). Mint-master at Teschen, 1695. 

REISNER, MELCHIOR (Pol.). Mint-master at Lublin, 1597-1598; 
Superintendent of tiiat Mint, 15 99-1 601. His coins bear his initials 
M. R. 

REISNER, JOSEPH (Austr.). Third Engraver at the Mint of 
Kremnitz, appointed in 1892. The Korona of 1892, issued at 
Kremnitz, is one of his productions. As a Medallist, he is known 
to have engraved the die of the ^L of the commemorative medal ot 
the Mining Congress, 1894, ^^ Nagybanya (Hungary). 

REISS (G^rm.). Medallist at Gmiind, 1838. 

REISS, ALBERT (Germ.). Contemporary^ Sculptor and Medallist, 
residing at Leipzig. At the Berlin Kunst-Ausstellung, 1907, he 
exhibited the following Portrait-medallions and plaques : D"" Hartel ; 

— Fr. Hofmeister; — Use Schmidt; — An elderly gentleman; — 
An elderly lady ; — Toilette ; — C. Brose, sculptor ; — Bismarck ; 

— King Frederick Augustus of Saxony; — Young girl at play, etc. 

REISSLANDER, ABRAHAM (Germ.). Warden of the Mint at Salz- 
burg, ^r/Vr. 1636. 

REITSAMER (Austr.). Medallist of the middle years of the nine- 
teenth century, by whom are various Centenary medals of the Birth 
of Mozart, 1856. 

REITZ, JOHANN 6E0RG (Swiss). Chaser and Die-sinker, a native 
of Suhl in Saxony, settled at Berne in 1736. 

REITZNER, MAX (Hung.). Mint-director at Kremnitz, appointed in 

REIZ, BERNHARD (Germ.). Mint-warden at Heidelberg, 1590. 

contractor at Schauenstein, Rehau, etc., 1622. 

REMER (or REHM) (G^rw.). Mint-master at Augsburg, c/rr. 1457. 

REMI, BENOIT (French). Goldsmith of Troyes, appointed Mint- 
engraver there in 14 14 and in office until 1422. 

REMI, L'ORFtlVRE (French) . Mint-engraver at Sainte-Menehould, 
circ. 1 394-1402. 

— 91 — 

r£MOND-TOURNIOL, M""" LUCIE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born at Limoges; pupil of Cheret and Descat. By her are Portrait- 
medallions, cast in bronze. 

REMSHARD, ABRAHAM (Gerw.). Manufacturer ( 'Silberdrechsler') 
of Medallic Boxes ( 'Schraub-medaillen ') at Augsburg, during the 
third quarter of the eighteenth century. His productions are numerous, 
but among the best known is one commemorating the Second Cent- 
enar}' of the Augsburg Confession, 1755. These Medallic Boxes 
contain usually a series of coloured wood engravings, representing 
celebrated personages, or events connected with the subject of the 
medal, and some are most interesting. The signature is : ABR. REMS- 
HART EXC. A common Medallic Box has on obv. a Bust of Ferdi- 
nand III. and on ^ a View of Augsburg. Thalers of an earlier date 
were frequently used by Remshart, whose date is given bySchlickey- 
sen as 1763-1765. 

REMY, HENRY (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at Paris ; 
pupil of Jouffroy. At the Salon of 1882 he exhibited a Portrait- 
medallion of a Lady. 

RENARD, CLAUDE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Rheims, but residing in Paris. At the Salon 1905 he exhibited a 
Portrait-medallion in bronze of his Father. 

RENARD, M'"" LUCIE GABB.IELLE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born atMeaux; pupil of Paul Aub^. Among her Portrait-medallions, 
there is one entitled " Marie la Normande ". 

RENAUD, M"'' (French). Medal, and Gem-engraver of the early part 
of the nineteenth century, who at the Salon of 18 12 exhibited 
three medals in wax, and also some gems. Chavignerie et Auvray 
state that this is all they know about this lady artist. 

RENAUD, C. M. (French). This signature occurs on two Cliches, 
representing the Napoleon Museum, 1804 ; one showing the 
Laocoon, in one of the salons, and the other the Apollo Belvedere 
(Edwards, Napoleon Medals, p. 17; PI. v, 8-9; Bramsen, op. cit., 
n°' 369, 372). Possibly the modeller of these cliches was Jean 
Martin Renaud ( q. v.). 

RENAUD, JEAN MARTIN (French). Named Renard by Rondot; 
Sculptor and Medallist, born in 1746 at Sarreguemines, settled in 
Paris about 1771, and died there in 1821. He was for many years 
employed as a Modeller at the Sevres Manufactory. He exhibited the 
following productions : 1787. Birth of Sculpture ; — M""^ Dauberval ; 
— Venus asleep on a bed of roses aroused by Satyr; — M. Vestris 
Jun', in Panurge; — I797- 21 Medallions in wax representing 

— 92 — 

various subjects ; — 12 Ponrait-medallions in terra-cotta ; — 1798. 
Full-length Portrait of Corbel Sen'; — i799- Citizen Robertson; 
— Lady's Portrait ; — Venus playing with Eros ; — The artist's 
Wife; — Solar Eclipse; — Timocleos before Alexander; — The 
Continence of Scipio ; — The artist's Son ; — Young Lady ; — 
Head of Satyr ; — Three home-life scenes; — rSoi. Two bas-reliefs 
representing Theseus fighting the Amazons; — 1802. Eight bas- 
reliefs : Peace having unhorsed Mars' Chariot of Victory leading 
Bonaparte to Immortality; — Herakles pacifying the army of 
Amazons ; — Antiope concluding peace with Theseus; — Marriage 
of Theseus and Antiope, queen of the Amazons ; — Venus and 
Cupid; — Eternal Love ; — Horse grazing ; — Leda in the midst 
of her family; — Several Portrait-medallions; — 1804. Portrait- 
medallions in wax; — 1806. Various bas-reliefs, mythological and 
historical subjects; — 1808. Portrait-medallions; — 18 10. Engraved 
Gems representing Portraits and other subjects ; — 1812. Portraits 
and other subjects in waxand stone; — 1814. Various Medals; — 
18 17. Bas-reliefs in wax, etc. 

Several of this artist's busts are exhibited at the Versailles Museum 
and in the Museum at Valenciennes are four bas-reliefs : Crush- 
ing of the Titans ; — Niobe's family; — Feast of the Olympian 
gods ; — Nymphs dancing. 

The Hague Medal Cabinet possesses two Portrait-medallions in 
terra-cotta by J. M. Renaud of J. D. Van der Capellen, 1784 (Van 
Loon, 611), and Marx (Les Medailleurs rnodernes a I Exposition 
universelk de 1900, PI. 2) reproduces nine models by this artist : 
Head of Lysimachus ; — Leda and the Swan ; — Bust of the 
Empress Josephine (?) ; — Head in Phrygian helmet ; — Satyr, 
full-length, holding thyrsus and wine-cup ; — Male Portrait ; — 
Female head, from the antique; — Mask, facing; — Head of Priam. 

In the Crignon de Montigny collection were formerly several 
terra-cotta medallions by this artist; Abbe Duvenet; — Baron 
Vivant-Denon, and others. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, Dictiounaiir genaal des Artistes dt 
T^cole fravfaise. — Rondot et De La Tour, op. cit. — R. Marx, op. cit. ■— Salt 
Catalos^iie Crignon de Montigny. 

REN£ I. (^French). Titular King of Naples, born at Angers, son ot 
Louis II., Dukeof Anjou and Count of Provence. On the death of 
his father-in-law, Duke of Lorraine, he in 143 1 claimed the duke- 
dom ; was defeated and imprisoned ; bought his liberty and the 
dukedom in 1437, in which year he also ma^e an ineffectual attempt 
to make good his claim to the throne of Naples and Sicily ; settled 
down in Provence and devoted himself to literature and art and to 
developing the country (1409-1480). 

^ 93 — 

Ring Rene is said to have engraved Medals as well as Gems, and 
M. Babelon (Pierres gravies, 1894, P- ^^^) makes the following 
statement : " Une opinion qui ne manque pas d'une certaine 
vraisemblance pretend que le roi Rene d'Anjou lui-meme s'exer^aa 
la gravure sur pierres tines. Des camees executes de son temps 
ornaient un beau reliquaire de Saint-Nicolas-du-Port, pres de 
Nancy, et Ton a quelques raisons de croire que Rene les avait 
sculptes ou, tout au moins, en avait donnele dessein ou le modele. 
Ce qui est bien certain, c'est que le bon roi, protecteur si ardent des 
lettres et des arts, grava desmedailles, et nous savons que ce genre 
de gravure va presque toujoursde pair avec la glyptique. Rene, qui 
aborda tous les genres, la peinture, la sculpture, la miniature, a du 
d'autant moins negliger la glyptique que tres souvent les person- 
nages de ses compositions picturales ont leurs vetements ornes de 
camees. Dans son tableau du Buisson ardent, a la cathedrale d'Aix, 
un camee ou figure le Christ benissant, brillesur le casque de saint 
Maurice ; la fibule du manteau de I'archange saint Michel est un 
camee representant Adam et Eve; I'Enfant Jesus, enfin, tient a la 
main un camee a I'effigie de sa Mere. N'est-il pas demontre par la 
que le roi Rene, comme Charles V et le due de Berry, affectionnait 
particulierement les pierres gravees ? Et comme il joignait a ses 
gouts d'amateur les talents d'un artiste consomme, n'est-il pas 
naturel de penser qu'il s'essaya en ce genre d'ouvrage comme dans 
tous les autres? L'Inventaire du Chateau de Pau, redige en 1561, 
renferme la mention d'un camee avec son portrait : " Une agathe 
ou est enleve le roy Rene de Cecyle, et douze petis esmerauldes 
alentour ". 

The Italian medallists Pietro da Milano, and Francesco Laurana, 
who worked at the court of King Rene, executed Portrait-medals of 
him and his Queen, but I do not think any medals or gems, known 
to be his work, have as yet come to light, although there are many 
in existence of his period and which probably originated at his court. 

Bibliography. — Babelon, of), cit. — Ibid., Les Origines de la Medaille en 
France. — Ibid., Histoire de la Gravure sur Genwus en France, Paris, 1902 
(pp. 109-123). 

RENKIN. Fide RANKIN. British Medallist, circ. 1820. 

RENNEBAUM, FRIEDRICH (Germ.). Mint-master at Hop. 1622. 

RENMANN(orREINMANN), FRITZ (Germ.). Mint-master at Nurem- 
berg, 1422, Frankfort and Nordlingen, 1423. 

RENNER, JOHANN KONRAD (Germ.). Mint-engraver at Munich, 

RENNESCH, MICHAEL (Germ.). Mint-master to the Counts of 
Reuss, 1623. He signed M. R. 

— 94 — 

RENTON AND WARNER (Brit.). Seal-engravers, Die-sinkers, and 
Crystal Engravers, established in London. Renton, who is the author 
of a little book on Intaglio-engraving, was a clever worker. His 
successor is Alfred E. Warner (q. s. infra'). 

RENTSCH.JOHANN (Germ.). A native of Grafenthal ; Mint-master 
at Amberg, Kulmbach, Neustadt a. Aisch, andGundelfingen-Stockau, 

Bibliography. — Gebert, Die Brandenburg-Frdnkischen Miinistddten. — Habich, 
Mun:(^en und Medaillen des Gesammthaiises Wittetshach, I. 136. 

RENTSCH, TOBIAS (Germ.). General Mint-warden of the District 
of Upper Saxony at Saalfeld, about 1599. 

REPARAT, RAYMOND (French). Mint-master at Grenoble, 1508. 

REPHUHN, JOHANN (Germ.). A native of Calw ; Mint-master to 
the Counts of Hohenlohe at Neueustein, 1623-1624. 

REPHUHN, JOHANN ADAM (Germ.). Mint-master at Darmstadt, 
1693-1705. 1 have noticed his initials lA — Ron a Half Thaler 01 
Landgrave Ernest Ludwig of Hessen, 1693. 

RESCH, J. (Atistr.). This signature occurs as that of the Designer 
on both sides of the Silver Wedding Medal of King Carol L and 
Queen Elizabeth of Roumania, 1894; ^^'^- ^^^ engraved by 
F. X. Pawlik ; ^ by R. Neuberger. 

RESEK (Auslr.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, by whom 
I have seen a Portrait-medal, undated, of the Singer Jenny Lutzer, 

RESSER (Germ.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, by whom 
I have seen a Portrait-medal, dated 1868, of the Frauenkirche at 
Munich (Beierlein III, n° 67). 

RESTALL, J. A. (Brit.). Die-sinker and Medallist of Birmingham, 
partner in the firm of J. A. Restall & C°, silversmiths and medallists. 
He is a well known Die-sinker, by whom are Jubilee Medals of Queen 
Victoria, 1887 and 1897; — Accession of Edward VIL, 1901; — 
Coronation of Ed ward VIL and Alexandra, 1902 ; — R' Hon. Joseph 
Chamberlain ; — Sir Henry Irving, 1906, etc. By him are also the 
dies of New Years' Tokens issued at various times by the token 
collectors W. J. Davis of Birmingham, and S. H. Hamer, of 

RESTELLI.A. (Ital.). Contemporary Medallist of Turin. Among 
his productions I have come across : Opening of the Mont-Cenis 

— 95 — 
Tunnel, 1871 (signed : A. RESTELLI INC. TORINO); — Opening of 
the Railway from Turin to Rivoli, 1871 (Al Cavaliere Giovanni 
Colli) ; — Tommaso Vallauri ; — Cav. Castiglioso ; — Luigi Pissa- 
vini; — F. de Lesseps, 1869, etc. 

Bibliography. — A. Moyaux, Les Cbemins de fer et leiirs tnedailles commemora- 
tives, 1905. — R. Ratto, Sale Catalogues. 

RETEKE (or RETECKE , JOHANN CHRISTOPH (Germ.). Medallist at 
Hamburg, circ. 1664--^ 1720. He was in the service of the Species- 
Bank (1664- 1693), ^^^ which he engraved numerous dies for Por- 
tugalosers. A Portrait-medal of John George II., Prince Elector of 
Saxony, ^. svrsvm deorsv.m, undated, but struck about 1666, and 
signed I. R. is ascribed to this Engraver by hrbstein. Cat. Engelhardt, 
p. 239, D' B. Pick, and other writers (oval, 38 X 46 mill.). A Por- 
tugaloser (on the four European Banks of Hamburg, Amsterdam, 
Nuremberg, and Venice) at the Hague Museum, is similarly signed 
I. R., and likewise also the Portugaloser described in Kohler's 
Ducaten-Cabinet , under n°' 2888, 2891, 2894, 2896, 2900, 2903, 
2905, etc., and Madai's Thaler Cabinet, under n°^ 4916 and 5942. 
By him are further : Duke Christian Albert of Schleswig-Holstein- 
Gottorp; oval, 41 X 34 mill. ; — Johann Adolf Kielmann; oval, 
40 X 33 mill. ; — John George II. of Anhalt-Dessau and Henrietta 
Catherine, 1681; — Prince Elector Palatine Philip WiUiam, 
undated (?), etc. 

Langemann has published a list of Retecke's productions for the 
Hamburg Species Bank. 

In 1722 he was appointed Mint-master at Eutin, on account ot 
his experience in cutting dies, by Bishop Christian August. 

BiBLiOGR.\PHY. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Amnion, op. cit. — J. T. Koliler, 
Ducaten-Cabinet, Hannover, 1760. — Madai, l^ollstdndiges Thaler-Cabinet, Koe- 
nigsberg, 1766. — Nagler, op. cit. — Domanig, Die Deutsche Mcdaille, 1907. — 
Chr. Lange's Sammlung schleswig-MsteinisclKr Miin^en und Medaillen, Berlin, 

RETHE, JOHANN (Swed.). Medallist at Stockholm, circ. 1632-1657. 
His signature J. R. occurs on the following medals : Christina, 
Queen of Sweden (I^. .\etherevm numen diademata celsa 
tvetvr); — Queen Christina's Coronation at Stockholm, 1650 
(sev. var. ; one with the I^. legend avitam et avctam) ; — Access- 
ion of Charles Gustavus, 1654 (sev. var. ;^. a. Christina); 
— Coronation of Charles Gustavus (^L. in n^n' sors mea ipse 
faciet) ; — Marriage of King Charles Gustavus with Princess 
Hedvig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, 1654; — Birth of Prince 
Charles, 24. November, 1655, etc. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

RETTENMAIER.E. {Germ.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist 
of Frankfort-on-Main. At the Exhibition of Modern Medals at 

- 96 - 

Frankfort, April 1900, 1 saw a Bronze Portrait-plaquette of Prince 
Bismarck by this artist. 

BETTER (Brit.). This signature occurs on a Portrait-medal of the 
famous British actor, William Henry West Betty, 1804, copied from 
one by Westwood, and probably made for sale in the streets. 

REUB (Germ.). Ammon states that this signature is found on a 
large medal, dated 1700, of episcopal Hildesheim, and refers to Flad's 
Beriihmte Medailleurs, p. 27. 

REUSS, ERASMUS THOMAS (Germ.). Medallist and Mint-engraver 
at Berlin, circ. 1646-1668. He signed his productions E. T. R. He 
worked for the Prince Elector of Brandenburg, and was released by 
him in 1668. His three principal medals commemorate the Marriage 
of Frederick William, Prince Elector of Brandenburg with Louise 
Henrietta of Orange, 1646 ; — Visit of the Prince Elector to the 
Emperor at Pragne and Return, in 1652 (signed : T. R.); — and 
Birth of Prince Charles Emile of Brandenburg, 1655. The work on 
these is mediocre and the design is of poor taste. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cil. — Nagler, op. cit. — Calalogusder Nedei- 
landsche en op Nederland belrekking hebbende Gedetikpenningen, I. — Menadier, 
op. at. 

REUSS, 6E0RG CHRISTIAN (Germ.). Mint-master and Engraver at 
Bremen, 1708-1710. The coins he issued bear his initial G. C. R. 

REUSS, JOHANN (Germ.). Medallist of the second half of the 
seventeenth century. Bolzenthal states that he was in the service 
of Johann Georg. I. and II., Prince Elector of Saxony, and Ammon 
that his signature : J. REUS F. occurs on a Religious Double Thaler, 
showing events from the lives of Samson and Goliath. 

REUSS, JOHANN WILHELM (Germ.). Gem-engraver and Line- 
engraver, born at Coburg in 1787. 

REUTER, ERHART (Austr.). A native of Vienna, appointed Mint- 
engraver at Prague, 1563. 

REVELOYS, JACQUES (French). Goldsmith and Engraver of Paris, 
who in 1582 applied for the post of Engraver-general of the French 
coins. By him are Jetons engraved for Raoul Lecomte, King's 
councillor, 1583. 

Bibliography. — Mazerolle, op. cit. — Rondot, op. cit. 

REVXRCHON, CHARLES (French). Son of Francois and Louise 
Reverchon; Gem-engraver, born at Paris. Among his productions 

— 97 — 

are : 1872. Youthful head of River-god, cameo; — 1873. Portrait 
of M. S. M. L***, onyx cameo ; — 1874. Portrait of General Ducros, 
onj^x cameo; — 1876. Portrait of Colonel Jaquelot de Moncet, 
shell cameo; — Mgr the Due d'Aumale, onyx cameo, etc. 

and Medallist, born atMeudon, 11. April 1829 ; pupil ofCaillouette, 
David d'Angers, and A. Lebas. He excelled in engraving shell 
cameos. Between 1857 and 188 1 he was an almost continual 
exhibitor at the annual Paris Salons, and among the items Chavi- 
gnerie mentions the following : 1857. Head of Silenus, shell 
cameo; — 1864. Two shell cameos : Portrait of M™^ B***; — 
Portrait of M. Delangle, vice-president of the Senate; — 1865. 
Two shell cameos : Child's head ; — Portrait of Baron T*** ; — 
1866. Two shell cameos : Portrait of M. Boitelle, senator; — 
Portrait of M"* Boitelle; — 1867. Two shell cameos: Portrait- of 
Marquis de La Rochejacquelin, senator; — Portrait of D. Nisard, 
of the French Academy; ■ — Universal Exhibition of 1867. Napo- 
leon III. ; — Due de Morny ; — E. Drouin de Lhuys; — Queen 
Amelie; — M"'^ Alix B***; — 1868. Two shell cameos : Napo- 
leon III., Emperor of the French; — Empress Eugenie; — 1869. 
Two shell cameos : The Imperial Family; — Fantaisie; — 1870. 
Four shell cameos : M™^ J. Hunnebelle; — M. J. Hunnebelle; — 
M. Maurice-Richard, minister of Fine Arts; — M. de Parieu, pres- 
ident of the Conseil d'Etat ; — also two Portrait-medallions : 
Baron Haussmann; — Mgr. Boudinet, bishop of Amiens; — 1872. 
Two shell cameos : M"*" Moisset, of the Opera-Comique ; — Giraud 
fils; — 1873. M. B. S***, shell cameo; — 1874. Marshal Mac- 
Mahon, duke of Magenta, president of the Republic ; — Mgr. Bou- 
vinet, bronze medal ; — M""^ la Princesse A. K***, bronze medal ; 

— 1875. Three shell cameos : M""^ la Duchesse de M*** ; — Mgr 
le Due de Nevers; — M. H. G***; — 1876. Marshal Mac Mahon, 
bronze medal ; — Admiral de Montaignac, senator, cameo ; — Head 
of Medusa, cameo ; — 1877. Three shell cameos : Due Deeazes ; 

— M""^ de K***; — W. H. Waddington, minister of Public Instruc- 
tion and Fine Arts; — 1878. Leon Say; — M™* X***; — Dom 
Pedro II., Emperor of Brazil; — 1879. Portraitof Jules Grevy, pres- 
ident of the Republic; — 1880. Head of the French Republic; — 
Portrait of Jules Ferry ; — Portrait of Cazot, minister of Justice ; 

— 1 88 1. Portrait of Augier, of the French Academy; — Admiral 
Clou^, etc. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

REVERCHON, M"'« LOUISE {French). Wif« of the former, and his 
pupil; also an Engraver of shell-eameos. At the Salon of 1866 she 

L. FoKKER. — Biographical Notices of iitdalUsU, — V. 7 


exhibited two Portraits of M. Ybry, and M™"" Backer, and in 1868 
two more of Marquis de B***, and Comte de W***. 

REVERE, Colonel PAUL {Anier.). Originator and Designer of a 
rare Pattern Massachusetts Halfpenny, known as the "Janus 
Copper"; obv. Three heads combined; ^. Goddess of Liberty; 
1776. Revere was an Engraver of Plates for continental paper 
money. Crosby states that the Pine tree Cent and the "Janus 
Copper " Halfpenny sufficiently resemble each other in their work- 
manship to be considered the work of the same artist. 

Col. Paul Revere designed also a medalet of 1766 (?), with bust 
of William Pitt on obv., and Lion on I^. with legend : who rouze 
{sic) THE BRITISH LION (Betts, p. 230, 518). The Engraver is said to 
have been a Mr Smithers of Philadelphia. 

Bibliography. — S. S. Crosby, The Early Coins of America, Boston, 1875. — 
Dic^eson, American Numismatic Manual, 1859. — Betts, op. cit. 

RfiVILLON, AIM£ jean (French). Sculptor, born at Paris, i . July 
1823 ; pupil of Lequien. He is the author of some Portrait-medal- 
lions, among them one of Paul Revillon. 

RfiVILLON, ERNEST (French). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist, born at Paris ; pupil of his father, and Aime Millet. The 
following medallic productions have been exhibited by him at the 
Paris Salons since 1885 : Portrait-medallion of Pierre Mignard; — 
1870. 13 Medals, belonging to MM. Duval and Le Turcq ; — 1891.. 
M""' Regine de *** ; — La Princesse des Deux-Siciles; — 1895. St. 
Hubert medal; — 1897. St. Michael ; — Mont St. Michel; — 1898. 
St. George medal; — N. D. de Lourdes; — Universal Exhibition, 
1900. 12 Medals; — 1902. Christmas; — 1903. St. Michel; — 
Genius of the City of Paris; — 1904. 7 Portrait-plaquettes : Jean 
Frangois Millet; — Cleo de Merode ; — Four Danseuses of the 
Opera, and Opera-Comique ; — La Moune; — 1905. Ave Maria; 

— Dancers of the Opera; — La Moune; — 1908. Pater noster; 

— Ave Maria ; — Industries ; — Mechanics ; — Electricity ; — 
Chemistry, etc. 

Bibliography. — Catalogues du Salon, 1 882-1 905. 

REVOIR, JEAN (French). King Louis XIV.'s sword furbisher and 
Engraver, circ. 1664- 1680. He is said by Rondot to have engraved 
medals for the King. 

REVOIR, JEAN II (French'). Son of the last, born in 1629, and 
holding the same office as liis father from 1680 until his death in 
1704 (12. October). He also engraved medals in commission for 
the King : Restoration of the Order of St. Lazarus, 1687 ; — 
Demolition of the Temples, 1688; — Capture of Freiburg, 1692. 

— 99 — 

Bibliography. — Rondot, op. cit. — J. J. Guiffrey, La Monnaie des Medailles, 


REY, SUZAN {French). Medallist, Seal- and Gem- engraver of the 
last quarter of the seventeenth century, domiciled at Rome. He 
enjoyed a certain notoriety for executing all kinds of subjects in 
gem-engraving. By him is a Portrait-medal of Cardinal de Bouillon, 
f 17 1 5 (signed : SVZAN. DIT. REY. F.) and particularly admired were 
his Portrait-gem of Carlo Albani, brother of Pope Clement XI., and 
the Seal of Marchese Castel-San-Vito. 

Bibliography. — Marictte, op. cit. — King, op. cit. — Babelon, Histoirede hi 
Gravure sur Gemmes en France, Paris, 1902. — Rondot, op. cit. 

REYMANN. GEORG (Gerw.). Mint- master at Wurzburg, 1571. 
Leitzmann calls him Naumann, and also Neumann. 

Sculptor of Geneva ; pupil of Chapu. He is the author of Portrait- 
medallions in bronze. His exhibit at the Paris Universal Exhibition, 
1900, was very much admired. 

REYNARD, P. (French). A Portrait-medal of Johann Konrad von 
Reinach, bishop of Basle (1705-1737), with bustonobv. and on^. 
map of the diocese, is signed PR. Townshend {Swiss Coins in the 
South Kensington Museum, p. 20) suggests that this medal may be by 
a French medallist of the name of Reynard. 

REYNAUD {French). One of the Engravers who competed for the 
engraving of the coinage of the Second Republic in 1848. He issued 
a Pattern 5 Franc piece, which is reproduced inDeSaulcy, Souvenirs 
numismaliques de 1S4S, PI. 46, 4, and Dewamin, Cent ans de numis- 
viatique fran^aise, PI. 69, 2. 

REYNOLDS, SIR JOSHUA {Brit.). 1723-1792. This famous English 
Portrait Painter deserves mention here, as the Designer of the 

^L. of Mossop's ' Union Penny '. 
reverse of Mossop's 1789 Union Penny, which was made during 

— 100 — 

the Viceroyalty of the Marquis of Rockingham. An impression of 
the model is in the Royal Irish Academy. 

REYNEVELT, JOHAN VAN (Dutch). Mint-master at Utrecht, 1663- 

REYNIERS, ADRIEN (Flem.). Illuminator and Engraver at Brussels, 
circ. 1555. He was ordered to make a Seal and Counter Seal for the 
King of England (Philip II.) 'for his possessions on this side' 
(Pinchart, Biographies des graveurs beiges. Rev. de la num. beige, 
1855, p. 104). 

REYNOLDS, JOHN {Brit.). Assay-Master at the Royal Mint, Lon- 
don, 1607. 

REZET, JEAN DE (ltd.) of Moncalieri; Mint-master at Chambery, 
1405, under Amadeo VIII. 


R. F. FiW^ RAIMUND FALTZ. 1658-1703. Medallist at Augsburg 
and Berlin. 

R. F. Vide RICHARD FEHR. Medallist at Heidelberg, eighteenth 

R. F. Vide I. V. RIESING. Medallist at Wiirzburg, 1763- 1798. 

R. F. Vide I. C. REICH. Medallist at Fiirth, 1755-1814. 

R. F. Vide REMIGIUS FEHR. Mint-master at Darmstadt, 1772-1809; 
t 1810. 

R. F. (Jtal.). Signature of an Italian Medallist, on a Portrait-medal 
of Pietro Vettori, a Florentine savant (1499-1585). It is dated 
1580, and shows on 1^. the Dispute between Pallas and Neptune ; 
diam. 40 mill. (Armand, op. cit., I, p. 282). 

R. G. r/cf^. ROLANDO GASTALDO. Mint-master at Dezana, 1580- 

R. H. (Germ.). Engraver's, or Mint-masters's initials on a Silesian 
Groschlof Ferdinand II., 1624 (Friedensburg und Seger, Schlesiens 
Miinzen und Medaillen der neueren Zeit, 1901, p. 5, n° 183). 

RHEIN, J. (Germ.). Contemporary Medallist, by whom is a medal 
of Goethe, 1899, of which two varieties exist, one signed J. RHEIN 
NACH J. K. STIELER, and the other only J. R. 

RHODES, ROWLAND (Brit.). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Newcastle; studied chiefly in Paris, where at the Salon of 1890 he 
exhibited a Portrait-medallion, cast in bronze, of very good style 

— lOI — 

at Fiirth, 1790- 1800. 

RIBALDI, AGOSTINO (ItaL). Mint-master at Milan, 23. April 1639 

to 17. February 1644. 

RIBEAUCOURT, FIRMIN DE (French). Mint-engraver at Amiens, 

RIBEIRO, GASPAR (Port.). Engraver of distinction, who cut the 
dies of coins issued by Don Antonio, Prior of Crato, and struck at 
Angra, 1582-1583. 

RIBEIRO, MANUEL GONCALVES (^Port.). Mint-engraver-assistant at 
Lisbon, 1700. 

Bibliography. — A. C. Teixeira de Aragao, op. cit. 

RIBEMONT, ALBAN (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Vendome; pupil of Leduc. A Portrait-medallion of Leon Dumas, 
which he exhibited at the Salon of 1885, is not without merit. 

RIBEROLLES. BASTIEN DE (French). Mint-master at Paris, 1544- 

RIBERON (French). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, residing 
at Paris. He modelled the * Medaille d'honneur', instituted by Le 
Matin newspaper, 1905. 

RIBOURT (French). Die-sinker of the first half of the nineteenth 
century, and the Engraver of the well-known General Bertrand 
St. Helena Medal of Napoleon L, with ^. legend : A \ ses \ Com- 
pac^nons \ de gloire \ sa dernier e \ pensk. \ 5** He'lene | / Mai \ 1821. 
Napoleon's bust, which is taken from Andrieu's model, is surrounded 
by a wreath of laurel and surmounted by a crown. This badge was 
issued about 1840. By him is also a repousse Portrait-plaque of 
Napoleon L (Bramsen, II, 1022). 

RICARD, JACQUES HENRI AUGUSTE (French). Mint-master at 

Marseilles, 18 30- 183 9. Privy mark, a Palm-tree. 

RICARD, JOSEPH AUGUSTE (French). Father of the preceding ; 
Mint-master at Marseilles^ 1824-1829. Privy mark, a Palm-tree. 

RICART, NICOLAS (French). Mint-master at Cr6mieu, appointed in 
1525 for a term of eight years; but in 1530 the Mint was closed, 
and when it was reopened in 1532, Nicolas Galopin was called 
upon to fill the ofiice. 

Bibliography. — E. Faivre, op. cit. 

— 102 — 

RICGI, A. {ItaL). Gem-engraver of Florence, second and third 
quarters of the eighteenth century. 

RICGI, DOMENICO (Jtal.^. Gem-engraver of the sixteenth century ; 
a pupil of Matteo del Nassaro. 

sixteenth century (1509-1566). He modelled and cast in bronze a 
portrait head of Michael Angelo, "probably that now preserved in 
the Halls of the Conservatori at the Capitol, and which has been 
wrongly ascribed to Angelo's own hand " (Fortnum, Bron:{es in the 
South Kensington Museum, Int. CXXIV). 

RICCIO surname of ANDREA BRIOSCO (Vol. I, N. E., p. 283). 
This artist is specially famous for his well-known Paschal candlestick 
in the Santo at Padua, begun in 1507 and set up in 15 16. For the 
choir screen of the same church he executed two reliefs, David 
dancing before the Ark, and his Contest with Goliath. The Tomb 
of the brothers Delia Torre at Verona is another very fine produc- 
tion of this eminent sculptor, who however * excelled in works of 
decorative minor art '. 

"The medal with his likeness ", says von Fabriczy, " in the 
inscription of which the Italian nickname derived from his curly hair 

Obv. of Riccio's Portrait-medal. 

is translated into its Latin equivalent, ' Crispus ', is, it is true, not 
signed. Nevertheless, not only because of the similarity in the 
features with those of the bust in relief on the candelabrum in the 
church of the Santo, but equally owing to the resemblance of style 
between the two works, no doubt has ever existed that the medal is 
the work of Riccio himself. It shows the same strongly defined 

— 103 — 

conception of the type, the decided characterisation bordering on 
the rude, which frequently obtrude themselves in his figures; never- 
theless the work is full of power and life, and still entirely in the 
spirit of the Quattrocento. On some of the other medals conjec- 
turally ascribed to this master, that of Girolamo Donato, the Vene- 
tian envoy at the Curia, has the greatest evidence of probability in 
its favour, since it was for Donato that Riccio made in 1492 the 
five reliefs (still preserved in the Academia at Venice) for the altar 
in the Church of the Servites in his native city. Less by the portrait, 
which is somewhat tame for our artist, than by the excellently 
composed and cast reverse with the figure (difficult, however, to 
explain) of a handsome youth sleeping, from whom two Cupids are 

Triumph of a Hero 
(from the Plaquette by Riccio, in the Paul Gamier Collection, Paris). 

engaged in trying to steal divine wisdom from a half-opened book, 
the medal reveals many points of resemblance with other allegorical 
scenes in Riccio's plaques ; indeed, it has itself been repeated in the 
form of a plaque (Italian Medals, Enj. ed., p. 63). 

Prof. Bode (Die italienischen Bron::^en, Berlin, 1904) describes a 
number of bronze statuettes by Riccio (n° 313-329) and the follow- 
ing Plaques : Judith holding the head of Holofernes ; signed: .A.R°I 
(10.2 X 8.1); — David holding Goliath's decapitated head; 
Molinier, n° 218(5 .4 X 4.6); — Scourging of Christ (6.2x7.5); 

— 104 — 

St. Jerome 
(in the G. Dreyfus Collection) 


Vulcan forging the arrows of Love. 

— lO) — 

— Entombment of Christ; Molinier n° 230 (8.9X14.5); — 
Another; MoHnier n" 221 (11. 7x16. 2) ; — Another;Mol. n°223 

The Entombment of Christ 

(Bas-Relief in the G. Dreyfus Collection) 


Death of Lucretia. 

(6. X 10.4); — St. George, high relief. Berlin (13.8x8.2); 
Another; Mol., n° 22 5 (5.2 X 6.1);— Bust of Apollo playing the 

— io6 — 

citharajMol. n''404(7. 1x3.8); — Mars and Venus(ii . 1x8.7); 
— Venus chastising Amor; Mol., n° 227 (10.7 X8.i); — Vulcan, 
VenusandAmor; signed : R°I ; circular (7. 8) ; — Fame ;Mol.,n°23 i 
(5X41); — Rape of Dejaneira; Mol., 229 (5.4x6.1); — 
Amor riding on the waves (5 .4 X 6); — Death of Queen Dido ; 
Mol., n° 232 (10.8 X 8.3); — Death of Virginia 
(6.7 X 9.1); — Marcus Curtius jumping into the Abyss; 

Tritons and Nereids. 

Mol., n° 416 (7.6x6.3); — Triumph oi a Hero (7-6 X 10.4); 
— Antique Sacrificial Scene; Mol., n" 235 (7.4X9); — Engage- 
ment between Horsemen in front of the walls of a city ; Mol. n° 236 
(8.8 X 10.2); — Man embracing a Woman; Mol., n° 234 
^7 . 9 X 6 . 2) ; — Another ; Berlin (6X5.7); — Another similar 
(9.2x7.2); — Allegory of Fecundity (8.2x6.5); — Youth 
dreaming(^ of the Girolamo Donato medal) ; Mol . , n° 2 3 8 ( 5 . 2) ; 

— 107 — 

— Reward of Diligence ; Mol., n° 241 (circular; 6.3); — Allegory 
on Renown ; Mol., n° 242 (circ. ; 5.7); — Allegory of Sylvicul- 
ture ; Mol., n° 244 (circ; 4.9); — Another (3 .2). — In the art of 
Riccio are further : St. George ; high relief (circular ; 5.8); — 
Victory; copy of a Victory on Trajan's column (6.9X5.1); — 
Hercules strangling the Nemean lion; Mol., n° 407 (10 x6.6). 
All these are reproduced in Prof. Bode's admirable work. 

A Family of Satyrs 

(in the G. Dreyfus Collection) 


The Dreyfus Collection includes the following specimens of 
Riccio's Plaquettes : Entombment of Christ (2 var.); — Triumph 
of a Hero ; — Engagement before city walls ; — Vulcan forging the 
arrows of Cupid (2 var . ); — St George slaying the Dragon (2 var.) ; 
— Hippomenes and Atlanta ; — Judith; — Allegory on Love; — 
Allegory on Fortune; — Allegory on Fame (2 var.); — Fame ; — 
Antique Sacrificial Scene ; — Death of Lucretia (illustrated) ; — 
Allegory on Virtue ; — Tritons and Nereids (illustrated), etc. 

— io8 — 

M, Gaston Migeon in his description of the Dreyfus Collection 
in Les Arts (August 1908) writes : " De Riccio, les plaquettes sont 
un peu le cote faible. Dans ces ceuvrettes, il copie I'antique ou 
reproduit les compositions d'autres maitres. C'est une face de son 
art tout a fait industrielle. Elles portent souvent au revers R ou R^I. 
Nous retrouvons ici la plaquette si connue de la Judith, d'apres le 
dessin de Mantegna, grave par Mocetto. L'epreuve de la collection 
Dreyfus porte la marque rare R°I. La Mise au Tombeau, ou tout le 
groupe central, la Viergeevanouie, soutenue par les saintes femmes, 
est emprunte a la celebre estampe de Mantegna ; voici encore 
saint Georges acheval tuant le Dragon, le Triomphe d'un heros, 
et la foule des allegories sur la Fortune, la Vertu ou I'Amour. 
Toute cette derniere serie de plaquettes all^goriques ne sont, a la 
v6rite, que des revers de medailles dont les droits sont pour la 
plupart inconnus, et beaucoup des elements decoratifs qu'elles 
renferment se retrouvent dans un des bas-reliefs du tombeau de 
Delia Torre, qui se trouve au musee du Louvre ", 

The fine Plaques representing the Entombment, St. Jerome, and 
a Family of Sat}Ts reproduced here, are in the celebrated Collection 
of M. Gustave Dreyfus in Paris, and were figured in the January 1908 
number of Les Arts. 

Bibliography. — Vide under Briosco. — C. von Fabriczy, It.iJian Medals. — 
D"^ Julius Cahn, op. cit. — La collection Paul Gamier, Les Arts, 1906, 21. — Bode, 
Die italienischen Bron^en, 1 904. 

RICE, FRANCIS {Brit.) Master of the Mint, London, under 
James IL, in conjunction with John Trinder, Thomas Goddard, 
William Talbot, William Brumfield, and Edward Fox, who were 
officiating in England and Ireland, at various mints. 

RICHARD, CHARLES JEAN (Sunss). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist of Geneva, whose productions range from about 187010 
the present time. 

Among his medallic productions I may mention : Fete of federal 
non-commissioned officers at Geneva, i6-i8August 1879; — Fourth 
Cantonal Rifle Meeting at Geneva, 1882; — Completion of the 
Geneva Water works, 1886 (designed by Leysalle and Lossier ; obv. 
engraved by Hugues Bovy) ; — Official Medal of the Federal Rifle 
Meeting at Geneva, 1887 (^L. by Hugues Bovy); — Commemo- 
rative Medal of the General Meeting of the Swiss Numismatic 
Society at Fribourg, 1890; — Inauguration of General Dufour's 
Memorial, and National Rifle Meeting, at Geneva, 1884; — Inau- 
guration of the Louis Favre Monument at Chene-Bourg, 1893 '» — 
Ami Lullin, first syndic of Geneva, 1748-1816; — Centenary of 
J.J. Rousseau, 1878 (obv. by T. Bonneton) ; — General Hans 
Herzog, of Aarau, 1894: — H, U. Stampfer, 1 505-1 585 ; — Jeton of 

— 109 — 

the Swiss Numismatic Society, Chur, 1897 ; — D' P. J. Pictet, 
of Geneva, 1872; — Geneva Convention, 1897 (sev. varieties); 

— Federal Rifle Meeting at Fribourg, 1881; — Federal Rifle 
Meeting at Frauenfeld, 1890; — Archery and Navigation, festiv- 
ities at Geneva, 1881; — 25''' Anniversary of the " Societe 
des sous-officiers "; Rifle Meeting at Geneva, 1883 ; — Choral 
Festival at Geneva, 1890; — Hyacinthe Loyson, theologian; — 
Marc Monnier, writer, 1885 ; — Francois Jules Pictet, naturalist; 

— Jean Jacques Rousseau ; — Rifle Meeting at Divonne-les-Bains, 
1885 ; — Cantonal Rifle Meeting at Lausanne, 1894; — Inaugu- 
ration of the Railway from Yverdon to Ste-Croix, 1893 j — Inau- 
guration of a Monument to Doyen Bridel, 1891 ; — Comte Agenor 
deGasparin; — Joseph Hornung, painter, -f 1870; — Fifth Cen- 
tenary of the Battle of Sempach, 1886; — Inauguration of the 
Shooting Stand at Carouge, 1888 ; — Sixth Centenary of the Swiss 
Confederation, 1891 ; — 20''' Anniversary of the ' Ecole de Tir au 
Mannequin ', at Geneva, 1893 ; — Prize Medal of the Horticultural 
Society of La Cote; — Artillery Festival at Bienne, 1894; — Inau- 
guration of the meeting room of the ' Union chretienne' at Geneva, 
1894; — Tenth Anniversary of the Life Saving Society of Lake 
Leman, 1895 ; — Rifle Meeting, presided by M. A. de Luserna, 
Geneva, 1896 ; — Alexandre Gavard; — General Meeting of Swiss 
Innkeepers, at the Swiss National Exhibition, 1896 ; — Prize Medal 
of the Swiss Society of Chrysanthemum Growers, 1896 ; — Charles 
Pictet de Rochemont, 175 5- 1825; — Prize Medals of the Genevese 
Archery, Fencing and Rowing Club, 1898 and 1899 ; — Medal ot 
the Geneva Rifle Club, 1899; — ^^ Louis Andr^ Gosse (1791- 
1873), of Geneva and Athens, etc. 

Bibliography. — Bulletin et Revue suisses de numistnatique, 1882- 1900. — 
W. Tobler-Meyer, Die Muni-und Medaillen-Sammlung des Herrn Hans Wunderly- 
V. Muralt, Zurich, 1898. — A. Moyaux, Les Oxniins defer et leurs Medailles commi- 
moratives, 1905. 

RICHARD (^French). Moneyer and Engraver at Vierzon and Celles, 
before 1040. 

RICHARD, ALFRED PIERRE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born 
at Paris ; pupil of L. Cogniet. By him are various medallic pro- 
ductions: 1869. Medea, bronze medallion ; — 1875. Ariadne and 
Theseus ; — The Parcae ; — Portrait-medallion of M . L.*** ; — 
1876. The prodigal Child; — 1877. M"« Alice G***; — M"^ Caro- 
line S***; — 1880. M"^^ A. C.***, Portrait-medallion in bronze; — 
1881. M. A. Boulet, etc. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

RICHARD, JEAN (Swiss). Mint-master at Geneva, 4. March 1622- 
4. April 1625, in conjunction with Fran(;ois Grenus. Their joint 

— no — 

initials R and G occur on Thalers of 1622 and 1623, Teston blanc 
of 1624, Quarter Thaler and Huitains of 1623 and 1624, etc. 

Bibliography. — E. Demole, Les Ma'Ures, les Graveurs et les Essayetirs de la 
Monnaie de Gewve (1535-1792), Fribourg, 1885. 

RICHARD, JULES (French). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
born at Paris; pupil of T. Doriot. Between 1870 and 1882 he has 
exhibited the following Portrait-medallions at the Paris Salons : 
1870. M. Gustave Thoineret; — 1872. M™^ M. P***; — 1874. 
M"^P***; — 1877. M'"^ Richard, silvered bronze medallion; — 
1879. M"= E. Richard ; — 1881. M-^ Richard; — 1882. M. J. P. 
F. Richard, electrotype; — 1883. M"'*^ Richard; — M. Sarret, fils. 

BiBLiOGRAPHV. — Catalogues du Salon. 

RICHARD J. J. (Fremh). Sculptor of the first half of the nineteenth 
century. Brother of L. Richard, q. v. Both well-known Founders. 
The only medal executed by J.J. Richard is that of General Foy, a 
most brilliant French orator, whe knew how to "put his heart 
into his words". Hence on the reverse of the medal is a heart and 
a tongue with ears all round listening. A specimen exists in the 
British Museum (from D"^ F. Parkes Weber's collection). 

Louis Richard was a personal friend of David d' Angers, and 

General M. S. Foy. 

usually cast his medallions for him, at least during the life of the 
great artist. Some of David d' Angers' medallions bear Richard's 
name on the back. L. Richard was the father-in-law of Ferdinand 
Liard, who cast medallions for so many artists (including Prof. 
A. Legros). He died some years ago. 

A son of Ferd. Liard is A. Liard, one of the cleverest medal- 
casters of modern times. 

RICHARD, LOUIS (French). Contemporary Bronze Founder, whose 

— Ill — 

signature occurs on some of the productions of modern French 
MedalHsts. It occurs on Portrait-medalHons of Baron D*^ D. de Larrey, 
M. E. Chevreul, etc. 

RICHARD, M'"^' m£LANIE, nee MOZIN (Freticb). Contemporary 
Sculptor and MedalHst, born at Paris; pupil of A. P. Richard. She 
is the author ofthe following Portrait-medallions : 1869. M"'= Richard; 
— M''-^ J. V.***; — 1870. M. V. B***; — M. L, V***; — 1875. 
M"es. P.***; — 1876. M"" A.D.***. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

RICHARD, NICOLAS FLEURY (^French). Director of the Mint at 
Lyons, 1824-1837. Privy mark: Noah's ark. 

RICHARD, PAUL (French). Director of the Mint at Lyons, 1839- 
1845. Privy mark : Tower. 

RICHARDET FRtlRES (Siuiss). Watch-case manufacturers at La 
Chaux-de-Fonds, who issued and struck a commemorative medal of 
the Federal Fete of non-commissioned officers at La Chaux-de- 
Fonds, 1893. The same firm issued various kinds of medalets, 
tickets, badges, etc. 

RICHARDSON. ROBERT J. (Brit.). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist, residing in London. At the Royal Academy, 1907, he 
exhibited a frame of four medals. Prizes for Billiard Championship, 
and Swimming, and a bronze Plaque, representing a Siren and 
Dolphin in the waves ; and in 1909, a case of eleven Medals. 

RICHART, ROBERT (French). Mint-master at Bordeaux, 1541-1545 
and later. 

RICHE, f£lix (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at Paris; 
pupil of Doublemard. By him is a Portrait-medallion of M. Hugues, 
which he exhibited at the Paris Salon, in 1883. 

RICHE, MkTETJmn (French). Mint-master at Avignon, 1422. 

RICHER, BERTZEN (Gm«.). Moneyer at Worms, arc. 1392. 

RICHER, JEHAN (French). Mint-master at Lyons, 1495. On Ecus 
au soleil of Charles VIL, struck by him, his privy-mark occurs, 
namely a rosette at the end of the legends and a dot under the 
twelfth letter. 

RICHER, D' PAUL (French). Contempor3iry Physician, Sculptor and 

— 112 — 

Medallist, born at Chartres in 1849. He was educated at Chartres 
and Paris, and was a Draughtsman in the service of Charcot when 
he decided to study medicine. In 1874 he was received as a medical 
student at the Paris hospitals, and five years later, in 1879, he 
obtained his degree. From 1882 to 1895 h^ was Chief of the Labo- 
ratory of the " Clinique des maladies dusysteme nerveux " ; became 
a Laureate of the Academie de Medecine in 1883, and of the 
Institut de France, 1881, 1891 and 1894; Member of the Societe 
de biologie, 1893, and of the Academie de Medecine, 1898; Knight 
of the Legion of honour, 1903. In 1903 he was named Professor 
of anatomy at the Ecole nationale des Beaux-Arts, in succession to 
Mathias Duval, and in 1905, he was admitted a member of the 
Academie des Beaux-Arts on the death of Baron Alphonse de 



His medical works are numerous; the most important being: 
Etudes cliniques stir V Hystero-dpilepsie oti grande Hysteric, and VArt 
et la Medecine. 

— 113 - 

At the Salon of 1888, a statue ' Le Moissonneur' was exhibited 
by him; in 1890, again a bronze statue ' Le premier Artiste'; in 
1900, * Un Bucheron au repos';and in 1903 the ' Pasteur Monu- 
ment ', for the Place Saint-Michel, at Chartres. 

As a Medallist, D' Paul Richer is the author of the following 
Plaquettes : 50 Years' Jubilee of the Societe de biologie (1899); — 


Dr H. J. Marey. 

Prof. D' Raphael Blanchard (1900); — Prof. D"" E. J. Marey (1902) 
{illustrated); — Prof/ D' J. B. A. Chauveau (1903) (illustrated); 
— B. Teissier, medical student (1903); — International Medical 
Congress at Lisbon (1906), etc. 

The Portrait-plaquette of D' Chauveau is a remarkable work. 
D' Lacronique describes it thus in Ga:(ette nuniismatiquc frangaise, 
1905, p. 20: " La physionomie si expressive et si imposante de 

L. FoRRER. — Biographical Notices of Medallisls. — V. 8 

— 114 — 
Chauveau est d'une ressemblance parfaite. Cette tete olympienne, 

Dr J. B. A. Chauveau. 
oil se lit a la fois I'intelligence, la vigueur et la bont^, surmonte un 

— 115 — 

buste puissant dont les epaules sont courbees moins par lage 
que par le travail. Elle est couronnee d'une abondante chevelure 
dont on ne peut soupconner, sur la medaille, I'eclatante blancheur, 
tant la figure est restee celle d'un homme dans tout I'epanouisse- 
ment d'une verte et forte maturite. — La scene du revers se passe 
dans le laboratoire physiologique de Chauveau a I'ecole veterinaire 
de Lyon. Les appareils repr^sentes, le dispositif employe, les aides, 
le cheval en experience, tout est d'une exactitude absolue. Get 
ensemble met en evidence I'ingeniosite et I'originalite que le savant 
apporta dans ses moyens de recherches, ainsi que le lieu ou naquit 
et grandit sa renomniee". 

D' Paul Richer designed the obv. of the official medal of the 
15''' International Medical Congress at Lisbon in 1906, which was 
modelled by Simoes of Almeida. A specimen was exhibited at the 
Salon, 1908, with a Medal of the Congress of Lyons, and a Portrait- 
plaquette of Benedict Tessier. 

The medals of D' Paul Richer are by Prud'homme and Lernac. 

Bibliography. — Di'R. Lacronique, Medecins Medailleurs. Le docteur Paul Ricljer 
et ses pre'curseurs, Gaz. num. fraiK^aise, 1905, pp. 1-59. — Art et Decoration, 1902. 

— Rex'ue de I'Art, 1902. — Catalogtu du Salon, 1902. 

RICHERDES, HERMANN {Germ.). Mint-master at Wunstorf, 1568- 
1569; was imprisoned for issuing false money; but later his initials 
HR occur on coins of Munden, 1577, proving that he was reinstated 
at the latter Mint. 

Bibliography. — Wolff, Die MUn^^^sldtten und Mun:^meisler der Her^oge Erich 1 
und II von Caknherer, 1536-1584, Bl. fur Munzfreunde, 1879, ^^^' ^S^- 

RICHER, JACOB (French). Sculptor, born at Saint-Mihiel, 
Lorraine, in 1585, settled first at Vizille, and later at Grenoble, 
where he married in 1615. He was in the service of the Due de 
Lesdiguieres, for whom he executed numerous works of sculpture. 
His signature I. R.F. 1613 occurs on a Portrait-medallion of Marie 
de Vignon, marquise de Treffort, which is reproduced by Mazerolle, 
PI. XXXVII, n° 759. 

The date ot this artist's activity is placed between 16 10 and 1641, 
but the year of his death is not known. 

BIBLIOGR.^PHY. — N. Rondot, Jacob Richier, sculpteur et niedaiUeur, 1888. — 
Mazerolle, op. cit.. Int. cxliii. — Rondot & De La Tour, op. cit., p. 271. 

RICHIER, JEAN (French). Sculptor, born at Saint-Mihiel, about 
1565, died at Metz, 16. December 1625, He was residing atMetz 
from about 1608. By him are four Portrait-medallions, cast in 
bronze, signed IR, and executed in 161 6, 1617 and 1622. They 
are : Claude de la Cloche, 16 16; signed :I.R.F. 1616(91 X70 mill.); 

— Barbe Mayotte, wife of Claude de la Cloche, 1616 (91 X 
69 mill.); — Gerard Richier, 1617; signed : I.R.F. 1617 
(92 X 70 mill.); — Marguerite Groulot, wife of Gerard Richier, 


'< ?■ -;:^.' 

Marie de Vignon, Marquise de Treffort. 

Marguerite Groulot, 1617. 

Frances Stewart, Duchess of Richmond 
(after Sir Peter Lely). 

IJt. of Pattern Farthing, 1665 (enlarged). 
Vide p. 118. 

— ii8 — 

1 6 1 7 ; signed : I.R.F. 1 6 1 7 (9 1 X 7 1 mill . ; illustrated) ; — Pierre Joly, 
King's Counsellor and Procureur general of Metz, 1622; signed: 
I.R.F. (68 X 52 mill.; lead in the Epinal Museum). 

Jean Richier was a grandson of the famous Ligier Richier, the 
sculptor of the Saint Mihiel sepulchre. His medallions, says Maze- 
rolle, have a certain artistic merit and are of a fairly good style. 

Bibliography. — N.Rondoi,/<'a« Richier, sculpteur et nie'dailleur. Revue numis- 
matique, 1888, p. 184; PI. ix, no 3. — L. Germain, Medaillon de Jean Richier 
representant Pierre Joly, Rev. num., 1888, p. 558-566. — Mazerolle, op. cit. — 
Rondot & De La Tour, pp. cit. — Rondot, Medailleurs lyounais. 

injra. The figure of Britannia on Charles II. 's Halfpennies and 
Farthings, from 1668, issaid to be a portrait of the famous mistress 
of the ' merry monarch '. 

RICHMOND, DOWAGER DUCHESS OF (Brit.) On ii. July 1626 a 
patent was granted for seventeen years to the Dowager Duchess of 
Richmond, and Sir Francis Crane, to issue Farthing tokens, which 
are usually known as * Richmond Farthings '. The obv. type is a 
Crown over two sceptres in saltire and I^. crowned harp. Numerous 
varieties exist, differing principally in the disposition and contraction 
of the legends and sizes of crown and harp. Montagu specifies fifty- 
five different mint-marks which he had noted on them . 

Bibliography. — Montagu, Copper, Tin and Bronze Coinage, 1893. — Grueber, 
Handbook of the Coinage oj Great Britain and Ireland, 1899. 

RICHMOND, W. B. (Brit.). Contemporar}' Sculptor, Painter, and 
Medallist; son of the painter George Richmond ; Associate of the 
Royal Academy; a pupil of Prof. Legros and E. J. Poynter. He 
has executed some clever Portrait-medallions, modelled in wax first, 
and cast in bronze. 

RICHOU, HENRI LOUIS (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Seine-Port; pupil of C. Monceau and A. Dumont. At the Salon 
of 1892 he exhibited a Portrait-medallion of M™* Alice Richou. 

Mint-master at Vienna, 1646-1659. His mint-mark occurs on M 10, 
2 and I Ducats; J'^. Double Thalers, Thalers, Half-Thalers, and 
subsidiary coinage of Ferdinand III. Before being appointed at 
Vienna, he appears to have served in the same capacity at Brunn. 
He died on 25. July 1663. 

RICHTER, BENEDIKT or BENGT (Swed.). Medallist, born at 
Stockholm in 1670, died at Vienna on 18. April 1735. He was a 
pupil and son-in-law of Karlsteen, and after leaving Sweden he 

— 119 — 

worked for some time in Paris, where he was employed at the 
Medal Mint to engrave medals for Louis XIV. In 1703 he came 
over to England, but soon after returned to Stockholm, being 
appointed Engraver at the Royal Mint there. In 17 12 he was called 
to Vienna to fill the post of chief Medallist {Obermcdaillenr) to the 
Imperial Mint, and on 15. January 171 5 he was named Inspector of 
the Coinage {K. Miiniprdginspector). It would appear, from docu- 
ments, that the artist also spent some years at Berlin, about 17 10- 

Among this Medallist's productions I have come across the 
following, which are variously signed : RICHTER ; — R. ; — R; — 
Richter; — BR. ; — B. R. : — Unknown Portrait, undated, and uniface, 
69 mill.; — Charles XII. 's defeat of King Augustus of Saxony, near 
Riga, 9. July, 1701 ; — Peace of Alt-Ranstadt between Charles XII. 
and Augustus, 14. September 1706; — Charles XII. grants Religious 
Tolerance to Silesia, 1707; — Another, on the same event; 
^L. D.EiECTis . LEVA.MEN . AFFERT ; — Sweden's Valour, 1809; 
I^. LABOR. ENVMERARE.LABORES. Hcrculcs ; — Admiral Sir George 
and Lady Rooke, 1703; — Sir William Rich, 1703; — Richard 
Nevill, 1703. (The last three medals were executed by Richter for 
the Swedish Club in London. " The head of each person," says 
Vertue, *' was done on one side [of the medal] and some motto 
and device on the other. These were done by Bengt Richter, a 
Sweed, who first modelled them by the life, and cast and repaired 
them curiously. He was related to [Christian RichterJ, the limner, 
but staid not long in England ") ; — Arrival of Emperor Charles VI. 
from Spain for his Coronation in Germany, 171 1; — Coronation 
of Charles VI., 171 1 (sev. var.); — Charles VI. and Empress 
Elizabeth Christina, 171 1 ; — Hungarian Coronation of Charles VI., 
1712; — Preliminaries of Peace signed between Prince Eugene and 
Villars, and Peace of Rastadt, 17 14; — Hungarian Coronation of 
Empress Elizabeth Christina, 1714 (^. by Warou); — Another, 
with CORON.POSON. (Presburg) mdccxiiii; — Foundation of the 
Pest Memorial at Mariahilf, 171 5; — Foundation of the Carl 
Boromiii Church at Vienna, 1716; — Building of the Carlo Boro- 
mai Church at Vienna, 17 16; — Capture of Temesvar by Prince 
Eugene, 17 16; — Building of the ' Landtafelgebaude ' at Vienna, 
1717; — Capture of Belgrade, 1717 (sev. var.); — Treaty ot Pro- 
tection concluded at Messina, 1719; ^. secvritas italiae; — 
Coronation of Charles VI. at Prague, 1723 ; — Coronation of the 
Emperor and Empress at Prague, and Millenary of the Bohemian 
capital, 1723; ^. by Warou; — Hungarian Coronation of 
Charles VI., 17 12; I^. by G F. Niirnberger; — Erection of a 
Memorial Column of the Pest at Baden, 17 14; — Gottfried Bessel, 
abbot of Gottweig; Reconstruction of the Abbey after the fire 

— 120 — 

(lyiS); — Peace of Passarovitz, 1718(2 var. ; both with Reverses 
by Fuchs; obv. illustrated); — Jeton, on the same event ; — The 
Quadruple Alliance formed to maintain the Peace of Utrecht, 17 18; 
Rd,, PRO Q.VIETE pvblica; — Birth of Archduke Leopold Johann 
Joseph, son of Charles VI., 13. April 1716; 1^. foecvnditati 
AVGVSTAE (2 var.); — Victories ot Prince Eugene over the Turks, 
lyiyj — Empress Elizabeth Christina, Coronation at Pressburg, 

Charles VI., 17 18. 

17 14; — Arrival of the Empress at Vienna, 171 3 ; ^. Rising sun; 

— Another; ^. Goddess driven in triumphal chariot; — Empress 
crowned at Prague, 1723; — Foundation of Breslau University, 
1728 ; — Marriage of Maria Anna Christina, eldest daughter of 
Ferdinand Maria, Prince Elector of Bavaria, and Louis, Dauphin of 
Viennois, son of Louis XIV., 1680; — Jeton of 168 1 with bust of 
the Dauphine; I^. novvm . decvs . addita . coelo. Crown in clouds; 

— Defeat of the Spanish Fleet off Cape Passaro, 1718 ; — Count 
Karl Gustav Tessin, i73o(?); — Count Giovanni Bapiista Comazzi, 
undated (?); — Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, 17 19. 

N. Keder issued a Portrait-medal of Bengt Richter. 

Daniel Warou, who was likewise a pupil of Karlsten, and who 
cut some dies of medals in conjunction with Bengt Richter, appears 
to me, from his work, especially that connected with the Imperial 
House of Germany, to have been the better artist of the two, 
although some of the latter's productions are not without 

Bibliography. — Hildebrand, Sveriges Konungahusets Minnespenningar , Stock- 
holm, 1874. — Hawkins, ed. Franks & Grueber, Medallic Illustrations, &c. — 

— 121 — 

Ratalog der Munien- und MedaiUen-Stempel-Sammhmg des K. K. Haitplnmn^amtei in 
IVien, 1901. — Mittheihingen des Clubs der Mfini- und MedaiUeiifreunde in JVien, 
1 890- 1 905. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. — Nagler, AUgetneities KUnstler- 
Lexikou, 1837. — HugoWeifert, Af«/n«5aOT/«/Mn^ t'OM Medailkn auf die Eroberungen 
Belgrads in den Jahren 16SS, ijij und lySp und den Frieden von Passarovjit:(^, Mitth. 
des Clubs, &c., 1898. — Rondot & De La Tour, op. cit. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — 
F. Krohn, C. J. Tbonisens Nyere Monter, Copenhagen, 1867. — Domanig, Por- 
trdtmedaillen des Er^hauses Oesterre.ich, Wien. — F. Friedensburg u. M. Seger, 
Schlesiens Mun^en und Medaillen der neueren Zeit, Breslau, 1901. — Medaillen und 
Miinien des Gesammthauses Wittelsbach, Miinchen, 1897. — E. Fiala, op. cit. — 
Catalogus der Nederlandsche en op Nederland belrekking hebbende Gedenkpenningen , 
1906, — Paul Joseph u. Eduard Fellner, Die Mun^en von Frankfurt am Main, 
1896. — Ammon, op. cit. — Lochner, Medaillen Samnihmg, P. I. 49. V. 17. — 
Domanig, Die Deutsche Medaille, 1907. — 

RICHTER, HANS (Atistr.). Mint-engraver at St. Joachimsthal, 

RICHTER, JOHANN JOSEF (Austr.). Mint-engraver at Hohenelbe, 
was employed temporarily at Prague, 17 14, after the death of Hans 
Georg Ritter. 

RICHTER, LUCAS (Aitstr.). Die-cutter at the Mint of Kremnitz, 
1558; appointed Engraver there, in succession to Christof Fiesel, 
1562; pensioned off in 1579; died about 1590. He cut coin-dies 
for Ferdinand I., Maximilian II., and Rudolph II. He also engraved 
medals : " Weinachtspfenning ", Religious medal strucTc for 
Christmas 1563, signed : L. R. ; obv. Adam and Eve; I^. Birth of 

Jacob and Barbara Gienger, 1568. 

Christ ; — and possibly also the following : " Pestpfenning", 
1565; obv. Christ healing the Leper; I^. Christ and three 
Apostles healing a man possessed by demons; — " Osterpfenning" 
(Easter 1566 ?); ^. Christ carrying his cross ; — Another, 1566. 
Adam and Eve; ^. Christ on the Cross; — Undated. Jonah and 
the whale; ^L. Christ risen from the dead; — David and GoHath, 

— 122 — 

The compilers of the Vienna Mint Museum Catalogue of Dies, 
Puncheons, etc., further ascribe to Lucas Richter : Undated. D'"Georg 
Gienger von Rotteneck (7 1577) and his wife Magdalena (Berg- 
mann, PI. xii, 57); — Another, smaller, of the same personages; 
differing also in minor details (Bergmann, 189); — Jacob Gienger 
von Grienbiichl {-f 1478) and his wife Barbara Kolnbeck von 
Salaberg, 1568 (Bergmann, PI. xiii, 196; illustrated). 

The work on these medals is characteristic of the period and very 

Bibliography. — C. Oesterreicher, Re^esten aus J. Newald's Publication aher 
osterreichische Miin:^pragungen, Mitth. des Clubs, &c., 1890, p. 72. — Katalog der 
Mun^en und Medaillen- Stempel-Sammlung des K.K. Hauptmun:(amtes in fVien, I, 

RICHTER, J. (Germ.). Designer of a Portrait-medal of D"^ Joseph 
Barth, Vienna, 1804. 

RICHTER, OTTO (Germ.). Contemporary Sculptor, who exhibited 
two medals at the Berlin Kunst-Ausstellung, 1907. 

RICHTER. SIMON (Austr.Y Son of Lucas Richter, who was 
emploved as Die-cutter at the Mint of Kremnitz, circ. 1580; died 
in 1597. 

RICHTER, VALENTIN (Austr.). Die-cutter at the Mint of Kremnitz, 
circ. 1560. 

RICHTER, WOLF (Austr.). Son of the moneyer Wolfgang Richter; 
Die-cutter at Kremnitz, 1608-1665. 

RIDDEL, CAPTAIN, later LT : COL : R. V. (Brit.). Officiating Mint- 
master at Calcutta, 3. July to I.September i88i;again, 10. January 
1884 to 21. January 1886, and 6. November 1886 to 6. June 
1889 ; then at Bombay, 1889- 189 5. 

RIDDER, CASPAR (Germ.). Mint-master to Duke Johann Adolf 
von Holstein-Plon, at Plon, appointed on 17. February 1679. It is 
uncertain how long he remained in office, and where he was work- 
ing in 1683. He was acting as Mint-master at Kaltenhof, 1688-89. 

RIDDER, HANS (Germ.). Mint-master at Wismar, 1670-74, and 
Liibeck, 1674-1715. The coins issued under him often bear his 
initials HR, or an Arm holding sword. 

RIDDER, JACOB (Dutch). Mint-master at Kampen, 1676- 169 5, 
where he issued gold and silver currency, described in Verkade, 
Munthoek, etc., Schiedam, 1848. 

RIDDER, LAMBERT (Dutch). Mint-master for Guelders at Har- 
derwijke, 1695-1714. His coins bear a 'horseman' as his special 

— 123 — 

mark. Fide Verkade, also De Voogt, Geschiedenis van bet M.untiue:^en 
der Vereenigde Nederlanden (van ijyS-iSij), 1874. 

RIDEL, LOUIS (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born in Paris. 
At the salon of 1906 I saw a silver medal by him of the ' Societe 
des R^gates de la Trinite-sur-Mer ". 

RIEDEL, JOHANN (French). Medallist of the second half of the 
nineteenth century, by whom I have only seen three medals, one 
commemorating the Third centenary of the Retormation at Leipzig, 
1839 ; a second with portrait of D"" Johann Paul Freiherr von 
Falkenstein, 1879; and a third on the Accession of Alexander I. 
of Bulgaria, 1879. 

RIEDEL (also RUDEL, RUDELL, or RYDELL), HANS (Germ.). Mint- 
master at Breslau, 1622; Imperial Mint-warden, 1623; Adminis- 
trator of the Breslau Mint, 1624. He died on 8. November 1636. 
His initials HR occur on currency issued between 1623 and 1633. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, op. cit. 

RIEDELL, BONIFACIUS (Auslr.). Mint-engraver at Budweis (Bohe- 
mia), 1 594-16 1 1 or later. 

RIEDER, SEBASTIAN (Atistr.). Mint-warden at Guessdenitzka 
(Hungary), in the service of the Counts of Ziny, 1530-15 32. 

at Nuremberg, 1794- 1800. 

at Nuremberg, 1764-1793. 

RIEDL (or RUdel), GEORG (Germ.). Mint-master at Erlangen 
(Bavaria)^ 1622. 

RIEDL, JONAS (Germ.). Mint-master at Amberg, Erlangen, 
Kulmbach, 1621-1622. 

RIEDMELLN, CHRISTOPH (Germ.). Mint-master at Marienburg 
(Poland), seventeenth century. There is a copper piece with his 
name, and the VjL inscription : 1601 | dena | rivs cv : | preys. 

RIEDNER, ADAM NIKOLAUS (Germ.). Mint-master at Nuremberg, 
1794-1800; Mint-warden at Munich, 1812. 

RIEDNER, GEORG NIKOLAUS (Germ.). Mint-master at Nuremberg, 
1764-1793. The coins issued under him are usually signed R, or 
G. N. R. In 1766 he acted also as Mint-master at Friedberg i. d. 

— 124 — 

Wetterau. Sometimes his coins are signed : S. R. (Sigmund Scholz, 
Mint-warden, and Riedner) or N. S. R. (Nuremberg, Scholz, 
Riedner). G. N. Riedner pubUshed in 1788 a Catalogue of all the 
Medals struck at Nuremberg from 1679 to 1787. 
Bibliography. — Gebert, op. cit. — Amraon, op. cit. — Nagler, op. cil. 

RIEDTSCHAL, GE0R6 (Austr.'). Mint-engraver at Kuttenberg, 

RIEGER, HANS {Germ.). Two Medallists and Coin-engravers of 
that name were working at Breslau during the first three quarters 
of the seventeenth century. The father, son of Georg Rieger, cutter 
of armorial bearings, was born in 1580 and died on 15. March 1653, 
and the son was still living in 1660. About 1621 and following 
years Hans Rieger Sen"" was Mint-master at Breslau. His initials 
occur, in that capacity, on a number of coins, which he however 
may also have engraved. One of his best known works, which is 
signed : HANS RIEGER, is the Broad Schauthaler commemorating 
the Pest of 1633. The Halt Schauthaler only bears his initials H. R. 

The Riegers worked not only for the Mint of Breslau, but also 
for the Kings of Poland, the Princes of Liegnitz-Brieg, etc. The 
elder Rieger produced a considerable number of coins and medals, 
beginning with a Double Ducat of 16 11 on the Visit of Emperor 
Mathias to Breslau, and ending with a Portrait-medal of Prince 
Ludwig von Liegnitz-Brieg, 1647. 

Friedensburg and Seger mention the following productions of 
the two Riegers : SILESIAN STATES. Frederick, Count-Palatine 
(1619-1621). Breslau 25 Thaler piece, 1621 ; — Ohlau 12 I Thaler 
Klippe, 6, 3, I I and | Thalers, 1621 ; — Ohlau, 30 Kreuzer. — 
EVANGELICAL STATES. Breslau, 1634,3 Ducats, Ducat, Double 
Thaler, Thaler, and 3 Kreuzer; — 1635, Ducat, Thaler, and 
3 Kreuzer. — LIEGNITZ-BRIEG. Johann Christian and Geors; Ritdolf 
(1602-1621), 1617. 6, 5, 3 Ducats, Thaler, \ Thaler, 3 Kreuzer; 
— 1618. Thalers (2) and 3 Kreuzer; — 1619. 10, 6, 5, 3 Ducats, 
Double Thaler, Thalers (2), | Thalers (2), \ Thalers (2), and 
3 Kreuzer; — 1620. Thaler, | Thalers (2), and 3 Kreuzer; — 
1 62 1. Thaler, \ Thaler, 48, 24, 12 and 3 Kreuzer . Johann d^ristian. 
1 62 1. Ohlau, 7 Ducats, Thalers (3), 24 Kreuzer (4 var.), 3 
Kreuzer; — 1622. 4 Ducats, 3 Ducats (3 var.), 24 Kreuzer (3), 
3 Kreuzer (2 var.); — 1623. 24, and 3 Kreuzer; — Reichenstein, 
1621 •, ^Kreuzer . Georg Rudolf . 1622. | Thaler on the death of Duchess 
Sophie Elizabeth, and Raitpfennige (2 var.); — 1638. Portrait- 
medal of Georg III. zu Brieg (signed : H. RIEGER); — 1647. 
Portrait-medal of Ludwig zu Liegnitz (signed : HR); — 16 12. 
Portrait-medal of Charles II. zu Munsterberg-Ols (HR); — 1636. 
Heinrich Wenzel, zu Munsterberg-Ols (HR). — NEISSE. Charles, 

— 125 — 

Archduke of Austria, 1614. Ducat and other currency ; — Charles 
Ferdinand, Prince of Poland, 1642, 10 Ducats, 2 Thalers, 2 ^(2), 

2 (4) Thalers, Thalers (2)4 Thaler ; — BRESLAU. 1621.24, and 

3 Kreuzer; — 1622. 3 Ducats (3 var.), \ Ducat, Thalers (2), 
24 Kreuzer (4), 3 Kreuzer (2); — Prize Medals (2), struck about 
1645; — Undated, View of City; V/L. Fame; — Similar, but 
smaller; — View of City; 1^. Child, etc.; — 1640. Johann 
Feschius, jurist at Breslau (-|- 1645) ; — 1622. Marriage of Wenzel 
Reuss and Susanna Scholz ; — 1624. Caspar Schrotter, Abbot of 
St. Vincenz at Breslau; — 1640. Daniel Ulmer von Ulmenheim, 
lawyer at Breslau; — 1617. Michael Wolpdorf, 'Schiitzenkony'; 

— 1626. Ferdinand II., Hunting Medals (2 var.); — 1633. Pest- 
thaler, and Half Thaler; — Wladislaus IV. of Poland; — 1634. 
View of Breslau ; ^. Inscription ; — Gustavus Adolphus (2 var.) ; 

— 1635. Wladislaus IV. ; 1^. View of Danzig; — 1636. Breslau, 
obv. Bust of Ferdinand III.; ^. View of City; — 1644. The 
Magdalenen-Bibliothek at Breslau; — Religious Medals; — 
Marriage of Duke Heinrich Wenzel with Anna Ursula von Raibnitz; 

— 1614. National Shooting Festival; — Loewenberg Shooting 
Festival, 161 5, etc. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, Schksiens neuere Mun^eschichte. — Friedens- 
burg u. Seger, Schksiens Mun:^en und Medaillen der neiuren Zeit, Breslau, 1901. — 
Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Domanig, Die Deutsche Medaille, 1907. 

RIEGER, LEOPOLD {Austr.^. Mint-warden at Kremnitz, 1695- 

RIENNER, ERHARD {Aiistr.). Moneyer at the Vienna Mint, 1463. 

RIES, JOHANN ADAM (Germ.). Medallist and Coin-engraver, born 
at Kulmbach in 1813, died at Munich in 1889. He was employed 
at the Mint there from about 1844. Amongst his productions are : 
Medal of 1 849 for the loyal soldiers of the Palatinate, and especially 
of the Landau garrison ; — Centenary of the Bavarian Academy 
of Sciences, 1859 (obv. by Voigt); — Prize Medal, undated, with 
head of Louis II; 1^. koenigliches max Joseph stift; — Another, 
undated; ^. academia artivm boica bene merito; — Prize Medal 
of the Academy of Sciences, undated ; — 'Ludwigsmedaille' for 
Sciences and Arts, founded in 1872; — 'Ludwigsmedaille' for 
Industr}', founded in 1872; — Burgomasters Medal, undated; — 
Prize Medal for Rifle shooting, undated; ^. dem besten schutzen; 

— Prize Medal of the Polytechnic School, 1863; — Prize Medal of 
the International Art Exhibition, Munich, 1869; — Prize Medal 
of the District Architectural School of Kaiserslautern, 1875; — 
Prize Medal of the Nuremberg Exhibition, 1882 (several varieties); 

— D'^J.N. von Ringseis, Munich, 1862; — Third Centenary of the 
University of Wiirzburg, 1882; — Prize Medal for Military 

— 126 — 

Manoeuvres, undated; with bust of Prince Regent Luitpold; — 
Bavarian Peace Tiialer 1871 (i^. by Voigt), etc. 

Many of the coin-dies of Maximilian II. and Louis II. of Bavaria 
are his^work, but they do not bear his signature except the Peace 
Thaler of 1 87 1 (illustrated), although Voigt's name occurs on most 
of the obverses of the currency ofthese two reigns. 

Peace Medal, 1871. 

This artist's medals are signed : J. R.; — R.— J. RIES or RIES. 
There is a Portrait-medallion of Ries, uniface; 44 mill. 

Bibliography. — Die Medaillen und Mun^^en des Gesammlhauses Wiitehhach, 
Munchen, 1901. 

RIES, MATHIAS {Germ.). Gem-engraver, born in 1685, died in 
1738. He was a son of Johann Helfrich Ries, Goldsmith and Cutter 
of armorial bearings (1656-1710). Mathias Ries worked for many 
years at Rome, where he executed a number of intaglios, after 
antique statuary. His series of Portraits is also characteristic. Nagler 
mentions a Portrait-intaglio, cut in a carnelian of thaler size, of 
Prince Elector Johann Wilhelm von der Pfalz; also a Bacchus, cut 
in carnelian, which eventually went to Sweden, and is of excellent 
workmanship. After his death a series of plaster casts of his gems 
was issued, about 1740. 

Bibliography. — Nagler, Allgemeines Kunsller-Lexikon. 

RIESING, JOHANN VEIT (Germ.). Medallist and Mint-engraver at 
Wurzburg, 1763 -1789. He worked for the bishops Adam Friedrich 
(i755-i779)and Franz Ludwig (1779-1795). 

RIESE, ABRAHAM (Germ). Medallist and Engraver {Formschueider) 
in the service of the Electors of Saxony, whose date of activity is 
placed between 1592 and 1625. He was a descendant of the famous 
Adam Riese, * Rechenmeister', who died at Annaberg in 15)9. 
This artist's signature R. occurs on uniface Portrait-medallions of 
Prince Maurice of Orange-Nassau, of which two varieties are in 

— 127 — 

the Hague Museum {one illustrated), and Count Ernest of Mansfeld, 

Prince Maurice of Orange-Nassau. 
Bibliography. — Nagler, op. cit. — Catalogus, &c. — Oranje-Pennittgen, &c. 

RIESING, KARL ERNST (Genu.). Medallist and Mint-engraver at 
Wiirzburg, 1793-1795 ; son of Johann Veit Riesing, and his pupil; 
was born in 1775. He worked for some time at Cassel, where he 
learned modelling. On his return to Wiirzburg, he was appointed 
Court Medallist to the bishop Franz Ludwig, Freiherr von Erthal, 
of whom he engraved a Portrait-medal, 1772, and from 1793 to 
1795 he cut dies for the episcopal currency. After the secularization 
of the see he was mainly employed to engrave seals for the various 
civic offices. 

Bibliography. — Nagler, op. cit. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

— 128 — 

RIESS, J. (Germ.). Schlickeysen-Pallmann mention this name as 
that of an Engraver, who was working at Darmstadt about 1880. 
Could it possibly be the same person as Johann Ries (q. v.) who 
died at Munich in 1889 ? 

RIESSE, G. {Germ.). Engraver of Leipzig, who was working at 
Munich, circ. 1824. 

RIETKHER, CASPAR (Germ.). Mint-master at Teschen, appointed 
5. January 1594, whose initials C. R. occur on coins of that Mint, 
dated 1596 and 1597. He was serving in the same capacity at the 
Mint of Olkuss from 1586. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, Schlesiens neuere Mfiii^eschichle. 

RIETSCHEL (Germ.). Designer, residing at Dresden, whose name 
occurs as that of the Designer of a Portrait-medal, unsigned, ot 
D' C. G. Cams, ot Leipzig, which was executed by Ulbricht, 1847 
(Boston Collection). 

RIETSCHENSKY, GEORG (Germ.). Mint-master at Teschen, 1620. 

RIEZ, JAN. Vide JOHANN RIES. Bavarian Medallist and Mint- 
engraver, 1813-1889. The Dutch engraver Johan Philip Mathias 
Menger was one of his pupils. 

RIFFARD, ALBERT (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Nismes ; pupil of JoufFroy. At the salon of 1885 he exhibited a 
Portrait-meaallion of a Young Lady. 

RIFFAULT, MARIN (French). Mint-engraver at Angers, 14. January 
1525 to 31. October 153$. 

RI6ART, MAX (Germ). Mint- warden at Munich, 1737-1745. 

RIGAUD (French). Eighteenth century Engraver of Jetons. 

RIGEL, A. (Austr.). This signature occurs on a School Prize Medal 
of Horn (Lower Austria). 

RIGELLO, GIOVANNI STEFANO (Ital.). Mint-master at Milan, 
I. January 1588 to 16. February 1589 as procurator of the Magnif. 
Nicolas Cipriano, Zecchiere generale of the state. 

RIJK. Vide VAN RIJK infra. 

RIJSWICK, DERIC VAN (Dutch). Medallist of the middle years of 
the seventeenth century, whose works date from 1650 to 1655. 
Pinchart suggests that he was a resident of Amsterdam, and 
Bolzenthal that he may have been the same person as the artist 
who won fame for his incrustations of mother-of-pearl on black 

— 129 — 

By D. vanRijswick are : 1650. Amsterdam besieged by William II. 
(2 var. ; one 58 mill., and the other 68 mill.). The legends differ 
on the two medals. Both are signed: D.V. RISWICK F. ; — 1653. 

Admiral Martin Tromp. 

Admiral Martin Tromp (illustrated). Obv. Bust three-quarter face to 
r. ; 1^. Naval engagement (59 mill.) ; signed on obv. D. V. RISWICK F 
and I.L.DEL (Jan Livens q. v. or Z^ delineavit; ^. D.V. R.); — 
1655. John Maurice, Prince of Orange (59 mill.). Cuirassed bust 
facing ; signed on truncation : D. V. RISWICK (Hague Museum). 
All these medals are of very good execution. 

Bibliography. — Pinchart, D. van Riswyck, Revue num. beige, 1887, p. 406. 
— Hawkins, ed. Franks and Grueber, Medallic Illustrations, &c. — Oranje- 
Penningen. — Catalogus &c. — Van Loon, op. cit. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — 
Immerzeel, De Lti'ens en Werken der kunst schilders, &c. — Kramm, De Levens en 
IVerken, &c. 

RILLIET, ROBERT (Swiss). Appointed on 5. August 1692 to 
undertake a coinage of Ducats for the city of Geneva. Fide Demole, 
op. cit. 

RINMAN, FRITZ (Swiss). Assistant of Peter Gatz, Mint-master at 
Basle, who in 1425- 1429 was ordered to issue a coinage of Gold- 
gulden in the name of the Emperor Sigismund. 

RIMMINGTON, FLORENCE M. (Brit.). Contemporary Modeller, 
residing in London, who at the Royal Academy, 1907, exhibited a 
Portrait-medallion, entitled " Nell-1906", of very delicate and 
expressive work. 

RINGEL D'lLLZACH, JEAN (French). Contemporary Alsatian 
Sculptor and Medallist, usually residing at Paris. He was born at 
lUzach, near Miihlhausen, and is a pupil of Jouffroy and Falguiere. 

L. FoRKER. — Bio^rapbital Nolius of Mtdallists. — V. 9 

— 130 — 

In 1883 he obtained a Mention honorable; in 1888 a medal of the 
Third class, and a Silver Medal at the Universal Exhibition of 1889. 
In the spring of 1906 I had the pleasure of seing the eminent 
artist at work in his studio at Strassburg, and was very much 
impressed by his skill. 

Ringel d'lUzach, by himself. 

This artist is the author of two series of singularly boldly 
modelled Portrait-medallions, of eminent Frenchmen, 140 mill, in 
diameter. Each Portrait is accompanied with attributes, inscriptions, 
or emblems relating to the intellectual influence exercised On con- 

- 131 — 

temporaneous history by each of the individuals that are represented. 
This series of Medallions was published by J. Rouam, Librairie 
de I'Art, Paris. Among these I have noted the following Portraits : 
M. E. Chevreul, 1895; — Ferdinand de Lesseps ; — D""}. A. d'Ar- 
sonval, of Paris (145 mill.); — Emile Augier ; — Jean Dollfus; — 
Leon Gambetta; — Eugene Guillaume ; — Auguste Rodin; — 
Victor Hugo ; — L^on Lhermite ; — Louis Pasteur ; — Ernest 
Kenan ; — Jules Grevy ; — Savorgnan de Brazza ; — Alexandre 
Dumas fils ; — Falguiere ; — E. de Goncourt ; — Charles Gounod ; 

— Etienne Arago; — Got; — Ludovic Halevy; — Labiche ; — 
General Pittie; — Francisque Sarcey; — Aug. Vacquerie ; — 
Bertillon, director of the Paris 'Service anthropometrique'; — 
Brochin, violonist; — D' Capitan; — D' Charcot; — D"" Debacker ; 

— Leon Desfontaines, director of the * Cercle philarmonique; — 
Expert-Besanijon, chemist ; — Froidevaux; — D"" .P Galippe, of the 
' Academie de Medecine ' ; — Girard, director of the ' Laboratoire 
municipal'; — Granger; — D*" Gr^hant; — J. Gurt, 1903 ; — 
Henrivaux; — William Marie, 1903; — Georges Eugene Marty, 
1903 ; — Massenet; — J. Meunier; — Miniart; — Nicot, of the 
' Opera comique'; — Ogier; — Pothier; — D' Raspail; — 
D"" Ribart; — D' Charles Richet ; — J. Ringel, archeologist ; — 
A. Ringel; — Ringel d'lUzach (illustrated); — General Baron 
Rothvilliers ; — Sangle ; — D"" Stef ; — Tourcy ; — D"" Tridon ; — 
D' Trillat, of the ' Pasteur Institute'; — Sansboeuf, president of 
the ' Federation des Alsaciens-Lorrains ; — Philippe Bellenot ; — 
Th. Dubois; — Leon LetelHer, 1903; — Pickaert ; — G. Pierne, 
composer ; — Reine; — Albert Kern, 1904; — Liliane Kern, 1904. 
The last two are reproduced in The Studio, xxxvi, 175 ; — A. de 
Saint-Marceaux; — R. de Saint-Marceaux; — G. Steinbach; — 
Medal on the 60''' Anniversary of M. et M'"'' Jean Dollfus' wedding, 

M. Ringel d'lUzach, so successful in practising the art of ceramic 
work, is also one of the most excellent sculptors of our time. His 
strong individuality marks him out as a Master of a school, around 
whom gravitate an imposing group of pupils of whom many to-day 
can also boast of celebrity. 

In Ga:^ette numismatiijiie franfaise, 1803, p. 96, M. Jean de Foville 
makes the following observations on the style of this artist : « Je 
ne veux pas passer sous silence la serie de portraits de M. Ringel 
d'lllzach. Connu surtout par des bustes de cire peinte d'une 
conception toujours originale, M. Ringel d'lllzach expose cette 
annee des medallions qui rappellent ceux de David d'Angers. La 
plupart sont des portraits d'artistes ; les musiciensy sontenmajo- 
rite. Ennemi de I'art trop minutieux, I'auteur a surtout cherch6 
I'accent. II souligne dans chaque physionomie le trait vraiment 

— .132 — 

caracteristique et traite I'ensemble d'une touche tres large. Cette 
methode difficile est la vraie. Si M. Ringel d'lUzach n'est pas tou- 
jours egal a lui-meme, il est souvent tres evocateur, et il n'est 
jamais banal. II ^tait connu comme statuaire : il faut desormais se 
sQuvenir de lui comme m^dailleur » (La Gravure en nUdaille aux 
Salons de 190 f). 

Bibliography. — Num. Chron., 1895, p. 314. — Roger Marx, Les Medailleurs 
franfais, 1889. — Information obtained from M. E. Moreati, Librairie de VArl, 
and M. Boiideau, of 2 rue Louvois, Paris. — Catalogues du Salon, depuis 188 j. 

RINGEL, M"'« HORTENSE JEANNE {French). Contemporary 
Sculptor, born at Noissy-Cramayel ; pupil of M. Ringel. At the 
Paris Salon of 1882 she exhibited a series of forty-one Portrait- 

RINGIER, M™'= JULIE TH£r£SE {French). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born at Paris, pupil of G. Lemaire. I have seen Portrait-medallions 
by her at the Salon of 1893 and 1897 • ^"^ Ren^e V***, 
M"« A. B***. 

RINGLER, SEBASTIAN (G^rw.). Mint-warden at Heidelberg, 1575. 

RINZI (//a/.). Contemporary Medallist, whose signature : 
RINZI occurs on the three following medals : Memorial Medal of 
King Vittorio Emmanuele II. , 1878 ; — Review of Italian troops by 
Prince Umberto at Campo di Somma, 1865 ; — Portrait-medal ot 
Bartholomeo D. C. Romilli, archbishop of Milan, etc. 

RIPA, WALTER DE (Brit.). Mentioned in Hardy's Close Rolls in the 
Tower, pp. 381-3 , as having been paid a sum of money for the seal 01 
Henry III, about 12 16. Bloom records various payments made over 
to the Engraver for the execution of this seal, which, however, does 
not seen to have come into use. 

Bibliography. — Wyon, Great Seals of England, 1887. — J. H. Bloom, English 
Seals, 1906. 

RIPP, FRIEDRIGK KARL (Germ.). Goldsmith, who was made 
Assistant-warden at the Mint ot Langenargen (Hohenzollern) in 

Bibliography. — Bahrfeldt, Mtln:^en der F&rstenthumer Hohenzollern. 

of jetons, appointed Mint-engraver at Tournai, 1461, when Jean de 
Hanin opposed him, and was appointed in his stead after four 
years' contentions. A jeton described by M. A. de Witte with obv. 
legend : -|- vive le roi loais de France has on '^L. vive riqueham 


Bibliography. — Rondot & De La Tour, op. cit. — A. de Witte, fetons bammx 
du XV^ sikle signe's du nom de leur graveur, Tournai. 

— 133 — 

RISPAL, JULES LOUIS {French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Bordeaux ; pupil of Thomas. At the Salon of 1894, he exhibited a 
silver medallion with bust of Saint Cecilia. 


RISS, ABRAHAM {Germ.). Freed Court-Jew, who in conjunction 
with Veit Prod, untertook in 1615 the working of the Falkenstein 
mint for the counts of Trautson. 

RIST, jOrG (G^T/w.). Mint-warden at Kempten, after 1515. 

RITTENHOUSE, DAVID {Amer.). First Director of the United 
States Mint at Philadelphia, appointed by Washington, April 14, 
1792, and remained in office until June 1795. There is a Portrait- 
medal of him by Barber. 

Bibliography. — Evans, U. S. Mint Centennial, 1892. — Snowden, op. cit. 

RITTER, CHRISTOPH {Germ.). Goldsmith, Sculptor, and Engraver 
at Nuremberg, 1634-1669; died in 1676. He was employed at the 
Mint as Die-cutter, according to Ammon and Doppelmayer, who 
state that he was " ein sehr kiinstlicher Mann, auch trefflicher 
Bossierer und Eisenschneider. " 

BiBLiOGR.^PHY. — Ammon, op. cit. — Doppelmayr, Historische Nachricht von 
Nurnhergischen Mathematicis und Kunsthrn, p. 234. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — 
Gebert, Geschichte der Munistdtte der Reichstadt Ntirnberg, 1891. 

RITTER, GEORG FRIEDRICH {Germ.). Mint-master at Schillings- 
furst, 1684. 

RITTER, FRIEDRICH {Germ.). Mint-master at Brunswick, 1800- 
1814; Director of the Mint, 1814-1820. His initials F.R. occur on 
the coinage. 

RITTER, HANS {Austr.). Court-Goldsmith and Mint- engraver at 

Vienna, 16 16. 

RITTER, HANS GEORG {Austr.). Court-Goldsmith at Vienna, and 
appointed assistant Mint-engraver, 22. April 1616, under Caspar 
Haidler. In 1624 he cut dies for the new Thalers and Quarter- 
Thalers, 1624 and 1625, with bust of Ferdinand II. 

Bibliography. — J. Nentwich, Seltene osterreichische Viertelthaler, Mitth. des 
Clubs, p. 534. 

RITTER, JEREMIAS {Germ.). Mint-master at Nuremberg, 1622. 

RITTER, JOHANN GEORG {Austr.). Mint-engraver at Prague, circ. 
1693-1713, in which latter year he prepared Patterns for the 
coinage. He however died in 17 14 (some say 17 17) from cholera. 

— 134 — 

Thalers, Half Thalers, and Groschen, dated 1713, are by him, and 

signed I.G.R. 

Bibliography. — E. Fiala, op. cit. — Katalog der K. K. Mun:^en- und Medaillen- 
Stevipel-Sammlung in Wien, 1902. 

RITTER, WILHELM (Germ.). Mint-master at Miinster, 17 14- 

RITTER, WOLF CHRISTOPH (Germ.). Mint-master at Nuremberg, 
1622. He issued base money (Kipper mun::^en) and was a colleague 
of Jeremias Ritter. 

RITZ, SIMON (Austr.). Brother-in-law of the Kremnitz Mint- 
engraver Max Konig; studied engraving at Vienna, 1754. 

RIU, EUGfiNE (French). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
born at Montpellier (H^rault) ; pupil of Falguiere. By him are a 
series of Portrait-medalHons, among which I have noted : 1870. 
Alexandre Dumas pere; — 1880. M. Lepere, ministre de I'lnt^rieur 
et des Cultes; — 1881, M""* L***; — Seven bronze medallions; — 
1882. Portraits of Jules Grevy and L^on Gambetta; — Portraits of 
the President of the Chamber of Deputies, and M***; — 1883. 
Victor Hugo; — Colonel Riu ; — Henri Brisson; — 1887, 
8 Portrait-medallions; — 1888. 2 Portrait-medallions; — 1889. 
Henri Privat; — M^'^ Jane de Riu; — 1890. M. Pilou ; — 
M. Privat; — M. Querelle; — 1892. 4 Portrait-medallions; — 
1893. 7 Portrait-medallions; — 1894. ^ Portrait-medallions; — 
Portrait-medal of M"'^ la Baronne de G***. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. — Catalogue du Salon, 1882- 

RIU, M^e LAURE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Chatillon-sur-Seine (Cote-d'Or) ; pupil of Bonetti. At the Salon of 
1867 she exhibited a Portrait-medallion of herself in bronze, and 
in 1870 one of a M"'^ A***. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

RIVA, ALOYSIO (Ital.). Director of the Mint at Cattaro, 1540- 

RIVA, ZUAN(7/a/.). Mint-inspector at Venice, 1693-1694, whose 
initials Z. R. occur on the coinage. 

RIVAROLO, AGOSTINO (^Ital.). Mint-master at Parma, 1614-1617, 
and Ferrara, 16 19. His initials A.R. occur on some of the coins he 
issued at these two Mints. At Ferrara he was in office for some time in 
conjunction with Franchini, and their joint initials FR occur on 
Ferrarese coins of Gregory XV. 

- 135 — 

RIVERIN, GABRIEL ALFRED (French). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born at Paris; pupil of Carpeaux and Truffot. By him are various 
Portrait-medallionsof French actors and actresses : 1874. M"* Paola 
Marie, actress; — M™^ X***; — 1875. C. Cabau;— M"'^ B***; — 
1876. M. Berthelier, actor; — 1878, M-"^ Ugalde, of the Opera 
Comique; — 1880 M"^ Humberta, actress. 

RIVERTA, CAMILLO (//«/.). Assistant Mint-master at Milan, under 
Carlo Zavarello, administrator of the Royal Mint, 1605- 1608. 

RIVET, ADOLPHE (French). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
born at Perigueux, in 1855; pupil of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, 
Cavelier, Ponscarme, and Roty. 

As a sculptor his best known works are : A Bacchante (adorning 
the Jardin des Arenes at Perigueux) ; — Statue of General Beaupuy 
inaugurated in 1896 at Mussignan); — Bust of Lagrange-Chancel 
(erected at St. Astier, 1897). 

By him are the following medallic works : 1889-1898. Music; 
— La Patrie encourageant la Jeunesse a la pratique des exercices 
virils (illustrated) ; — Neptune and Amphitrite ; — La Course 

La Patrie. 

antique; — Les Arts f^minins; — L'Encouragement a I'Etude ; — 
Horticulture (illustrated) ; — Agriculture (illustrated); — Pomology; 
— Apiculture; — Shepherd Dogs; — Fox-Terrier Club of 
Antwerp; — The canine race; — St. Hubert; — Union patrio- 
tiquedu Rhone; — Bordeaux Exhibition, 1895 ; — First Commun- 
ion ; — Ordination ; — Murillo's Virgin ; — Patria ; — Joan of 
Arc ; — Manon (Lescaut) ; — Russie ; — Mignon ; — Femme 
Louis XV (M""^ Du Barry) ; — R^publique agricole (illustrated) ; — 
Ceres; — 50''' Anniversary of the Association des Tissus, 1898 

- 136- 

(plaquette) ; — La femme au laurier ; 
1898; — Les Travaux des Champs; - 
Hotel de Ville de Levallois-Perret; - 

• La Palme au vainqueur. 

La Femme au Raisin ; — 

1899, St. George; — 


St. Anthony of Padua; — Virgin (2 var.) ; — Societe des Chrysan- 
themistes du Nord de la France; — Monument a la m^moire des 
enfants de Lyon morts pour la Patrie, 30. October 1898 (after 
E. Pa^ny, who modelled the ^.); — Head of the Republic (several 


varieties); — 1900. Velleda ; — Caisse d'Epargne de Saint-Jean d'An- 
gdy; — Tir a I'arbalete; — Aviculture; — Caisse d'Epargne 
d'Orl^ans (octagonal jeton) ; — Le Personnel des Docks i son direc- 

— 137 — 

teur, E. Bizard, a I'occasion de sa 40^ ann^e de service (^. Fame, 
by H. Dubois) ; — Agriculture, Sciences and Arts; — Bacchante; 
— Sainte C^cile ; — Association generale des Tissus et des Matieres 
textiles ; — Portrait-medallions : M. Varlet ; — M'"^ Varlet ; — 
M. Brocherieux, &c. 

Republique agricole. 

Several of Rivet's medals are exhibited at the Luxembourg 

Rivet has also done good work in ceramic art and in plate. He 
is a keen observer and lover of nature, and at the same time a thinker 
with broad ideas, a cousciencious and sincere artist. His knowledge 
and experience enable him to distinguish between essentials and 
matters of second importance, and his works in consequence do 
not suffer from ill-balance or lack of proportion. 

Bibliography. — Ch. Dupriez, Adolphe Rivet, Gaz. num., II, p. 95. — 
R. Marx, Medailkiirs fratifais contemporains, PI. 32. — Gazette numistnatique fran- 
(aise, 1898-1908. — D"" J. H. de Dompierrc de Chaufepie, Z^5 Aff'da///« <r/ Pla- 
qttetUs modeniis, I. — R. Marx, Les Medailleurs fraiifais, 1887. — Catalogue du 
Salon, 1 882- 1 904. — L. B^nedite, Catalogue du Musee du Luxembourg. 

RIVIfiRE, JEAN {Germ.y Contemporary Sculptor, born at Tou- 
louse; pupil of Ponsin. At the Salon of 1882 he exhibited a fine 
Portrait-medallion of M"^ Planard. 

RIWINUS G^rw.). Mint-master at Enns (Sty ria), 1191. 

RIXENS, JEAN ANDRfi (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
St. Gaudens. At the Salon of 1888 and 1889 he exhibited several 

RIZZI, ANGELO (Ital.). Sculptor of the early part of the nineteenth 
century, whose name occurs as that of the modeller of a Presenta- 

- 138 - 

tion medal from the Empress Carolina Augusta, in 1818, to the 
donors of artistic gifts from the province of Venetia. The medal, 
which bears the busts' vis-a-vis of Francis I. and Carolina Augusta, 
was engraved by Luigi Ferrari. It is reproduced in Italia, p. 981. 
Bibliography. — L' Italia net cento anni, etc. 

R. K. F/Wf REINHARD KRtJGER. Medallist at Dresden, born 1794, 
died 1879. 

R. M. Vide RUDOLPH HANZ. Tin founder of Zurich, by whom is a 
medal, dated 18 12. 

R. M. G. Probably the initials of a Mint-master of Guelderland. 
They occur on a medalet commemorating the Peace of Crepv, 1544 
(Med. IlL,l,n)- 

ROAIRE (or ROIZE), JACQUES DE (French). Goldsmith of Troyes, 
by whom is a curious medal, with jugate busts of Henry II., 
Charles V., Julius Caesar, and an unknown personage, the model- 
ling of which is very clever (Bronze gilt; 13,5 mill. ; illiistraled). 

Medal, by J. de Roaire. 

J. de Roaire was working at Troyes from about 1520 to 1571. 
His name occurs also as Rouaire, Ruelle, or Roize. 

Bibliography. — N. Rondot & H. De La Tour, op. cit., Intr. 94. — MazeroUe, 
op. cit. 

Sculptor, born at Clamecy (Nievre); pupil of Jacques Callot. At the 
Salon of 1901 he exhibited a Portrait-medal in oxydized silver ot 
D' Lombard. 

ROBBE, AUGUSTE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at Paris. 
I saw a Portrait-medallion of a child, by him, exhibited at the Salon 
of 1890. 

— 139 — 

To one of the two sons of Andrea della Robbia, Frati Ambrogio and 
Luca, '* brethren of Savonarola in the convent and his zealous 
adherents ", are ascribed, on Vasari's authority, a series of ten 
medals, all derived from two models, with the portrait " of the 
gloomy prophet and unfortunate reformer". " With slight devia- 
tions ", writes von Fabriczy, " they all reproduce his well- 
known features with rare fidelity ; his deep-set glowing eye, his 

Fra Girolamo bavonarola (to br.) 

bony cheeks, the strong nose and protruding lips. Most directly, 
perhaps, are they expressed in the large medal (illustrated) of the 
British Museum and the Berlin Cabinet, the only one in which he 
holds the crucifix. The reverse displays, in an awkward composition, 
on a field divided by a vertical line, the avenging sword of God and 
the Holy Ghost hovering over the city of Florence — an allusion 
to the gloomy prophecies of the implacable censor ot morals ". The 
specimen of this type, described by Armand is 62mill.indiam. ;the 
one reproduced above, after Heiss(G. Dreyfus collection)is95mill.. 

— 140 — 

and the British Museum one, 89 mill. Heissgives a full descriptionof 
eight varieties (7 JE and i lead) six of which show onobv. the bust of 
Savonarola, to left, without the crucifix. The obv. and ^.legends 
differ on each variety. All these medals were executed after two 
prototypes; one is a bust in carnelian by Giovanni delle Corniole 
(Uffizi Gallery), and the other a bronze bust attributed to one of the 
Delia Robbia. 

Fra Ambrogio (PAOLO DELLA ROBBIA(?))was born 6. April 1468; 
the date of Fra Luca's (MARIO DELLA ROBBIA (?)) birth is not 
known. They both entered the convent of San Marco at Florence, 
where they continued their profession of Sculptors and Plasticatori 

Bust of Savonarola. 

(enamellers) practised by their father, ANDREA DELLA ROBBIA (1435- 
1525), who himself was a nephew of the first and famous LUCA 
DELLA ROBBIA (1400-1482), the author of a series of bas-reliefs for 
the Florence cathedral, and known chiefly for his works in enam- 
elled terra-cotta, the like of which is named after him " Delia 
Robbia ware". 

Morsolin favours the attribution of the Savonarola medals to Fra 
Ambrogio della Robbia. However Prof. W. Bode rejects this attri- 
bution and gives them to Niccolo Spinelli (jj. v.\ and states : 
" To Giovanni della Robbia the Savonarola medals have been 
assigned, simply because Vasari mentions his having executed a 
small portrait relief of this friend of the Della Robbia family. " 

Bibliography. — C. von Fabriczy, Italian Medals, English ed. — Armand, 
Ob. cit. — A. Heiss, Les Medailleurs de la Renaissance, IV, 1885, pp. 64-70. — 
E. Miintz, Pre'curseurs de la Renaissance. — Vasari, ed. Milanesi, II, pp. 181-2. — 

— 141 — 

Fortnum, Bronzes in the South Kensington Museum, 1876. — J. B. Supino, // Meda- 
gliere Mediceo, 1899. — B. Morsolin, Medaglia in otiore di Fra Domenico da Peseta, 
Riv. ital. di num. 1892, p. 497. — Maud Crutwell, Luca and Andrea della Robbia, 
1905. — Cavallucci and Molinier, Les Delia Robbia, leur Vie et leur CEuvre, 1884. 
— Leader Scott, Luca della Robbia, 1883. — M. Reymond, Les Della Robbia. 
Florence, 1897. 

ROBERT, BERNARD (Freticlj). Goldsmith of Valence ; Mint-master 
at Chambery, 1338-9, 1340-1, 1341-57 ;Saint-Symphorien-d'Ozon, 
i340;Bourg, 1338-9; and Pont-d'Ain, 1338-9. 

ROBERT, JEHAN {French). A native of Saumur ; Mint-master at 
Angers from 26. February 1421 to 15. October of the same year. 

ROBERT, ZTJGtHE {French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at Paris; 
pupil of Mathurin Moreau. He is the author of several Portrait- 
medallions, and Bas-reliefs, which were exhibited at the Paris Salon, 
from 1875 to 1882 and later. 

ROBERT, GLORGLS {French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at Paris ; 
pupil of Riviere. By him are several Portrait-medallions. 

ROBERT DE PORCH {Brit.). Mint-master at the Royal Mint, Lon- 
don, anno 36 of Edward III. 

Sculptor, born at Conflans-Sainte-Honorine (Seine-et-Oise); pupil 
of J. Constant Destreez. At the Salon of 1879 he exhibited a 
Portrait-medallion of Abbe Grimot. 

ROBERTON, ADOLPHE {French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Paris; pupil of Fournier, and Trupheme. He is the author of some 

ROBERTS, G. E. {Amer.). Director of the Mint at Philadelphia, 
since 1904. 

ROBERTSON, JOHN {Brit.). Silversmith of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
and Issuer of silver Tokens for 2 s. 6 d., 15. and 6 c?., 1811, which 
are commended for excellence of design and workmanship. 

Bibliography. — Maberly Phillips, The Token Money of the 'Bank of England^ 
1797 to 1816. 

ROBIN, HONORf: {French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at Claas 
(Haute-Saone) ; pupil of Hiolin, and Roty. At the Salon of 1886 
he exhibited the following Portrait-medallions : V. H***; — 
Jules Barne, silver medal ; — Minerva, plaquette, etc. 

ROBIN, PHILIPPE {Swiss). Mint-engraver at Geneva, i. April 1780 
to his death, 12. October 1792. Besides engraving coin-dies, he 
also executed some medals, as that of the Societe des Arts of Geneva, 

— 142 — 

the I^. of which is from a die by J. Dassier, and another of the 
Genevese Medical Society, signed : R. 
Bibliography. — Demole, Histoire mone'taire de Geneve. 

ROBINEAU (French). Manufacturer of Medals, Badges, Tickets, 
Buttons, and other articles in metal, established at Paris from about 
1850. This firm has issued Prize Medals for Agriculture, Horticulture, 
Viticulture, etc.. Badges of all kinds ; — Mining Jetons of St. Remy 
(Calvados), 1895, and other Mines (Fide Florange, Jetons dcs Mines), 
Presentation medal to M. Julien of the Ecole des maitres-mineurs 
(struck at the Paris Mint) ; — Marriage Medal of Napoleon III. and 
Eugenie, 1853 ; — Cholera at Marseilles, 1849 ; — A. A. Parmen- 
tier, etc. 

In i894Robineau issued a Priced Catalogue of his productions. 

ROBINET, JEAN (French). Mint-engraver at Bourges, 1598. 

ROBINET, PIERRE (French). Doctor of medicme and amateur-artist 
of Rouen, who in 1621 modelled a Portrait-medallion of another 
physician, Marin Le Pigny. It is reproduced in Museum Ma^^^uche- 
lianutii, and more recently in Gazette nuniismalique fran^aise, 1905. 
A. Heiss described it also in Revue num., 1873. The medalissigned : 
P. ROBINET MEDICVS FACIEBAT. D. Mater contests this attribution 
(Gfl;(. num. jr., 1905, p. 284). 

ROBINET, PIERRE ALFRED (French). Sculptor, born at Paris in 
18 14, died in 1879 ; pupil of Pradier, David d' Angers, Blondel, and 
Ramey Jun'. He is the author of a large number of remarkable 
statues and busts, and also bf several Portrait-medallions. 

ROBINSON, RICHARD (Brit.). Goldsmith of London, who in 1577 
suffered death by hanging for clipping gold coins. 

ROBDCHON, JULES c£SAR (French). Sculptor, born at Fontenay-le- 
Comte (Vendee) ; pupil of Roubaud. At the salon of 1889 he 
exhibited two fine Medallions in bronze: Paysans de la Garnache; — 
Mon Grand-pfere et ma Grand'mere; — and in 1890, Portrait-medal- 
lions of a Lady and Gentleman. 

ROCH, Mi'e CLOTILDE (Swiss). A Genevese Sculptor; pupil of 
Hugues Bovy, whose portrait she has modelled in the form of a 
large Plaquette (reproduced in Journal des Collectionneurs, Geneva, 
May 1905, p. 117). She began exhibiting at the Paris Salon in 1904 
continuing ever since: 1904. Hugues Bovy; — M"'=Roch; — 1905. 
Henri Bovy, Bronze Plaquette; — 1906. A. Bourdillon ; — 
Honneur aux femmes peintres ; — Pierre Bernadou ; — Berthe ; — 
Elisabeth Fulpius; — 1907. M. Auguste Dide ; — M"'^ Hugo de 

— 143 — 

Singer; — M. Paul Charles Stroehlin, president of the Swiss 
Numismatic Societ}'; — M. Gustave Doret, and other Portrait- 

Third Centenary of the "Escalade", 1902. 

medallions; — 1908. Auguste Dide ; — Casimir Dide, and the 
" Escalade" illustrated. 

ROCHE, JOHN VERNON (Brit.). Manufacturer of metal buttons for 
the army, residing at South King St., Dublin, about 1760, in which 
year he issued a series of private tokens, the so-called " VocePopuli " 
Halfpence and Farthings. Usual type: Obv. voce populi. Youthful 
bust, bare, head laureate ; before, P. ^L. hibernia Hibernia seated 
to 1., holding branch and sceptre ; her harp at her side; in ex., 1760. 

*Voce Populi ' Halfpenny, 1760. 

It has been suggested that the obverse bust was intended to 
represent Prince Charles Edward, and that the initial P was for 
Princeps. Another explanation, suggested by D"^ Nelson, on the 
strength of a pamphlet in the Harleian library, is that the head is 
that of Hely Hutchinson, afterwards Provost of Dublin, and that the 
P may indicate Provost. A third suggestion is that " These tokens, 
in imitation of a regal coinage, were struck in Ireland as an expression 
of loyalty, and in commemoration of the joyful accession of 
George Prince of Wales to the crown of the United Kingdom, and 
thefact that these pieces only bear one date, which chronicles the end 
of one reign and the beginning of another, would seem to show 
that at any rate the " Vox Populi" was all on the side of the popu- 

— 144 — 

lar grandson of George II. The pieces bearing P (for Primeps) upon 
them were doubtless struck earlier in the same year, before his 
accession as king (W. J. Webster, Sale Catalogue Sotheby, Wilkin- 
son and Hodge, i6. Nov. 1904, lot. 204). 

D"" Nelson describes twelve varieties of Voce PopuliHaltpence 
(some without the P ) and two of Farthings. The occasion for the 
striking of these private tokens was no doubt supplied by the 
sudden cessation of the issue of regal coins in 1755. 

Frazer mentions the name of Roche as a Die-sinker, to whom are 
ascribed some Prize-medals, etc. 

Bibliography. — H. A. Grueber, op. cit. — Nelson, The Copper Coinac^e of Ire- 
land 1460-1826, London, 1905. — W. J. Hocking, Royal Mint Museum Catalogue, 
I, 1906. 

ROCHE, JEHAN DE LA (^French). Mint-master at Poitiers, appoint- 
ed 5. May 1 53 3-1 541 and 1 542-1 543. His initial R occurs at the 
end of the legends on some Testons of Francis I. with the letter 
G beneath the bust. 

Bibliography. — E. Faivre, op. cit. 

ROCHE (French). This Engraver's signature occurs on a uniface 
medal commemorating the Spanish Victory over the French at 
Baylen, 19. July 1808. This medal has usually a ring for suspension. 

BiBLicxjRAPHY. — Edwards, op. cit. — Bramsen, op. cit. 

ROCHE, PIERRE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born and 
residing at Paris. He was requested by M. Roger Marx to model for 
the '* Societe des Amis de la Medaille fran<;aise " a medal dedicated 
to Loie Fuller. '* Ceit dans untourbillon de gaze, un corps souple 
dont les rondeurs vont se fondant et laissant comme une phospho- 
rescence partout ou elles se devinent. Bien rarement oeuvre a donne 
avec autant d'intensit^ la sensation meme du phenomene qu'elle 
doit rappeler". 

Amongst other medallic works by Pierre Roche ' whose fine taste ' 
is praised by M. Marx are : Melusine (reproduced in Midailleurs 
fran^ais conteviporaim, PI. 31, 2); — Fortune; — Nude child on 
horseback, a study in anatomy, etc. 

** On ne saurait demander a Pierre Roche ", says M. Saunier, 
** de s'astreindre aux regies ^troites, aux procedes consacres. L'art, 
a son avis, pent tout traduire a condition de varier ses manifestations. 
C'est done dans un but bien d^fini que le meme artiste qui, dans 
ses gypsographies, se contente de reliefs imperceptibles, a accuse 
fortement le corps meme de la Loie Fuller, afin de pouvoir disposer 
a son gr6 des saillies du m6tal dont I'eclat va mourir selon la loi des 

— 145 — 

vibrations lumineuses " (Ch. Saunier, La medailh francaise contcm- 
/7t)/-a/«t', Art decoratif, n° 38, 1901). 





Loio Mine- . 

L. FoKKEK. — Biographical Notices of Medallists. — V. 

- 146 - 

ROGHETAILL£e, DE (French). Engraver of coins to the Archbish- 
opric of Lyons, at the beginning of the fourteenth century. 

ROCHETAILLLtE, £TIENNE DE (French). Mint-master at Lyons, 
previous to 1340. 

R0CHETAILL£E. HUGUES DE (French). Mint-engraver at Lyons, 
1244, and again appointed in 1274 for a term of two years by the 
archbishop, Aymar de Roussillon. 

ROCHETAILL£e, jean DE (French). Sonof Etienne de Rochetaillee, 
titular Engraver of the coins (scidtor fcrrornm) at the three mints of 
the archbishop of Lyons. He died in 1340. 

Bibliography. — Rondot & De La Tour, op. cit. 

ROCHON, ALEXIS MARIE DE (French). Die-sinker and Engraver ot 
Lyons, who in 1791 submitted to the Coinage Committee a series 
of Patterns for Dixains in bell-metal. Dewamin (PI. 6) reproduces 
nine specimens, and a Pattern Demi-Sou. 

Bibliography. — Dewamin, Cent ans de numismatiqtie franfaise de ij8c^ a i8S^, 

ROCQUE, OLIVIER LAURENT (French). Engraver at the Mint of 
Caen, 1701-1720. 

RODE, ALEXANDRE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Paris; pupil of Jouanin. At the Salon of 1886 he exhibited two 
medals : Portrait of Senora de S***; — St. George killing the Dragon, 
and in 1889 a Portrait-medallion of Comtesse de T***. 

RODE, M"*^ EDG£nie (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Paris; pupil of Hippolyte Moreau. She is the author of several 
Portrait-medallions , 

RODOCANACHI, MISS HYPATIA (Brit.). Contemporary Sculptor, 
residing in London. She is a member of the 'Society of Medallists" 
at the Exhibitions of which she has exhibited Portrait-medallions. 
At the Salon of 1903, she had a fine relief in bronze, Death, Love 
and Faith, and at the Royal Academy, 1904, a Portrait-medallion of 
a Lady. 

This artist was born in London, of Greek parents, and she is 
a pupil of G. Frampton, and Prof. E. Lant^ri. 

RODOLPHE (5wm). Goldsmith of Freiburg, in Uechtland, appointed 
Mint-engraver there, about 1435, when the rightof coining, granted 
by the Emperor Sigismund in 1422, was for the first time exercised 
by the city. 

RODRIGUES, DIEGO (Port.). Mint-engraver at Lisbon, appointed on 
3. April 1497, in succession to Vasco Gonijalves. 

— 147 — 

RODRIGUES, FRANCISCO (Port.). Goldsmith, appointed Engraver 
to the Mint of Goa, in succession to Antonio Marques, 1526. 

RODRIGUEZ & C°, D. (Span.). Die-sinkers and Engravers of Barce- 
lona. By them is a Prize medal of the Barcelona Art Exhibition, 1907, 
modelled by Eusebio Arnau. 

RODRIGUEZ, F. VI. (Mexic). Medallist of the early part of the 
nineteenth century, whose signature : F. V. RODRIG' appears in the 
exergue of the reverse of a Mexican Proclamation Medal of Ferdi- 
nand VII., 1814 (Rosa, Momtario Americano, 1892, p. 399, n° 1300. 
— Spink's Num. Circ.,co\. 4987, n" 77491, Nov. 1901). 

ROBBECKE, MORITZ (Germ.). Contemporary Sculptor, residing at 
Berlin. At the Kunst Ausstellung, held in that city in 1907, he 
exhibited two Portrait-plaquettes of his Father and Mother. 

ROber. ANTON (Aiistr.). Mint-master at Kremnitz, 1853-1872. 

ROEBUCK, B. (Brit.). Mint-master at Madras, March 1807 to 
February 1809. 

ROECKL (Germ.). Founder of the seventeenth century, by whom 
are cast reproductions of fine German Renaissance Portrait-medals, 
amongst which I have noted : Lucas Kreler and his wife (Felix Sale 
Catalogue, lot 161). 

ROEDER, HANNS (Germ.). Mint-warden at Prague, 1 583-1 586, in 
succession to Simon Harder. In 1591 he held the same post at 

ROEG, MICHAEL (or MARTIN). Also REUG or RUCK (Norweg). 
Medallist of the first half of the eighteenth century, born about 
1685, worked at Copenhagen till 171 5 when he was called over to 
France, receiving 1000 livres to defray his journeying expenses. He 
abjured the protestant faith, but on the death of Louis XIV. he 
found himself in straightened circumstances, and was on the point 
of accepting an offer from the King of Portugal to go to Lisbon, 
when the Regent, Duke Philip of Orleans, attached him to his service, 
and granted him a pension of 1200 livres. 

Some of his medals are signed: ROG. He executed about sixty 
pieces, either as originals or reproductions of the Louis XIV. and 
XV. series, but he does not appear to have produced any work of 
superior merit. 

Amongst hii best known productions I may mention : Memorial 
Medal of Prince George of Denmark, 1708 (two varieties, one with 
bust of Prince George; signed: ROG; Med. III., 11, p. 334, n"" 163, 
164); — Victories of the French and Spaniards a,t Ekeren, 1703 

— 148 — 

(engraved in conjunction with T. Bernard in 171 5); — Ant. 
Coypei, painter, 1661-1728; — Philip, Duke of Orleans, and his 
consort, 171 5 ; — Elizabeth Charlotte, Duchess of Orleans, 1717,- 

From the accounts of the Paris Mint, we know that the artist 
executed the following dies : 171 5. Head of Louis XIV. ; — Hotel 
des Invalides ; — 1716. Die and puncheon; — 1717. Die; — 
^L. of medal on the Visit of Peter the Great to the Paris Mint ; — 
1720. Capture of Ivraea; — 172 1. Regency of the Queen Mother; 

— Naval Battle of Carthagena ; — Birth of Louis XV. ; — Recovery 
of the King (1721); — 1722. Crowned bust of Louis XV. (3 var.); 

— 1723. Peace of Rastadt; — Constancy of the King; — 1725. 
India Company; — Hunting; — Navigation restored; — Hopes 
centred in the King; — 1726. Marsal surrendered to Louis XV.; 

— Conquest of Franche-Comte; — 1727. Reestablishment of the 
Compagnie des Cadets ; — 1728. Birth of the Dauphin ; — 1729. 
Reestablishment of the Navy; — Dunkirk preserved from bom- 
bardment; — Capture of Philippsburg; — Defeat of the Duke of 
Bavaria; — 1730. The harbour of Cette ; — Engagement of 
Sinzheim; — The Carrousels; — Battle of Freiburg; — Visit of the 
King of Poland to France; — Battle of Ensheim ; — 1731- Cam- 
paign of 1647; — Louis XV. 's recovery at Calais ; — Building of 
forty galleys at Marseilles ; — 1732. Interview between Louis XV. 
and Philip IV. ; — Pyramid erected at Rome ; — Regulations for 
Buoys and Lanterns; — The two seas' Canal; — 173 3- Capture of 
Tortosa; — War against Spain ; — Abolition of Duelling; — 1734. 
Taking of Cadaques and Castillon ; — Battle of the Downs ; — 
Capture of Cond^; — 1735 • Conquest of Franche-Comte ; — Con- 
quest ot Holland; — Peace of the North; — 1736. Battle ot 
Liorens and Capture of Balaguier ; — Battle of Rethel; — Capture 
of Dunkirk; — Right of precedence recognized by Spain, etc. 

The following medals are signed : ROG. ; M. ROG ; ROG F. ; or 
Rog : — Louis XIV. Battle of Carthagena ; — Campaign of 1647 ; 
-- Engagement of Eckeren; — Louis XV. France's happiness; — 
Bust of the Regent's mother; — Coronation of the King atllheims; 

— Reestablishment of the Company of Cadets ; — Conquest of the 
Milanese provinces, etc. 

Roeg was almost exclusively employed to recut dies of the 
Louis XIV. series which had become damaged by use and to do the 
work which the Engraver-general or the chief Medallists at the 
Mint would not undertake themselves. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Ammon, op. cit. — Krohn, op. cit. — 
Journal historique de la Montioye des midailles. — J. J. Guiffrey, La Monnaie des 
me'dailles. Revue num., 1891, pp. 342-347. — Rondot and De La Tour, op. cit., 
p. 341- — P- MazeroUe, Visite de Pierre Ic Grand et de Nicolas II d la Monnaie 
des Midailles, 1896. 

— 149 — 

ROEMER, GEORG(G^n//.). Medallist born at Munich, and later resid- 
ing at Florence; one of the few remaining artists who still engrave 
their dies, instead of making use of the reducing-machine. He is the 
author of a series of medals symbolizing : Spring-time, Harvesting, 
Vintage, Yuletide, etc. 

At the Berlin Kunst-Ausstellung, 1907, he exhibited the following 
medallic works: Prince Billow; — Autumn; — Prince Regent 
Luitpold of Bavaria ; — Otto Gildemeister, 1902 ; — Rifle Meeting 
Prize Medal (2 var.) ; — Vita beata ; — All Souls ; — Harvesting; — 
Yuletide; — Spring (2 var.), etc. 


Some of Roemer's medals and plaquettes have been edited by Hitl 
of Schrobenhausen. There is also a Portrait-medal of Richard 
Wagner, by him, on the unveiling at Berlin of the first statue of 
this famous composer. 


ROSCH, HIERONYMUS (Germ.). Engraver at the Mint of Nurem- 
berg, 1535-1542. Fide FORMSCHNEIDER, Vol. II, p. 126. Bolzenthal, 
op. cit.y p. 132. 

ROSCH, JOHANN EGIDIUS (Germ.). Mint-master at Nuremberg, 

ROSCHINGEDER, JAKOB {Germ.). Mint-inspector at Gundelfiugen 
(Bavaria), 1622. 

ROSSLER, F. X. (Germ.). Mint-warden at Giinzburg, 1798-1806, 
and at Munich until after 18 12. 

ROSSLER, HEKTOR (Germ.). Three persons of that name, father, 
son, and grand-son, are said by Schlickeysen-Pallmann to have 

— 150 — 

held office at the Mint of Darmstadt, from about 1817 to 1864. I 
have noticed the initials H.R. on a Kronenthaler of Grand Duke 
Louis I. of Hesse-Darmstadt, 1825. 

ROSSNER, FRANZ (Aiistr.). Assistant-engraver at the Mint ot 
Vienna, 1843. 

ROEST, NYCLAES (Flem.). Mint-master at Louvain, circ. 1383- 

ROETHDSEN, CLAES (Gerw.'). Mint-master at Liibeck, 1583. 

ROETHUSEN, JCRGEN {Germ.'). Mint-master at Liibeck from 
24. December 1580 to 1582. 

ROETENBECK, GEORG DANIEL {Germ.). Modeller, Painter, and 
Draughtsman, born at Nuremberg in 1645 where he died in 1705 
(Doppelmayr). He is said to have taught modelling. 

His monogram [][f( occurs on the following medals: 1668. Georg 
Schweiger, sculptor of Nuremberg (Imhof, p. 194. Doppelmayr, 
PI. 14); — 1671. Religious Pendant; obv. Christ; ^. Lamb; — 
1672. Johann Wilhelm Baier, theologian of Nuremberg (Berlin 
Museum; illustrated). 

Johann Wilhelm Baier, 1672. 

Bibliography. — Ernian, o/». cit. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Ammon, op. cit. — 
Wills, Nurnbers;iscl}e Mfmil>eluslif[ungen. — Doppelmayr, Historische NachricJil von 
Nhrnhergisctien Mattiematicis uiul Kfinstlern. — D»' E. Mcrzbachcr Nachf., Kiiust- 
Siimmlimg-Katatog . 

ROETTIERS (ROETTIER, ROTIER). Several Medallists proceeded 
from a family of the name of Roettiers, whose members 
distinguished themselves in the art for nearly two centuries and 
worked for the Kings of England, France, and Spain. The founder 
of the family, Philip Roettiers, was born at Antwerp in 1596, and 

- 1)1 - 

was still living in 1660; the last descendant connected \\vj\th the 
Paris Mint, Alexandre Louis Roettiers de Montaleau, was bo"rn in 
1748, and appointed Director of the Paris Mint in 1791, whilst 
Joseph Charles Roettiers de la Breteche, Medallist in Paris, passed 
through trouble during the Revolution. 

The names of the various members of this family of Engravers 
occur on official documents in the following forms, Roettiers, Roet- 
tiers, Roettie~, Roettier, Ra'tier, Rottier, Rottie, Rotiers, Rotier, Rotbier, 
Rothiei, Roittiers and Roitier. 

The accompanying genealogical table will show at a glance the \ 
family relation of the various medallists of the name of Roettiers 
to one another. Vide Genealogical Table. 

Bibliography. — De La Chesnaye-Desbois, Dictionnaire de la noblesse, t. XII. 
— F. Alvin, Les Roettiers, Biographic nationale de Belgique, 1907. — A. de 
Witte, Notes stir les Roettiers, gravenrs-gcneraux des monnaies aux Pays-Bas me'ridio- 
naux, 1895. — Information kindly supplied by MM. Gillemaii, Ma^erolle and De 

Jacques (IV) Roettiers, and grand-son of Norbert R. ; born at 
Paris, 22. November 1748; died on 27. February 1855 (?) 

He was a Goldsmith by profession, and from 1765 to 1772 worked 
in partnership with his father, but in 1775 he retired, and obtained 
an official post at the Chambre des Comptes. On 30. August 179 1 
he was appointed Director ot the Paris Mint. The original document 
of his official appointment is in my possession. 

During the first two years of his tenure of office he was subjected, 
under the Comite du salut public, to great annoyances, but he 
nevertheless remained in the public service until 17. Fructidor 
An V, when he was replaced by Charles Pierre de I'Espine. His 
privy-mark on the coins is a cornucopiae. 

From the time of his retirement into private life, nothing more 
is known of the former Goldsmith of Louis XV. 

He was a Knight of the Legion of Honour. 

Bibliography. — Victor Advielle, Notices sur les Roettiers, graveurs gemraux des 
monnaies de France, graveurs particuliers de la monnaie de Paris (/672-1 796), R^uftion 
des Soci^tes des B«aux-Arts des Departements, 1888. — E. Faivre, Etat actuel des 
Ateliers monetaires fratifais et de leurs differents, Paris, 189s. — H. Jouin and 
F. Mazerolle, Les Roettiers, graveurs en medailles. Documents mis au jour et annates, 
Macon, 1894. — Babelon, La Monnaie. 


ROETTIERS, CHARLES NORBERT {French). Son of Joseph Charles 
Roettiers, grandson of Joseph R., and great-grandson of Philip (I)R. 
Born at Paris, 15 August 1720; Engraver-general of the French 
coins, 1753-1772; '* Graveur particulier "at the Paris Mint, 1759- 
1772; died a bachelor, 19. November 1772. 

\ — 152 — 

Like {several other members of his family, Charles Norbert Roettiers 
hadt'ne honour of being received a member of the ' Academic royale 
de Peinture et de Sculpture", in 1764, on the presentation ot the 
die of a medal showing a group of Painting and Sculpture, with the 
motto: Amicae quamvis aemulae, which afterwards served for the 

Marriage of Louise Elizabeth of France, 1739. 

'abrication of the jetons of M. de Julienne, 1765, bequeathed to 
the Academy. 

On his death, Joseph Charles, his father, retook possession of the 

Peace with England, 1763. 

office of Engraver-general of the coins, until 1774, when he ceded 
it to Pierre Simon Benjamin Duvivier. 

Charles Norbert Roettiers exhibited medals and jetons at the 
Salons of 1753, 1761, 1765, 1769, and 1771. 

Among his principal works are several medals of the Louis XV. 
series, the earliest ot which are retrospective : Free Instruction 

— 153 — 

granted, 1719 (41 mill.; signed : C. N. R.); — Visit ofoinfJisXV. 
to the Academies, 1719 (C. N. R. //mj); — Marriage ot'^Vl"^'''-"- . de 
Montpensier (C. N. R. /////j-); — Reestablishment of the Chunch 


The Paris Mint, 1770. 

of the Holy Sepulchre, 1722 (C. N. R.) ; — Plague at Marseilles, 
1723 (C. N. R. filius); — Congress of Soissons, 1728 (R. jiUus) — 
Preliminaries of Peace, 1735 (C. N. R.); — Marriage of M'"^ Louise 


- .54 - 

Elisabeth-- 1739 (R.Jilins; illustrated); — Assistance given to the 
El^\^of^oi Bavaria, 1741 (C. N. R.); — Recovery of Louis XV., Metz, 
i';^44 (C. N. R.) ; — Italian Campaign, 1744 (C.N. Kfilius) ; — Ano- 
tlner, 1745 (C.N. R.); — Protection of Arts and Industries, 1749 
{koett. filius) ; — Birth of the Duke of Aquitaine, 1753 (P. jiUiis) ; 

— Construction of the ' Place Saint-Sulpice', 1754 (ROETTIERS 
filius); — Capture of Port-Mahon, 1756 {Roett. Jilius); — Birth 
of the Comte d'Artois, 1757 (R. filius'); — Prize Medal for Dra- 
matic Art ; obv. Roett. filius; ^L. J. C. Roettiers (in three sizes. 54, 
45, and 41 mill.); — Raising of the City of Lyons. 1760 (C. N. 
ROETTIERS FILIUS); — The family Compact, 1761 (R. filius); — 
First stone of the Church of Ste-Genevieve, 1764 (ROETT. FILIUS); 

— Marriage of the Dauphin (Louis XVI.), 1770 (ROETTIERS FIL. ; 
three sizes, 63, 34 and 27 mill.); — Construction of the Mint, 
1770 (63 mill. ; C. N. ROETTIERS FILIUS; illustrated); — Construction 
of the Neuillv bridge, 1772 (5^ mill. ; obv. C. N. ROETTIERS 
FILIUS ; I^. ROETTIERS FILIUS) ; — Reunion of Corsica with France, 
1770 (63 mill.; C.N. ROETTIERS FILIUS); — The Duchess of 
Orleans, Princess Palatine (72 mill. ; obv. N. R.); — Foundation of 
the Equestrian statue of Louis XV., 1754(41 mill. ; R. ///w5); — 
States of Languedoc, 1764(54 mill. ; ROETTIERS FILIUS); — Prize 
Medal of the Academie de Peintureet de Sculpture (50 mill. ; N. R.); 

— Prize Medal of the Academie francaise (50 mill.; obv. J. C. 
ROETTIERS ; I^. C. N. R.) ; — Prize Medal of the Academie d'Archi- 
teaure, 1763 (r. filius); — Jeton of the French colonies in America, 
1752 and 1754 (C- N. R.); — Extraordinaire des guerres, 1754, and 
1764 (R. FIL.); — Menus plaisirs du Roi, 1756 (R. fil.) ? — Agents 
de change, ij^S(R.fil.); — Jetonof Artois, with bust of Louis XV., 
1757 (R. FILIUS); — Surgeons of the Navy (undated), etc. 

On the death of Charles Norbert Roettier, Laurent Leonard filled 
temporarily his place as ' Graveur particulier ' at the Paris Mint, 
from 1 772- 1 774, in which latter year the office was given to 
Francois Bernier (i 774-1 791). 

Besides the above-mentioned productions, we find listed in the 
Paris Salon Catalogues: 1761. Six medals ot the family of Princes 
and Princesses Gallitzin, and Troubetzkoi ofRussia; — 1769. Model 
for the ^. of a medal of Prince Gallitzin (f 1767); — The Triumph 
of Painting ; — St. Anthony's Temptation ; — Une veillee ; — 
1 77 1. Medal of Corsica; — Marriage Medals of the Dauphin ; — 
Amnesty Medal on the Dauphin's Marriage; — Medal of the Port 
of La Rochelle; — Medal of Alexis, Prince Gallitzin ; — Jetons of 
Madame de Provence; Abb^ Terray ; M. Le Thieullier ; Notaries of 
Tours; M. de la Mouchetiere, and others; — Jetons of Angers 
(A. Planchenault, Jetons angevins. Gazette numismatique francaise, 
1 900- 1 901). 

— 155 — 

Charles Norbert Roettiers' signature occurs on the last coinage of 
Louis XV : — Ecu of six Livres, 1772 (signed : ROETT. FIL.); — 
Petit Ecu, 1772 (same signature); — 24 Sols (R. FIL.); — 12 SoL 
(R. FIL.), and 6 Sols (R. F.), etc. 

Bibliography. — V. Advielle, Joe. cil. — Guiffrey, La Monnaie des Medailles. 
Charles Norbert Roettiers. Rev. num., 1891, p. 5J0. — Rondot, op. cit. — Chavi- 
gnerie et Auvray, op. cit. — Hoffmann, Motinaies royalesde Franct, Paris, 1878. — ^ 
A. Barre, loc. cit. — E. Faivre, op. cit. — Belts, American Colonial History illus- 
trated by Contemporary Medals, 1894. — Pichon Sale Catalogue, 1897. — R. H. 
Storer, MS. Notes. 

ROETTIERS, FRANQOIS {French). Son of Philip Roettiers Jun"", and 
grandson of Philip Roettiers sen', founder of this celebrated family 
of medallists. Francis (or Francois) was born in London on 3 . 
November 1685. He learned engraving under his father's tuition, 
and quite young went over to Paris, where he practised the art, 
and later became first Painter to the Elector of Bavaria, who resided 
at St. Cloud, and Professor at the French ' Academie de peinture 
etde Sculpture'. About 1718 he was called to Vienna, and appointed 
(1720) Director of the Academy of Fine Arts in that city, where 
he died on 10. June 1743. 

Pinchart states that Francois Roettiers' works are often confused 
with those of his brother Philippe, who equally signed his pro- 
ductions with R. Francois Roettiers' best medals are a Portrait-piece 
of Charles VL, ^ Crown resting on plough, and the Bohemian 
Coronation medal of Empress Elizabeth Christina, 1722. 

The Emperor Charles VL granted letters of nobility to the artist 
in 1720. 

For a description of Franz von Roettiers' work at Vienna, confer 
D"" Albert Ilg's notice. 

Francois Roettiers married in Paris, on 12. July 1712, Jeanne 
Hacquet, widow of Francois Heurte. 

Bibliography. — V. Advielle, op. cit. — D^ Albert Ilg, Fran^ von Rottiers, 
Wien. — Jouin-Mazerolle, op. cit. — Rondot, op. cit. 

ROETTIERS, GEORGES {French). Son of Joseph Roettiers, by his 
first wife, and grandson of Philip Roettiers Sen^ The date of his 
birth is not known, but he died in Paris, at the Mint, 6. January 
1749. He succeeded his father as Engraver at the Paris Mint, and 
remained in office from 1703 to 1748, when he resigned the post 
on behalf of his son, Joseph Charles. He held also the appointment 
of" Privy Medallist to Louis XV". 

The Paris Mint Museum possesses no puncheon by this artist, 
whose productions were not signed. La Chenaye-Desbois states that 
he acquired a great reputation in his art. Of his six children, only 


- 156 

one son, JOSEPH CHARLES, born on 12. January 1722, followed his 
father "s profession. 

' Bibliography. — N. Rondot et De La Tour, Les MedaiUetirs et les Graveurs de 
monnaies, 1904. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. — A, Barre, loc.cit. — Blan- 
chet, op. cit. 

ROETTIERS. JAMES (l)(Brit.). Second son of John Roettiers, and 
grandson of Philip (I) Roettiers; born in London in 1663 (others 
say at Antwerp in 1661); Engraver at the Royal Mint, London, 

Battle of La Hogue, 1692. 

where he succeeded to George Bower, 1690- 1697 > ^J^^ i" 1698 at 
Bromley (Kent) from the effects of a fall from his horse. 

"From about 1680 he assisted his father at the English Mint in 
making dies and puncheons (^Cal. Treasury Papers, 15 56-1696, 
pp. 108, no, 513; 1697-1701-2, p. 195), and in 1690 (on the 
death of Bower) was officially employed as an Assistant-engraver at 
the mint, together with his brother Norbert. An annual salary of 
325 /. was divided between the brothers. In 1697 (before July) 
James Roettiers was removed from his office at the mint in conse- 
quence of the theft of dies from the Tower (see under ROETTIERS, 
JOHN (II)). He was however allowed to retain his dies and pun- 
cheons for medals. " (W. Wroth, James Roettiers, Diet. Nat. Biog. 
XLIX, p. 98). 

James (I) Roettiers' principal medals are : Battle of La Hogue, 
H May 1692 (illustrated). This medal, of which there are two other 
varieties, of smaller size, thought by some to be patterns for coins, 
is probably by this artist although he did not sign it ; — Death 

— 157 — 

of Oueen Mary, ' 169 5; I^. svblatam ex ocvlis av.^RiMvs 

iNViDi ; inscription across the field (by James and Norbert Roettiers ; 
' specimens in copper were sold at the price of five shillings soon 
after the Queen's death ' ) ; — Another; j^. Sun setting behind hill 
('medal made of two thin plates united in a strong rim'); — Another; 
^L. Interior of Chapel ; signed : I. R. (2 var. ; Med. III., n°' 366-7); 

— Medal of Charles I. ; ^L. virtvtem ex me (by James and Norbert 
Roettiers) ; — Presentation of New Collar to the Lord Mayor of 
Dublin, 1697; ^- Inscription ; signed on obv. Janies R. F. ('one 
of James Roettiers* best medals ', says Mr. Wroth). 

It is impossible to assign any coins to James Roettiers, but it is 
probable that a large number of the dies for the coinage of William 
and Mary were prepared by him, in conjunction with his brother 
Norbert. (For a list of coins see John R. infra.) On the copper coins 
of 1694 a small satyr's head was said, no doubt in error, to have 
been introduced within the head of William III. 

ROETTIERS, JAMES II (Flem.). Medallist and Coin-engraver; son 
of James I Roettiers; born at Bromley (Kent) 1698, in the year 
of his father's death; settled at Paris, 1718 ; went over to the Low- 
Countries, 1733, on the death of his uncle, Philip (II) where he 
held the office of Engraver-general of the coins of the Low Countries 
from 31, August 1733 ^^^^ ^^^^ death at Brussels, on 15. July 1772. 
His son, JAMES (III) ROETTIERS came to London in 1733 with his 
cousin, James, son of Norbert. 

Among Jacques (II)Roettier's medals, usually signed R, we find : 
Commemorative jeton of the Reconstruction of the Brussels Mint, 
1756; — Portrait-medal of Charles of Lorraine, 1756; — Medal of 
the Academy of Brussels, 1768; — Medal of the Academy of Ant- 
werp, 1770; — Portrait-medal of Maria Theresia, 1734 (signed: R.); 

— Portrait-medal (retrospective) of Joseph II. ; — Medal dedicat- 
ed to Maria Elizabeth, governor of the Low-Countries, 1727 (R) 
{illustrated); — Inauguration of the University of Louvain, 1728; 

— Wise rule of Maria Elizabeth, 1729 ; — The Jansenists and Anti- 
constitutionalists, 1730; — Brave behaviour of Maria Elizabeth at 
the Fire of Brussels Palace, and Death of her Prime Minister; — 
Portrait-medals of Maria Elizabeth, governor ot the Low-Countries 
(several varieties, of different dates, and undated; all signed R-)» 

— Conrad, Duke of Ursel, governor of the Low-Countries; — 
Courageous attitude of Maria Elizabeth, governor of the Low- 
Countries, 1733; — Pietv of Maria Elizabeth (1734); obv. Bust; 
^. Ship (r. on both sidles) ; — Neutrality of the Low-Countries 
during Maria Elizabeth's rule (1735); — Resolution of Maria 
Elizabeth not to resign her governorship and not return to Vienna 
(^738) ; — Foundation of Brussels Almshouses (1738); — Acces- 

\ - 158 - 

sion of Maria Theresia; Homage of the Low-Countries (17^0) ; — 
Benevolence of the governor of the Low-Countries, Maria Elizabeth 
(1741); — Homage of Namur to Maria Theresia (1744); — 
Charles Alexander, Duke of Lorraine, commemorates the corona- 
tions of Charles V., Charles VL and Joseph II, 1764; — Courtrai 
School of Midwifery, 1780 (signed R.; probably executed from an 
earlier die by J. Roettiers) ; — Maria Theresia, 1767 (R.)? etc. 

On 27. February 1744 Jacques Roettiers was called upon to take 
up temporarily the post of Engraver at the Mint of Bruges {Rev. 
beige num., 1897, p. 230). 

He engraved the Seals of state and private ones as well. His own 
are reproduced in Rev. beige num., 1895, p. 282. 

Portrait-medal of Maria Elizabeth, 1754. 

Jacques Roettiers married Philipp Louis Roettiers' niece, Cathe- 
rine Verwilt (■]• 1762) and had three children, who survived him: 
James (HI), Elisabeth Jeanne Therese, and Francois Marie Therese. 
He died suddenly at Brussels, 15. July 1772. 

James Roettiers, as well as the two Philippe R. not only held 
the appointment of Engravers-general of the Spanish, and, later, 
Austrian Low-Countries, but they were at the same time Engravers 
to the Antwerp Mint, and even at times worked as Engravers 
for the Mints of Bruges and Brussels. 

In 1772 the Austrian government of the Low-Countries purchased 
from the surviving children of Jacques Roettiers the puncheons and 
dies left by the artist. They are now in the Brussels Museum, 
and have been catalogued by Plot (G. Cumont, Revue beige de 
num., 1891, 135). 

— 1)9 — 

'* Comme toutes les mediocrites ", says M. de Witte, "Jacques 
Roettiers, que Ton peut tout au plus classer parmi les graveurs de 
second ordre du \ym^ siMe, avait une haute opinion de ses 
talents et professait le plus profond mepris pour les medailleurs de 
la monnaie de Vienne qu'il eut du prendre pour moddes. " 

Bibliography. — V. Advielle, op. cil. — Domanig, Portratmedaillen des 
Er:^hau5es Oesterreich. — A. de Witte, Le jeton dans les Comptesdes Mailres des Mon- 
naies du duche de Brabant, Tijdschrilt, VI, 107. — Van Loon, Bescftrijving , &c., 
Supplements i-io. — Kohler, Mun^elustigungen. — A. de Witte, Les Seels de 
Jacques Roettiers, graveur general des rnonnaies aux Pays-Bas autrichiens, 1735-1772, 
Revue beige de num., 1895, p. 282. — P. Joseph u. E. Fellner, Die Mi'm^eu von 
Frankjurt am Main, 1896. — Plot, Catalogue de Poinfons, &c. — Immcrzcel, Leeven en 
Werken, &c. — Kramm, Leeven en fVerkn, Sec. 

Medallist and Goldsmith, son oi Norbert Roettiers and his wife, 
Winifred Clarke, niece of the Duke of Marlborough ; born at Saint- 

Germain en Lave, 20. August 1707; the elder Pretender stood 
sponsor at his christening. He learned drawing and sculpture, was 
* pensionnaire du Roi ', obtained a Prize, and was to go to Rome 
with Cardinal de Rohan, when his relative, George Roettiers, was 
advised to let him be taught medal-engraving, before leaving Paris. 
George Roettiers died before James had finished his apprenticeship. 
In 1732 (or January 1733) he went to London, in the company 
of his cousin James (III), son of James (II), and obtained an 

— i6o — 

appointment of Engraver at the English mint. He had brought over 
with him several dies for medals and medallions, executed by his 
grandfather, John Roettiers, and had intended asking for leave to 
strike medallions of the twelve Caesars, the Duchesses of Mazarin, 
Richmond, and Portsmouth, and of other celebrities. The dies had 
come into his possession from his father Norbert, who himself 
inherited them from John Roettiers. Sir Hans Sloane and D*" Mead 
encouraged James in his intention, and promised the artist an 
apartment at the Royal Mint, which he refused. They advised 
him to engrave a series of medals with portraits of celebrated 
Englishmen, and Conduit procured for him drawings of Newton, 
Locke, and others. D"" Mead thought it would be better to leave 
the twelve Caesars, as they were, without legends around the 
heads, and to place the name within a laurel-wreath on the reverse, 
which he did. He executed a Portrait-medal of Sir Isaac Newton, 
which he signed R ; it is dated, 1739; he also engraved a head of 
the Duke of Beaufort, and as his grandfather had made one of the 
Duke's father, the dies of which had been damaged, he executed 
others. Only one or two specimens of each of those two medals 
were struck. The Elder Pretender had appointed James 'Engraver 
to the Mint' in 1727 on Norbert Roettiers' death. In 1733 the 

Sir Isaac Newton, 1739. 

Engraver returned to Paris; married on 6. June 1734 Marie Anne 
Besnier, the sixteen-year-old daughter of Nicolas Besnier, goldsmith 
to Louis XV., who died in 1737, and whom he succeeded. 

His principal works in the goldsmith's art date from this period. 
In 1765 he took his son Alexandre Louis into partnership, but 
retired in 1772. In this year, the artist was raised to the peerage, 
with the title of 'Noble ' and 'Ecuyer' conferred upon him and his 

— i6i — 

children. The Academie royale de Peintureet de Sculpture admitted 
him a member in 1773 on the presentation of the puncheons of the 
Portrait-medals of Locke and Ne\vton_, which he had formerly 
executed in England. 

Baron Pichon has described a number of articles of plate by 
Jacques Roettiers, and among his best known medals are : John 
Locke (medal executed in 173 1 in compliment to the memory of 
Locke ; the dies are in the British Museum ; signed : Jac. Roettiers) ; 
— Sir Isaac Newton, 1739 (obv. signed : Jac. Roettiers; ^L. R.; 
illustrated) ; — Small Portrait-medal (oval) of Sir Isaac Newton 
(in D' S. Bousfield's collection); — The Duke of Beaufort, 1730 
(signed : Jac. Roettiers./.); — Convention of Prado, 1739 (signed: 
I. R. FECIT /. e. James Roettiers fecit ?). 

Jacques Roettiers diedatthe Galeriesdu Louvreon 17. May 1784, 
and was buried at the age of seventy-seven, in the Church of St. 

There is a portrait of him by C. N. Cochin, and another by 
Auguste de Saint-Aubin, 1771. 

One of his sons, also named JACQUES (V) practised the gold- 
smith's art and was his father's partner for many years. 

A Portrait-plaque of Samuel Pepys, the diarist (attributed to 
Norbert Roettiers by Mr. W. J. Webster) is possibly by James 
Roettiers, and belongs to the series of celebrated Englishmen, 
which was only begun, when the artist returned to France. 

Bibliography. — MS. Notes kindly tent by M. Alplmise de Wilte. — Rondot & 
Dc La Tour, op. cit. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cil. — Hawkins, Medallic 
Itlustrations, &c., ed. Franks and Grueber. — BolzenthaL op. cit. — Pinchart, 
op. cit. 

Eldest son of Philip Roettiers, Medallist and Goldsmith of Antwerp, 
by his wife Elizabeth Thermos, was born at Antwerp (?)on 4. July 
163 1 ; died in London towards the end of the xvii. century or 
beginning of the xviii. He learned the art of medal-engraving and 
stone-cutting with his father. His first signed production is dated 
from 1656 ; it is a medal of Leopold William, governor of the Low- 
Countries. In 1 66 1 he engraved another, that of Charles Vanden 
Bosch, bishop of Ghent. He entered at an early age the Antw^erp 
Mint as an assistant, and left it in 1661, on going to London. He 
became Chief-engraver at the Royal Mint, London, in 1670, and 
remained in office until 1698. 

From Mr. W. Wroth's biographical notice of the artist in Diet. 
Nat. Biog. (xLix, 99) I extract the following particulars : — 

"In 1 66 1 John Roettiers and his brother Joseph (and subsequently 
the third brother, Philip) were invited to England by Charles II. to 
work at the English mint. According to Wnlpole (^Anecdotes of 

1- FoRRER. — Biographical Notices oj Medallists. - V. ii 

— 1 62 — 

Painting, II, 184), their father had lent money to Charles during 
his exile, and had been promised employment for his sons. The 
letters patent appointing the three Roettiers engravers at the mint 
state that they were employed on account of the King's long exper- 
ience of their great skill and knowledge ' in the arts of graveing 
and cutting in stone' (see Cat, Treasury Papers, 1697-1701-2, 

pp. 43 7-438)- 

" In January and February 1662 John Roettiers and Thomas 
Simon (</. v.) were ordered to engrave dies for the new ' milled ' 
money in gold and silver, but, ' by reason of a contest in art 
between them', they could not be brought to an agreement. They 
therefore submitted patterns for gold 'Unites', and for silver 
' Crowns'. Simon produced his splendid * Petition Crown ', but his 
rival's work was preferred, and John Roettiers was entrusted with 
the preparation of the coinage, and on 19. May 1662 received a 
grant ot the office of one of the Chief-engravers of the mmt. 

Obv. of Roettiers' s Pattern Crown, 1662. Obv. ot bimons Pattern Crown, 1662. 

* Roettiers had been already at work upon medals commemorat- 
ing the Restoration, and he produced many important medals 
throughout the reign of Charles II. In February 1666-7 he was 
directed to make a new great Seal of the kingdom of Great Britain, 
completed at a cost of 246 /. 3 5. 2 d. Joseph Roettiers, John's 
principal assistant at the mint, left England in or before 1680, and 
in 1682 became engraver-general of the French mint. He died at Paris 
in 1703. James Roettiers, John's second son, who rendered assis- 
tance to his father at the mint in place of Joseph Philip Roettiers 
was officially connected with the English mint as an engraver till 
February 1684, but he was absent (at any rate temporarily) in the 
Low Countries from about 1673, ^"^ afterwards became engraver- 
general of the mint ot the king of Spain in the Low Countries. 
Norbert Roettiers, John's third son, assisted his father after Philip's 

- i63 - 

departure from England. John, Joseph, and Philip Roettiers appear 
to have originally received an annual allowance of 325 /. divided 
between them. On 7. April 1669 they were granted by warrant a 
yearly pension of 450 /. (i. e. 150/. each). John continued to receive 
the 450 /. after his brothers had left the mint, but he had to 
petition more than once for arrears of payment. 

" John Roettiers produced the official Coronation medals ot 
James II., Mar}-, 1685, and William and Mary, 1689, but he 
was not actively employed after the death of Charles II. In January 
1696-7 it was discovered that dies for coins of Charles II. and 
James II. had been abstracted by labourers at the mint, and had been 
lianded over by them to coiners in the Fleet prison, who used the 
dies for striking ' Guineas' of James II, on gilded blanks of copper. 
A committee of the House of Commons reported on 2. February 

^. Peace of Breda (1667). 

1696-7 that John Roettiers, w^ho occupied * the graver's house ' at 
the Tower, was responsible for the custody of the dies, and was an 
unfit custodian, inasmuch as he was a violent papist, and ' will 
not nor ever did own the king (William III.), or do any one thing 
as a graver since the revolution '. Roettiers appears to have been 
removed from his office about this time, and to have taken up his 
residence in Red Lion Square, London. In his later years he suffered 
from the stone and from *a lameness in his right hand'. He died 
in 1703, and was buried in the Tower. 

"John Roettiers married, in 1658, Catherine Prost, by whom 
he had five daughters and three sons: John {b. 1661), James (b. 1663) 
and Norbert (b. 1665). 

Restoration, ' Felicitas Britanniae ', 1660. 

- r65 - 

"John Roettiers's usual signature on medals is 'J. R. ' in 
monogram; he also signs : ROTI. ; ROETTI. ; IAN. R. ; JOAN. ROTI. 
Little is known of his work as a Gem-engraver. Walpole {Atiecdoles, 
&c., II, 187) mentions a cornelian seal by him with the heads ot 
Mars and Venus. Many dies and puncheons executed by John 
Roettiers and his relatives were purchased from the Roettiers family 
by a Mr. Cox, and were by him sold in 1828 to Matthew Young, 
the coin dealer, who, after striking some impressions for sale, pre- 
sented them in 1829 to the British Museum. 

"John Roettiers was one of the best engravers ever employed at 
the English mint. Evelyn {Diary, 20 July 1678) refers to him as 
' that excellent graver. . . who emulates even the ancients in both 
metal and stone'; and Pepys {Diary, 26. March 1666), who visited 
Roettiers at the Tower, declares that he there saw ' some of the 
finest pieces of work, in embossed work, that ever I did see in my 
life, for fineness and smallness of the images thereon'. On 11. 
October 1687 Henr\' Slingsby (ex-master of the mint) offered Pepys 
his collection of Roettiers's medals. The " Great Britannia ' (feli- 
ciTAS BRiTANNi.^-:) was valued bv Slingsby at 4 /. 10 s., and the other 
medals at sums from 10 j. to 3 /. 4 .r. apiece ". 

The following is a list of Roettiers's principal medals, which are 
all subsequent to the Restoration : Archbishop Laud, executed, 
10. Jan. 1645 (signed : Roti :f.'); — Giles Strangways, 1648 (obv. 
Bust to r. ; signed : IAN. R. F. ; ^L. The White Tower of London; 
dies in the British Museum) D"" S. Bousfield possesses a lead 
impression of the ^L. ; — Memorial of Charles I., 1649 (obv. Bust 
to r. ; signed R (mon.); ^L. Hand from heaven holding celestial 
crown; two varieties); — Charles II. landing at Dover, 1660 
(obv. Bust of Charles U. to r. : signed : R (mon.); I^. Ship 
approaching the coast). This is probably the first medal executed 
bv John Roettiers in this country. — Restoration, 1660, 'Bri- 
tanniae ' (obv. Bust of Charles II. to r. ; I^. Hercules, Minerva, 
Peace and Mercury around altar behind which is Prudence ; ex . 
BRiTANNi.F.); — Restoration, 1660, 'Felicitas Britanniae' (obv. Bust 
of Charles II., said to be by Joseph Roettiers ; ^L. Justice, accom- 
panied by Hercules and Pallas, presenting olive-branch to Britannia; 
ex. : FELICITAS BRiTANNLE. 29. MAIL 1660; illustrated). One of the 
finest medals by Roettiers'. (The dies of this medal have passed 
through my hands. A former owner has issued restrikes, which are 
easily recognized by rust marks. D"" Bousfield owns a lead impression 

I. I have a note copied from a Ms in M. Alphonse de Witte's library, in which 
it is stated : "La famille a constate que la t^te de Charles II, sur cette m^daille, 
est par Joseph Roettiers. " 

— i66 — 

of the ^L Hercules, Minerva, Peace and Mercury); — Earl ot 
Craven, 1660; — Marriage Medals of Charles II. and Catherine, 
1662, in silver and in gold — probably the 'golden medal' commem- 
orated by Waller'; — St. Catherine, 1662 (obv. Bust of Queen 
Catherine; I^. St. Catherine; unsigned, but probably by John 
Roettiers ; illustrated) A lead impression of the ^L exists in D' 
Bousfield's collection ; — Naval Reward, 1665 (^L. pro.talibvs. 
Avsis. Charles 11., as a Roman general, standing on the sea shore, 
viewing a naval engagement; three varieties; die of obv. in British 
Museum); — Duke of York ; Naval Action, 1663 (obv. Bust of 
the Duke of York ; signed : Roetti. F. ; ^L. Naval engagement) ; 

— Pattern coin, or Medal : Dominion of the sea, 1665 (obv. 
CAROLVs. A.CAROLO. Bust of Charles II.; 1^. Britannia seated to I.) ; 

— Proposed Commercial Treat}^ with Spain, 1666 (I^. Statue ot 
Charles II.) ; — Peace of Breda (1667) (obv. Bust of Charles II. ; 

St. Catherine Medal, 1662. 

^L. FAVENTE DEO Britannia seated to 1., near the sea-shore. The 
figureof Britannia, a portrait of Frances Stuart, duchess of Richmond 
(q. v.). It differs from that on the coins struck previously in that 
the right leg of Britannia is no longer undraped. Med. III., U, pp. > 3 5- 
7 describes three varieties; rei>. /7/«j/ra/^^); — Naval Victories (1667); 
large medallion in lead, at the British Museum, with figure of Brit- 
annia, seated tol., being crowned by two Genii; from an unfinished 
die; — Portrait-medal, uniface, of the Duchess of Richmond; — 
Small Portrait in gold of the Duchess ot Richmond, made to be set 
in a locket; — British Colonization, 1670 (obv. Busts conjoined ot 
Charles II . and Catherine ; I^. diffvsvs . i\ . orbe . britanx vs .1670 
Globe, etc.); — Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland; uniface 
Portrait-medal ; — Charles XI. of Sweden made a Knight of the 
Garter, 1 671 ; — Duke of Lauderdale, 1672 (I^. Minerva seated; 
signed : Joan Roti. F. ; dies are in the British Museum) ; — Louise 

167 — 

Renee de Querouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth; uniface Portrait- 
medal ; illustrated) ; — Christ's Hospital, 1673 ; medal commemo- 
rating the foundation oi a Mathematical and Nautical School (obv. 
Bust of Charles II.; I^. Blue-coat boy). ''This glorious medal- 
lion ", as Evelyn calls it, " is one of the finest^ rarest, and most 
valuable of all the works of John Roettiers " ; dies in the British 
Museum); — Christ's Hospital Badge, 1673 ; — Christ's Hospital, 
Stone Badge; — Christ's Hospital; Mathematical Medal, 1673 
(3 var.) ; — Hortense Mancini, Duchess of Mazarin ; uniface Por- 
trait-medal; Count de Monterey, governor-general of the Low- 
Countries; — Sir Samuel Morland, 1681; — Henry Somerset, 
Duke of Beaufort, 1682 ; — Charles II., 1683 (?) (obv. Bust to r, ; 
signed R (mon.) ; ^L. Ro^'alarms; dies in Brit. Museum) D''Bous- 
field possesses a lead impression of the obv. ; — Charles II. Medallic 

Louise de Querouauie, Duchess of Portsmouth. 

Portrait ; uniface (several varieties) ; — Death of Charles II., 1685 
(sev. var.. probably executed by John Roettiers); — Accession ot 
James II., 1685 (signed: R (mon.); ^. Harp crowned); — Coron- 
ation Medal of James II., 1685 (2 var.); — Coronation of Queen 
Mary, 1685 (2 var.); — James II., Naval and Military Reward, 
1685 (2 var.): — Abdication of James II., 1688 (unfinished die in 
Brit. Mus. ; reproduced in Med. III., II, 645); — Coronation ot 
William and Mary, 1689 (unsigned); — Mary, as Regent, 1690 
(possibly by John Roettiers); — Death ot Queen Mary, 1694 
(^. Q.VEEN . MARY . THE . SECOND . ctc. ; probably by John Roettiers ?), 

— i68 — 

Amonnst his earliest medals are : Leopold William, archduke ot 
Austria (signed : I. R. F. (1656 ?); — Charles vanden Bosch, bishop 
of Ghent, 1661 (l. ROTI. F.), and Pinchart ascribes to him also: 

Giles Strangways, 1648. 

1672. Charles II. of Spain ; 1^. View of the pert of Ostend {Roett.') ; 
and 1675. Jean Dominique, comie de Montere}', governor-general 
of the Low-Countries {Roett.); — Charles 11. of Spain (lead obv. 
in D' Bousfield's collection). 

— 169 — 

I will not attempt to give here a complete list of John Roettier's 
coins, but content myself with mentioning a few of his best known 
Patterns and Proofs of Charles II. Gold. Pattern Crown, 1662 
{illustrated') : obv. CAROLVSii'DEr gratia, bust of the King to 
right (copied from a drawing made by Samuel Cooper, the King's 
limner) laureate, hair long, no drapery, truncation pointed; 
^. MAG.BR.FRA.EN.HiB.REX. 1662., four shields arranged in form 
of a cross, each crowned, the English and French arms arranged 
quarterly in the first and fourth shields, Star of the Garter in the 
centre, 3C i" ^^'^^ angle, edge inscribed * ►!< * decvs et tvtamen, 
wt. 803 grs. The last specimen sold (Murdoch Sale, June 1903, 


Roettiers' Pattern Crown, 1662. 

lot 616) brought € 130 under the hammer, but specimens have 
realized higher sums before; — Pattern Crown, 1662; plain edge 
(Murdoch, lot 617, i 82); — Proof Crown, 1663 (Murdoch, 
lot 618, € 80); Pattern Farthings, 1665 (several varieties, one 

Pattern Farthing in gold, 1665. 

illnstraied). The type of Britannia reappeared for the first time on 
British currency on this Pattern Farthing. John Roettiers copied it 
from its antique prototype on a medallion of Commodus, and 
earlier bronze coins of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius. Frances 

— 170 — 

Stewart, the later Duchess of Richmond, Charles II. 's favourite, 
sat to the artist for the model of Britannia '. 

" The figure of Britannia which John Roettiers modelled from 
Frances Stewart is the first Britannia to appear in the English 

I^. of Medallion of Commodus, circ. A . D. 175. 

Enlargement of ^. of Farthing, 1665. 

coinage since that upon the famous medallion of the Emperor 
Commodus. It was first seen in a gold " pattern " struck from the 

I. T. A. Cooke, The Romance of Coinage, Monthly Review, 190J. 

— 171 — 

dies made for a new farthing in 1665, which date is shown 
beneath the head of Charles II. on the obverse of the coin I repro- 
duce. It was modelled, therefore, when the lovely Frances, "la 
plus jolie fille du monde", was in the first flush of her beaut}' at 
Court, two years before her marriage to the Duke of Richmond. It 
is, in my opinion, impossible to compare it with the Commodus 
medallion without believing that Roettiers deliberately took the 
Roman design and treated it in his own way with a new model. 
There are many resemblances, but the slight differences are even 
more convincing. The Roman standard becomes an olive-branch, 
the spear is slightly more upright, the helmet beneath the shield 
becomes a heraldic flourish, the bosom is even more undraped than 
in the first design for the medal of two years later, which was struck 
to commemorate the Peace of Breda. 

" It will be noticed that the dominion of the seas was announced 
in the new farthing with the legend *' Quattuor Maria Vindico ". 
It is, therefore, quite intelligible that these farthings did not widely 
circulate in 1665 and 1666; for not only did Louis XIV. openly 
express his annoyance at this bombast, but the Dutch sailed up to 
Chatham and burnt our ships at anchor. After that the motto 
became descredited. "I hear of no supply", says Lord Lucas 
somewhat bitterly, speaking in the House in 1671, "except it be 
of copper farthings, and that is the metal that is to vindicate, 
according to the inscription on it, the dominion of the four seas. " 
Another criticism that might be made is on the somewhat 
inelegant posture of the undraped right leg. This Roettiers altered 
both in the two designs for the Breda medal, and in the halfpenny 
of 1672, '3, and '5 ' '^. 

Silver. Pattern Crown, 1662; — Proof Crowns, 1662, 1663, 
1664; — Proof Halfpennies, 1672, 1673; — Pattern Farthings, 
1665 (var.), 1671,1675, 1676. 

Copper. Pattern Halfpennies (Britannia type), undated, 1672, etc. ; 
— Pattern Farthings, 1665, and other dates. 

As already mentioned, John Roettiers' first association with the 
Royal Mint dates from 1661, when he worked under Rawlins, until 
the latter's death; in 1670, he became Chief-engraver, and was 
assisted first bv his brothers Joseph (1670-73) and Philip (1670-78) 
and later bv his sons James (1690-1697) and Norbert (1690-1695). 
It is therefore impossible to know which dies John Roettiers cut 
himself. Mr. Grueber states that Jan Roettiers cut the dies for the 
milled money of Charles II. in all metals. The coins issued between 
1670 and 1697 ^^^y safely be ascribed to members of the Roettiers 
fomily, during their activity in England. 

Charles II. A/". Five Guineas, 1668-1673, 1675-1684; — Two 
Guineas, 1664, 1675-1679, 1681-1684; — Guineas, 1663-1668, 


1670-1684; — Half-Guineas, 1669, 1670, 1672, 1675-1684 
(Varieties of bust, with lower part either rounded or pointed). — vR. 
Crowns, 1662-1684; — Half-Crowns, 1663-1664, 1666, 1668- 
1684; — Shillings, 1663, 1666, 1668-1682; — Sixpences, 1674- 
1684; — Maundy Money, 1670-1684; — Half-Groat, 1668. — 
yE. Halfpennies, 1672, 1673, 1675; — Farthings, 1671-1675, 1679, 

Charles II. Uuinea, 1665. 

Ja.mes II. A^. Five Guineas, 1686- 1688; — Two Guineas, 
16861688; —Guineas, 1685-1688; — Half-Guineas, 1686-1688. 
^.Crowns, 1 686-1 688; — Half-Crowns, 1685-1688; — Shillings, 
1685-1688; — Sixpences, 1686-1688; — Maundy Money, 1686- 
1688. — Tin. Halfpennies, 1685-1687; — Farthings, 1685-1687. 
These coins are of tin, with a plug of copper in the centre. 

William and Mary. A''. Five Guineas, 1 691-1694; — Two 
Guineas, 1691, 1693-1694; — Guineas, 1689-1694; — Half- 
Guineas, 1689-1692, 1694. — J^. Crowns, 1691-1692; — Half- 
Crowns, 1689-1691; 1691-1693; — Shillings, 1692-1693 ; — 
Sixpences, 1693-1694; — Maundy Money, 1689-1694. — Tin. 
Halfpennies, 1690-1692; — Farthings, 1690-1692. — JE. Half- 
pennies, 1694, ^"^ Farthings, 1693 -1694. The last two issued 
under a patent granted to Andrew Corbet. 

William III. In 1697 Henry Harris was appointed Chief- 
engraver at the Mint, with John Croker and Samuel Bull as his 
assistants. Three of the Roettiers had been employed under William 
and Mary, but after 1697 ^hey lost all connection with the Mint. In 
1697 John Roettiers was even accused of unwillingness to do an}- 
workfortheprotestant King William III. A". Guineas, 1 695-1 697; — 
Half-Guineas, 169 5-1 697. — JB^. Crowns, 1695- 1697 ; — Half- 
Crowns, 1696-1697; — ShilUngs, 1696-1697; — Sixpences, 1695- 
1697. — iE. Halfpennies, 1695-1697; — Farthings, 1695-1697. 

Bibliography. — W. Wroth, John Roettiers, Diet. Nat. Biography, XLIX, 
pp. 98-100. — Hawkins, ed. Franks and Grueber, Med. 111., &c. — Burn's 
Memoir 0/ the Roettiers in the Numismatic Chronicle, III, 158. — Advielle, op. cit. 
— Kcnyon, op. cit. — Hawkins, op. cit. — Jouin and Mazerolle, Les Roettiers, 
Mdcon, 1894. — Guiffrey, Revue numismatique, 1889-1891. — Evelyn's Diary, 
p. 152, July 1678, — Reinie beige de numismatique, 189$, pp. 282 f. — Betts, 

— 173 — 

The Roctliers family in Englaml, Amcr. Joura. Num., XXXIII, 78-79. — 

— Walpolc, Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wornum. — Cat. State Papers, Dom. 
1661-9. — Cat. Treasury Papers, 1695-1702. — J. H. Bloom, English Seals, 1906. 

— Numismatic Chronicle, III, 19 ; III, 56. — L. Forrer, Le type de Britannia sur les 
Mommies anglaises, Le Mus^e, 1906. — Van Loon, op. cit. — Cochran-Patrick, 
Scottish Medals, 1884. — Catalogus d(.r Nederlandsche en op Nederland betrekking 
hebbende Gedenkpenningen, 1903. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Pinchart, op. cit. — 
Ruding, op. cit. — H. A. Grueber, Handbook 0/ the Coins of Great Britain and 
Ireland. — Montagu and Murdoch. — Medal Sale Catalogues. — F. Alvin, fean 
Roettiers, Biographic nationale dc Belgique. 






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— 174 — 

ROETTIERS, JOHN (II) (Flem.). Eldest son ot John Roettiers, 
was born about 1661 in London, out does not appear to have been 
a MedalHst. Mr. W. Wroth, in his notice of John Roettiers Sen'. 
(Diet. Nat. Biog., XLIX, 100) states : '' The committee of the 
House of Commons concerning the abstraction of the dies reported 
(2. February 1696-7) that this younger John was suspected ot 
participation in the conspiracy of Rookwood and Bernado, the 
' assassinators ', having at that time provided himself of horses and 
arms at his own house in Essex, where he entertained very ill 
company, to the great terror of the neighbourhood '. A warrant for 
high treason was out against him, ' but he fled from justice'. " 

ROETTIERS, JOSEPH (Fhm.'). Son of Philip Roettiers, and brother 
of John (1631-1703), and Philip (1640-1718), and also a Medallist 
and Coin-engraver, born at Antwerp, i. August 1635, died at Paris, 
1 1 . September 1 703 . He learned the art of die-sinking with his father, 
at Antwerp, and came to London, about 1670; from 1670 to 1672 
or' 73 he worked at the Royal Mint, as Assistant-engraver. In 1673 
(Mr. Wroth says in or before 1680) he went over to France (at 
the invitation of Colbert), where he became naturalized, and in 
1682 he was appointed Engraver-general of the French coins, in 
succession to Warin. His first wife, Elizabeth Nilis (a sister or relative 
of the engraver Nilis) died at the Galeries du Louvre, 16. October 
1680; he married again, 12. June 1690; the name of his second 
wife, with whom he appears to have been living since 1674, was 
Helen Stonehouse. By the first wife he had four sons and a 
daughter; the eldest son, Philip, is not to be confused with 
Philip (III), son of Joseph's brother Philip (II) (vide Guiffrey, Rev. 
num., 1889, p. 450); another son, Georges, became Engraver at 
the Paris Mint. By Helen Stonehouse, the artist had three sons and 
three daughters ; the fourth child being Joseph Charles, who on 
the death of Norbert Roettiers became Engraver-general in 1727. 

Joseph Roettiers was appointed Engraver at the Paris Mint in 
1674, and Engraver-general in 1682; he obtained an appartment in 
the Galeries du Louvre in 1679, and was admitted a Member of the 
Acad^mie royale de peinture et de sculpture, 30. January 1683, on 
the presentation of a portrait (in intaglio) of Colbert, intended as a 
Seal for the Academy. 

It is said that previous to his leaving for France, his brother John 
advised him not to accept the oflRce of Engraver-general without 
the coining-press. He however worked without the press for the 
first year, and Colbert having died in the meantime, he was told 
that the King intended to farm out the Press for a sum of 
20.000 Livres, which was due to him. The Engraver's wife dissuaded 
him from accepting, and immediately De Launay, goldsmith to 

— 175 — 

the King, acquired the right, thus securing a considerable yearly- 

Guiffrey gives extracts from Mint accounts, mentioning 
payments made to Roettiers for dies and puncheons executed by 

Joseph Roettiers' medals are usually signed : R- or /. R. (mon). 

Puncheons of Medals named in the artist's receipts of 1692 and 
following years : 1692. Naval Victory over the English and Dutch 
(signed : R.); — Draped head of Louis XIV.; — Assiduity, 
represented by a figure in quadriga ; — Liberality of the King (R.) ; 
— 1693. Draped head of King; — Capture of Mons (R-); — 

Portrait of Joseph Roettiers. 

Foundation of the Academie des Inscriptions (R.) ; — Engagement 
of Saint-Denis (R.); — Capture of St. Omer; — 1696. Head of 
King in Roman dress; — Battle of Ter (R.); — Capture of 
Gironne; — 1698. Capture of Palamos; — Establishment of the 
Academie des Inscriptions ; — Security of France (R.); — Defeat ot 
the English at Brest (R.); — Louis XIII. crowned by Justice; — 
The King and Dowager Queen enthroned, representing the 
Regency; — Engagement of St. Denis (R.); — Capture of St. Omer 
(R.) [and sixteen models in wax : Submission of Spain; — Taking 
of Mons; — Liberality of the King; — Taking of Gironne; — 
Abolition of Duelling; — Assiduity; — Victory of Mont-Gissel; — 

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Born at Antwerp (?) 20. December 1596; Golds; 


Born at Antwerp (?) 4. July 165 1 ; came to England, about 1661 ; Chief- 
engraver at the Royal Mint, London, 1670-1697; died in 1703, 
and was buried in the Tower. 

JOHN (II) • 

(Vide Committee 
Report, 1697.) 


Born in London, 1663 ; Born in London or 
Engraver at the Royal Antwerp (?), 1665 ; As- 
Mint, London, 1690 sistant- engraver at the 
1697; died at Bromley Royal Mint, London, 
(Kent), 1698. 1690- 1695 ; Engraver- 

general of French coins 
1 704-1 727 ; died at Paris, 
18. May 1727. 


Bom at Bromley (Kent), 1 698 ; 
settled at Paris, 1 7 1 8 ; went over to the 
Low-Countries in 1733; Engraver- 
general of the coins of the Low- 
Countries, 1733-1772; died at Brus- 
sels, 15. July 1772. 

Born at Antwerp, 
at the Royal Mint, 
France where he be 
general of the Fr 
particulier " at th< 
Paris, 1 2 Septemb( 


Came to London in 1733 with 
James, son of Norben. 



Engraver at the Paris 
1 703-1 748; Privy Medallist 
King ; died in Paris, 6. J: 


Born at Paris, 12. Januar) 
"graveur particulier" at th 
Mint, 1748-1759; ^^as in 
during the French Revol 
date of death uncertain (180 


Born at St-Germain-en-Laye, 20. August 
1707; Assistant-engraver at the Royal Mint, 
London ; went to France, and became a 
member of the Academic de peinture et de 
sculpture; Goldsmith to the King, 1773- 1784; 
married M"e Marie-Anne Besnier, daughter 
of Nicolas Besnier, Goldsmith to the French 
King ; died in Paris, 17 May 1784. 

Two Daughters, ultimai 
of a part of the Roettiers di 
later came into the possess! 
dealer Matthew Young, 
now in the British Museu 



Partner with his father (?). 


Born at Paris, 22. November 1748; Directc 
Paris Mint, appointed in 179 1 and in office unti 
died in 1855. 




\Iedallist at Antwerp, still living in April 1660. 


: 1635; Assistant-engraver 
670-72 or 73; went to 
iralized, 1674; Engraver- 
;, 1682-1703; " graveur 
int. 1694- 1 703 ; died at 


Bom at Antwerp, where he was christened on 13. September 
1640; Assistant-engraver at the Royal Mint, London, 1670-1684; 
Engraver-general of the coins of the Low-Countries, 1684-1718; 
Engraver at the Antwerp Mint; died at Antwerp, end of 1718. 

I I 


His father's successor as Engraver- Bom in London, 3. November 
general of the Low-Countries, 1685 ; Engraver, and Professor at 
1 7 19-1732; died at Antwerp (?) in the Acad^mie de Peinture et de 
1732. Sculpture, Paris; Director of the 

Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna 
(circ. 1718); died at Vienna, 10. 
June 1743. 




Born at Paris, 1693; Engraver at 
le Paris Medal Mint, i72o;Engrav- 
r-general of the French coins, 
727-1753 and 1772-1774; died at 
aris, 14. March 1779. 


Born at Paris, 15. August 1720; 

er-general of the French 

1753-1772;" graveur parti- 

jJicr" at the Paris Mint, 1759- 

772; died, 19. November 1772. 

N. B. The Hit is compiled after Durand's in his Ms. Dictionnaire des gra- 
veurs en Midailks et Montiaies, 1858 (formerly in M. Paul C. Stroehlin's 
library) and Ch. Gilleman, Les Roeltiers, Table ge'nealogique, "Gazette numis- 
matique", 1906, p. 174. 

__ 177 __ 

Spanish Victory; — Head of King; — Louis XIIF.s mausoleum; — 
Regency of Anne of Austria; — Mars holding olive-branch; — 
Victory leading horseman ; — Figure chained to a rock ; — Minerva 
holding trophies; — Figure seated with children]. — 1699. Peace 
of Ryswick (R.); — Head of Louis XIIL ; — 1700. Head of 
Louis XIV. in Roman uniform ; — Youthful head of Louis XIII ; 

— Peace of Ryswick (R.) ; — Head of Louis XIV. {Liid. Magnus 
Rex Christ.); — Taking of Ath, Barcelona and Carthagena (R.) ; — 
Marriage of the Duke of Burgundy (R.) ; — Peace of Ryswick 
(Minerva and Justice supporting laurel-wreath); — Foundation of 
the Academic des Inscriptions; — 1701. Bust of Louis XIV; — 
Youthful head ol Louis XIV. in armour; — Youthful head of 
Louis XIV. in coronation robes; — Another, in armour, with 
cross of St. Esprit; — Older head of Louis XIV., laureated; — 
1702. Taking of Piombino; — Taking of Dunkirk (R.); — Peace 
of Ryswick ; — Recovery of Louis XIII ; — Peace of the North 
(r.); — The Grands Jours (Provinciae ab injnriis potentiorum vindi- 
catae); — Naval Engagement off Palermo; — 1703. Louis XIV. 
granting Peace to Holland and Spain ; — Promotion of the Knights 
of St, -Esprit; — Battle of Cassel (R.); — Liberality of the King. 

Puncheons of medals by Joseph Roettiers found in his workshop 
after his death : 1704. Head of Louis XIV.; — Illness of 
Louis XIV.; — Various heads and busts (4) of Louis XIV; — 
Destruction of Heresy ; — Dutch conquests ; — Four heads of the 
King; — Head of the King with those of the two young Princes; 

— Battle of Cassel ; — Remission of three millions to the Spaniards 
(R.) ; — Taking of Luxemburg (R.); — Religion restored at Strassburg 
(R.) ; — The King leading the Dauphin to the temple of Glory ; — 
Fight of Saint-Denis ; — Conquest of Franche-Comte ; — Fortifica- 
tions of Strassburg; — Abolition of duelling (R.) ; — Foundation of 
the Academie des Sciences; — Capture of Palamos; — The King 
and Queen Regent ; — Capture of Mons ; — Capture of Saint; 
Omer ; — Defeat of the English at Brest ; — Capture of Gironne - 

— Battle of Ter; — Vain plans of the hostile fleets ; — Three heads 
of Louis XIV., etc.; — Seven heads of the King, for jetons; — 
A Sower; — Figure leading Cupid by the hand ; — Figure in quad- 
riga ; — A Galley ; — Ste-Genevieve's shrine carried in proces- 
sion; — Jupiter seated on eagle; — Emblematic figure of the City 
of Paris ; — Three heads of Louis XIV. ; — Les Grands Jours ; — 
Liberality of the King; — Peace of Ryswick; — Taking of Ath, 
Barcelona aud Carthagena; — Louis XIV. granting Peace to Spain 
and the Low-countries. 

The following medals bear Joseph Roettiers' signature : 1648. 
Capture of Tortosa; — 1657. Capture of Montmedy. — 1658. 
Battle of the Downs; — 1660. Battle of the Pyrenees; — 

L. FoRREK. — Biographical Notices of Medallists. — V. 12 

- 178- 

Louis XIV. 's Marriage; — The Queen enters Paris; — 1662, Cess- 
ion of Dunkirk; — 1663. Portrait-medal of Louis XIV. ; — 1666. 
Gratifications granted to literary men; — 1668. Conquest 
ot the province of Franche-Comte ; — 1672. Louis XIV. 
holding a seal; — Holland subdued; — 1673. Portrait-medal of 
Louis XIV., laureated; — Capture of Maestricht; — 1674. Second 
conquest of Franche-Comte; — Taking of Besancon ; — Battle of 
Senef; — Raising of the Siege of Audenarde; — 1675. Help given 
to Messina ; — French Victory at Altenheim ; — Capture of Lim- 
burg; — 1677. Engagement of Tobago ; — Bust of the King ; — 
1678. Capture ot Lewe; — Peace of Nymwegen; — 1680. Sailors 
called up; — 1681. Strassburg subdued and Casale taken; — 1682. 
Establishment of a Company of Cadets; — The King condemns 
himself; — 1683. The Apartments; — 1684. Conclusion of Peace 
with Algiers; — 1685. The Doge of Genoa visits France (i?./.); 

— Submission of the Republic of Genoa; — 1686. Laureate bust 
of Louis XIV. ; — Recovery of Louis XIV. (2 var.); — 1687. 
Fete given at the Hotel de Ville ; — Laureate Bust of Louis XIV. 
(on his Recover}^) : — 1688. Taking of Philipsburg ; — Campaign 
of the Dauphin; — 1690. Battle of Fleurus ; — Three Victories; 

— 1691. Engagement of Leuze; — 1692. Engagement of Pforzheim; 

— 150 Cities fortified; — 1693. Institution of the Military order 
of Saint-Louis ; — Capture of Roses; — The flourishing Navy; — 
Bust of the King in 1677 ; — Bust of J. B. Colbert (J. R.); — To 
Colbert's praise; — Young Female head (j. R.), etc. 

To the above Guiffrey adds the following medals which are 
signed : R., Edict against duelling (1646); — Birth of the Dauphin 
(1661); — The Invalides (1675); — Reduction of Strassburg 
(1681), and various busts of Louis XIV. 

Besides the medals, this Engraver cut also numerous dies for 
Jetons, between 1680 and 1699 (Fide Advielle, pp. 465-462). 

Joseph Roettiers, who obtained the title of " Premier graveur 
de I'Histoire en Medailles " was one of the first artists to contribute 
to Louis XIV'. s series of medals, which was only begun in 1680. 

In this work he collaborated with Jean Mauger, Henri Roussel^ 
Michel Molart, and others. 

There is a Portrait of the Medallist by Largilliere. 

Bibliography. — J. J. Guiftrey, La Monmie ties Medailles. Joseph Roettiers, 
Rev. num., 1889, 1891. — Jal, op. cit. — Advielle, op. cit. — Wroth, he. cit. 

— .\ded. III., &c. — Notes of M. Alplxntse de Witte. — Chavignerie et Auvray, 
op. cit. — Mariette, AbeceJario Catalogiis, &c. — Bolzentlial, op. cit. — Blanche't, 
op. cit. — Pinchart, op. cit. — A. Barre, loc. cit. — Rondot, op. cit. — E. Faivre, 
op. cit. — Catalogus, &c. — PichonSale Catalogue, 1897. — F. Alvin, loc. cit. 

ROETTIERS, JOSEPH CHARLES {French). Son of Joseph Roettiers 
and Helen Stonehouse, born in 1691 (or 1692). He learned die- 
engraving with his father, and his cousin, Norbert Roettiers. In 171 1 

— 179 

he obtained the second prize for sculpture at the Academie royale, 
and was admitted a member of that body in 171 7, on the presen- 
tation of a portrait of the King, intended for a medal of the Academy. 
From 171 5, he took the title of 'Graveur des medailles du Roi' , 

Portrait-medal of J. C. Roettiers, by J. C. Hedlinger. 

and a month after the death of Norbert Roettiers, Engraver-general 
to the Paris Mint, he was appointed to that office, 18. June 1727. 
He married in 17 16 Catherine Herault, by whom he had four 
children, two daughters and two sons, one of whom was the future 
medallist, Charles Norbert (^. t'.); after his wife's death he married 
a second time, Jeanne Hermant (17. November 1753-7 1781), by 
whom he had no children. The date ot his death is given as 14. 
March 1779, at the age of 87. He appears to have retired into 
private life some time before, and possibly through ill-health. 

The medals signed J. C. R. are the only ones which may safely 
be ascribed to Joseph Charles Roettiers. A difficulty arises in 
connection with the signature R. Jils, or R.filius, R. /., and Roettiers 
filiiis. Guiffrey is of the opinion that before 173 1, Joseph Charles, 
wishing to distinguish his works from those of his father, Joseph, 
signed thus, but that after 173 1 he signed I. C. R. Advielle, on the 
contrary, thinks that this signature entirely belongs to Charles 
Norbert, who on a medal of 1770 signs: C. N. Roettiers films. 

Why should not George, Joseph Charles' elder brother, who was 
employed as Engraver at the Medal Mint, have also signed R. filiiis^ 
as he began cutting dies when his father, Joseph, was still living ? 
And, as Guiffrey remarks, Jacques R. might equally have signed 
Roettiers filitis. 

Medals signed by J. C. Roettiers : Battle of Almanza, 1707 
(^. ; obv. by T. Bernard); — Peace of Utrecht, 1713 (^.) ; — 
Louis XV., 1721 ; — Royal Academy of Surgery, 173 1 ; — Academ- 
ical Society of Surgery, 1748; — Battle of Rocoux, 1746(1^.); 

— i8o — 

— Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle concluded (^L.); — Conquests ot 
Louis XIV. (signed : I. C. ROET. F.) ; — Ministry of Cardinal Fleury 
(signed : J. C. ROETTIERS F.) ; — Destruction by Fire of the city 
of Rennes (J. C. ROETTIERS F.) ;— Duchess of Orleans, the Regent's 

Battle of Rocoux, 1746. 

mother (Obv. N. R. ; ^L. J. C. ROETTIERS F.) ; — Institution of a 
Prize for Dramatic Art (J. C. ROETTIERS F.) ; — Bust of Fouquet de 
Belle-Isle (J. C. ROETTIERS F.) ; — Foundation of the new Church 
of Sainte-Genevieve (ROETTIERS F.); — Laureate bust of Louis XIV. 
(ROETTIERS F-); — Rebuilding of Rennes (l.C. R.); — Renewal 

Stability of the Cc»nage. 

of Louis XIII . 's Vow (I. C. R.) ; — Leopold, 

his consort, Elizabeth Charlotte, 1718; 

Charlotte, and Philip of Orleans, 1718; — 

'* Regiment de la Calotte" (formerly described as a satirical medal 

of John Law) ; — Alliance with Sweden (j.C.R.); — Pacification 

of Corsica (J. C.R.); — Stability of the Coinage (j. C. R.); 

(^. illustrated) ; — Prize Medal for Dramatic Art (J. C. R.) ; — 

Duke of Lorraine, and 
— Duchess Elizabeth 
Medal of the so-called 

— i8i — 

Fumes tnken by the French, 1744 (J. C.R.); — Mercury raising the 
city of Lyons (j. C. R.) ; — Campaign of Louis XV. in the South 
of the Low- Countries, 1745 (l.C. R.); — French Campaign in 
Italy, 1745 (J.C. R.); — Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748 (l.C. R.); 

— Visit of Louis XIV. to the Mint, 1719; — Le Regiment de la 
Calotte ; — Coronation of Louis XV., 1722 (sev. var.) ; — Raising 
of an army of 60.000 men, 1 726 ; — Academical Society of Surgery, 
173 1 ; — First Marriage ot the Dauphin, 1745; — Conquests of 
Louis XV., 1745 (j. C. ROET. F.) ; — Assistance rendered to the 
Republic of Genoa, 1747; — Academic des Inscriptions, 1716 
(K. Jiliiis); — Jetons ofEmmerez, Caron, 1724, Baron, 1732, of 
the Faculty of Medicine; — Jetons: Franco-American, 1753 (J.C.R.); 

— Artillery, 1740; Chambre auxdeniers, 1744; Fabrique de Saint- 
Roch, 1744; Parties casueiles, 1745; Galeres, 1745; Marechal de 
Belle-Isle, 1766; Due de Penthievre; and others of Angers, etc. ; 

— La Veill^e (j.C. ROETTIERS FEC.) ; — French Company of the 
West Indies, 1753 (J. C. ROETTIERS); — 49"' Anniversary of Pieter 
Albert van der Parra, Governor-general of the Dutch Indies, 1763 ; 

— Fontenelle; — Fouquet, 1760; — Medal on the Peace vath 
England (J.C. R.), etc. The types signed J. C. R. are all Reverses. 

Medals signed : R. fil. or R. filkis, which may possibly be the 
work of Joseph Charles Roettiers (or Charles Norbert, George, or 
James): Construction of a Lighthouse (i?. //.); — Congress of 
Soissons (R. Jilius); — Marriage of Louise-Elizabeth and Don 
Philip (R. fil.); — Birth of the Duke of Aquitaine {R. films); — 
Birth of the Comte d'Artois (R. filius f.) ; — The family compact 
(R. filius); — Louis XIV'.s bust, laureate (R. fiUus); — Protection 
granted to Arts and Industries (jRod/. fil.); — Building of the Place 
Saint-Sulpice {Roettiers filius) ; — Marriage of the Dauphin 
{Roettiers Jilius /.) ; — States of Languedoc {Roettiers fil. /.); — 
Bust of the Duchess of Orleans {L. C. Roettiers f.) ; — Capture of 
Port-Mahon, ij '^ 6 {Roett. filius); — Academy of Villafranca, 1742 
(/. C. Roettiers) ; — Prize of Mechanics to Bouvier, 1734 (/. C. 
Roettiers) ; — Elizabeth Charlotte of Orleans, 17 18 (/. C. Roettiers); 

— Action of S' Cast, 1758 (R. FIL.); — Loss of Minorca, 1756, etc. 
Chavignerie et Auvray give a list of the following exhibits made 

by Joseph Charles Roettiers at the Paris Salon : 1737. Portrait of 
Louis XV.; — Mgr. le Comte de Clermont; — Mgr. le Cardinal de 
Fleury ; — The Turkish Ambassador ; — Several Portraits and 
Reverses for medals; — 175 3- Various medals intended for the 
Series of Louis XV. ; — 1761. Various historical medals; — 1765. 
Six medals of the Princesses and Princes Gallitzin and Trubetskoi" of 
Russia; — 1769. Bust of Louis XV. ; — M. Bertex, statesman; — 
Prince Gallitzin; — The Triumph of Painting; — The Temptation 
of St. Anthony; — 1771- The Corsican Medal; — Two Marriage 

— l82 — 

medals of the Dauphin; — Medal of the ' Port of La Rochelle', 
struck in honour of M. Gabriel Senac; — Portrait-medal of Prince 
Alexis GaUitzin; — Jetons of Abbe Terray;M. le Thieullier; Public 
Notaries ot Tours; M. de la Mouchetiere, etc. But according to 
other writers, these medals were by Charles Norbert Roettiers {q. v.). 
The Ecuau bandeau, first issued in 1740, and struck for many 
years until 1770, as well as the Petit ecu of the same type bears 
Joseph Charles Roettier's signature ."/.'(ofM on truncation of 
Louis XV. 's bust. 

Louis XV., Ecu au bandeau, 1740. 

The famous medallist J. C. Hedlinger made a Portrait-medal of 
the artist (illustraled). 

Bibliography. — J. J. Guiffrey, he. cit. — Advielle, he. cit. — Medallic 
nitistnUwns, &c. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. — Krohn, Thomsen Brotice>- 
Medailler. — C. Wyllys Betts, American Cohnial Hishry illustrated by Contemporary 
Medals, New York, 1894. — Van Loon, Suppleiiietiis. — Blanchet, op. cit. — 
A. Barre, he. cit. — A. Planchenault, Jetons atigei'ins. Gazette num. fran^aise, 
1 900- 1 90 1. — Lepage, Graveiirs de monnaies et nie'dailles des Dues de Lorraine, 
Nancy, 1875. — Jouin et Mazerolle, Les Roettiers, 1894. — R. H. Storer, MS. Notes. 

{French.). Second son of Georges Roettiers, and Marie Claude 
Hermant, born at Paris, 12. January 1722 ; Engraver (Graveur 
particulier) at the Paris Mint, from 1748 to 1759. He married in 
1747 Marie- Anne Bonnin. The date of his death is not known 
(Rondot gives it as 1803), but during the French Revolution he 
was arrested on 5. Frimaire, an XI, for having in his possession 
silver forks and spoons on which the arms had not been effaced and 
a pocket-book containing notes on the King and the Constitution ; 
he was however released on the following 21. Ventose. 

None of his productions are known, but he no doubt cut many 
of the dies for the small currency issued during his tenure of office. 

Bibliography. — V. Advielle, he. cit. — Rondot & H. De La Tour, op. cit. — 
Jouin et Mazerolle, Les Roettiers, 1894. 

- i83 - 

ROETTIERS, NORBERT (Flem.). Third son of John Roettiers, and 
grandson of PhiHp Roettiers of Antwerp; was probably born at 
Antwerp (or London) in 1665 (Guiffrey gives the date as 1664, and 
Advielle, 1666). He was apprenticed to his father, with whom he 
worked at the Royal Mint, London, from about 1684. In 1690 he 
obtained, together with his brother James, the appointment of 
Assistant-engraver, in which capacity he acted until 1695, when he 
left England for France. There he attached himself to the Stuarts at 
St. Germain, and thanks to the protection and help of his uncle, 
Joseph Roettiers, then in high favour at Paris, he soon obtained 
employment at the French mint. On the death of Joseph Roettiers, 
in 1703, he was appointed Engraver-general of the French coins, a 
post which he retained until his own death, at Choisy-sur-Seine, 
18. May 1727. He married twice, first, Elizabeth Isard, and secondly, 
Winifred Clarke, daughter of an Englishman living at St. Germain, 
and niece of the Duke of Marlborough. His eldest son, James (IV) 
Roettiers, born at St. Germain, became goldsmith to Louis XVI., 
and the Elder Pretender stood sponsor at his christening. Norbert 
Roettiers had been granted letters of naturalization in 17 19, and 
in 1722 he became a member of the Academie royale de peinture 
et de sculpture, "He was ", says Mr. W. Wroth, "an ardent 
Jacobite, and, according to Walpole {Anecdotes of painting, II, 186), 
was suspected by persons with ' penetrating eyes ' of having intro- 
duced a small satyr's head within the head of William III. on the 
English copper coinage of 1694. The existence of the satyr is more 
than doubtful, and, in any case, James, and not Norbert, Roettiers 
had the principal hand in the coinage". 


Pattern Crown ot James III., 1709. 

The elder Pretender appointed Norbert Roettiers '* Engraver of 
the Mint ", and the artist officially described himself as * Graveur 
general des monnaies de France et d'Angleterre '. After his depar- 
ture from England he executed a number of dies for coins, medals. 

— i84 — 

and medalets for the exiled Stuart family (1697- 1720) '^"^ ^^^^'^^ 
adherents. In 1709 he made the English ' Crown-piece', with the 
effigy and titles of James III. {Numismatic Chronicle, 1879, p. 135, 
PI. V, 3 ; illustrated) and the Pattern Shilling, or Guinea, 171 6 
(Joe. cit., p. 136, PI. V, 2). The Crown is unique (Brit. Museum); 
also the Scottish * coins' (17 16) with the pretender's title of 
' James VIII ' : Pattern Dollar, or Sixty-shilling piece (Joe. cit, p. 137, 
PI. V, 5 ; illustrated), and Pattern Shilling, or Quarter Dollar loc. cit.. 



Pattern Dollar of James VIII., 17 16. 

p. 137, PL V, 4). The three last described patterns only exist in 
restrikes, from the dies cleaned and repaired bv Matthew Young, 
in 1828. 

NorbertRoettier's principal medals, all signed IK, N. R., or N. R. F., 
are the following: Memorial of Charles I.; ^. rex pacificvs 
(executed after the Restoration). There is a lead impression of this 
medal in D''S. Bousfield's collection; — Portrait-medal of Charles I., 
uniface (probably dating from the beginning of Queen Anne's 

Succession of Prince James, medalet, i 

reign); — James II. Military and Naval Reward, 1685 (possibly by 
James Roettiers) ; — Battle of La Hogue, 1692 ; ^. ignibvs impar 
(either by James or Norbert Roettiers) ; — Portrait plaque of Queen 
Mary (Med. III., II, ij|;); — Death of Mary, 1694-5 (with James 

- i85 - 

Roettiers); — Jeton of the Duke of Melfort, 1695 (?) (sev. var.); 
■ — Prince James, 1697 ; I^. Ship in storm ; — Prince James, 1697, 
medalet ; — Prince James, 1697; ^. Dove; — James 11. and 
Prince James, 1699; medalets (sev. varieties ; Med. III., p. 203-5); 

— Portrait-medal of James II. and Prince James, busts conjoined; 

— Succession of Prince James, 1699; I^. Sun vising {il lust ruled); — 

James III., 1708. 

Another; ^. A cornucopiae; — Portrait-plaque of James II., 
uniface; — Succession of Prince James, 1701 ; obv. Busts conjoined 
of James II. and his Queen ; ^L. Bust of Prince James (made about 
1712); — Portrait-phique of WilHam III., uniface; — Portrait- 

Bust of Princess Louisa, 1712. 

plaque of Mary, uniface; — Memorial of William III., uniface 
Portrait-medallion ; — Portrait-plaque of Pepys, the diarist (not 
signed, but in Norbert Roettiers's style) ; — Portrait-plaque of 
Queen Anne, uniface; — Portrait-plaque of the Duke of Marlborough, 

— i86 -- 

uniface ; — James III. (elder Pretender) protected by Louis XIV., 
1704; — James III., Restoration of the Kingdom, 1708; I^. Map 
of Great Britain and Ireland (4 or 5 varieties, one illustrated); — 
Another; ^. Inscription, thvle — Hic vir, etc.; — James II. and 
James III., 1708, busts on either side ; N. R. on obv. ;<. /\ -^^ on I^); 
— Touch-pieces of James III. ; obv. Ship sailing; ^L. St. Michael 
standing over Dragon (2 var.) ; — Claim of the Elder Pretender, 
1710; ^. Landscape with sheep feeding; — James III. and 
Princess Louisa, 1712 (V^. illustrated) \ — Other varieties of the 
same medal {Med. III., p. 388-390, n°" 241-243) ; — Medalet of 
James III. and Louisa, 1712; — Birth of Prince Charles, Young 
Pretender, December 1720; — Taking ot Ghent, 1714 (N. R.); — 
Battle of Senef ; — Bust of the Duchess of Orleans (N. R.) ; — Recovery 
of Louis XIV., 1687; — French Mediation between Russia and 
Turkey, 1724 (^. illustrated); — Tiie Duchess of Orleans, Princess 

French Mediation between Russia and Turkey. 

Palatine (obv. n.r. ; ^. j.c.r.); — Prize medal of the Royal 
Academy of Painting and Sculpture; — Jetons : Ph. Hecquet, 1713; 
— Louis XV. and Marie Leczinska; — Gaspard Dodun, 1724; — 
Maximilian Emmanuel, elector of Bavaria, governor of the Low- 
Countries; Homage of Namur, f7i2; — Jeton with Max. Emman- 
uel's bust, 17 1 3 (3 var.); — Portrait-medal, 17 14, of same 
Elector ; ^. Lion ; — Jetons of Jos. Clement, archbishop of 
Cologne, 1714, 1715; — Carlo Borromeo; — Royal Academy of 
Surgery; — Recovery of Louis XV., 1687. 

Norbert Roettiers was entrusted by the elder Pretender with the 
preparation of Royal seals for England, Scotland, etc. from silver of 
disused toilet sets. 

On his death, Norbert Roettiers was succeeded by Joseph Charles 
Roettiers, son of his predecessor, Joseph, as Engraver-general of the 

— iSy — 

Pinchart describes this artist's medals as "fort belles ". 

Bibliography. — W. Wroth, Norhert Roettiers, Diet. Nat. Biog., xlix, ioo. — 
V. Advielle, loc. cit. — J. J. Guiffrey, loc. cit. — J. Vaillant, Notes on N. Roettiers, 
Revue de I'Art fran(;ais, Janvier 1885. — Richard A. Hoblyn, Milled Scottish Coins, 
Num. Chron., 1879, p. 108. — Tresorde nuinismatique. III, PI. XL, XLii and XLiii. 
— Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. — Jal, op. cit. — Cochran-Patrick, Scottish 
Medals, 1884. — De Historiepenniiigen en Miinten hetrekking hebbende op het 
Staiiihuis van Oranje-Nassau. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Medallic Ilh/str., &c. — 
H. A. Grueber, Handbook, &c. — Ruding, op. cit. — A. Barre, loc. cit. — Catalogus 
der Nederlandsche Penningen, &c. — E. Faivre, op. cit. — Medaillen uud Miin-en 
des Gesammthaiises Wittelsbach, Miinchen, 1907. — Burns, Coinage oj Scotland , II, 
505. — R. H. Storer, MS. Notes. 

ROETTIERS, PHILIP (I) (Fleiii.). Goldsmith and Engraver, born at 
Antwerp (?), 20. December 1596 ; died therein 1669; father of John 
Roettiers (1631-1703), Joseph (1635-1703), and Philip (1640- 
1718). He was descended from an ancient noble family; and his 
father, also named Philip, had married a niece of the Duke of Alba, 
viceroy of the Low-Countries. The portraits, full-length, of our 
artist's father and mother, were painted in form of ex-votos by 
Anthony Vandyck. The Archduke Albert, governor of the Nether- 
lands, held the child at the baptismal font, and young Philip 
received an excellent education at the Antwerp Jesuits' College. He 
learned die-sinking and chasing, and made a name as a Goldsmith 
and possibly also as a Medallist. He was married on 24. January 
1625 to Elizabeth Thermos. It is said that he lent money to the 
exiled Charles II. of England, who promised employment for his 
sons on the Restoration. 

MM. Ch. Gilleman and A. Van Werweke (Midailles gantoises, 
Rev. beige num., 1902, p. 69) ascribe to Philip (I) Roettiers a 
medal of 1659, with busts of Louis XIV. and Philip IV. of Spain 
(reproduced, PI. i, 3), on the Conclusion of the Peace of the 
Pyrenees. On 17. November 1659, Meester Philip contracted to 
supply, not later than a fortnight after Christmas, 45 specimens 
in gold of this medal, and his sons stood guarantors. This medal is 
also described in Van Loon, II, p. 459, and in Catalogus der Neder- 
landsche Gedenkpenningen, I, n° 907. He is further said to have 
engraved a medal for Charles II. of England. 

BiBLioGR.\PHY. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Advielle, op. cit. — Jal, op. cit. — 
Kramm, op. cit. — Immerzeel, op. cit. — F. Alvin, Roettiers, Biog. Nat. de Bel- 

of Philip Roettiers and Elizabeth Thermos, was born at Antwerp, 
where he was christened on 13. September 1640; died in the same 
town in 17 18. He was officially connected with the Royal Mint, 
London, as an Engraver from 1670 or before, to 1684, with a 
temporary absence from about 1673 to 1679. On ro. February 1674 

— i88 — 

he married Jeanne Marie de Mangelaer, by whom he had two sons 
who followed the profession of medallists, Philip (III), and Francis. 
He appears to have been still in London on 3. November 1685, 
when Francis was born, although he was nominated Engraver- 

Liberty of Conscience, 1672. 

general of the coins of the Low-Countries on 4. December 1684. 
On 5. August 1686 he took the oath as Engraver of the Antwerp 
mint. He held the two posts simultaneously with a salary of 
4000 livres, and was lodged at the government's expense. During 

— i89 — 

his tenure of office in London, he was employed in the cutting ot 
dies for the currency. Lord Braybrooke (editor of Pepy's diary) 
ascribes to him the innovation of the Britannia type on the Pattern 
Farthing of 1665, although its author is no doubt John Roettiers. 
He executed some interesting English medals : Charles IL and 
Catherine (1667); their busts on either side ; signed on obv, P. R. ; 

— State of Britain (1667) ; obv. Bust of Charles IL ; ^L. Sleeping 
lion; signed : P. R. ; — Liberty of Conscience, 1672 ; obv. Bust of 
Charles IL ; signed : Philip. Roll, F. ; ^L. Liberty seated (illustrated); 

— Namur retaken, 1695; obv. Bust of the Elector of Bavaria; 
signed : PH. R. ; — Peace of Ryswick, 1697 ; obv. Bust of Charles IL 
of Spain; signed PH. R. ; The Elector of Bavaria on horseback; 
signed PH. R. (medal executed for Ghent); — Another ; ^. Mili- 
tary trophy ; signed R. ; — Another; obv. The Elector of Bavaria 
closing the door of the Temple of Janus ; VjL. Peace in chariot, etc. ; 
signed R. : — Another ; similar obv. ; ^. The young Electoral 
Prince leaning on gun ; signed : R. 

Among the other medals engraved by Philip Roettiers I have 
come across the description of the following : 1679. Charles II. of 
Spain and his Queen, Marie Louise of Orleans (in ex. of obv. 
PHILIPPVS, and m ex. of ^L. ROTTIERS) ; — 1687. John Ferdinand, 
van Beughem, bishop of Antwerp (P. ROTi); — 1689. Charles II. 
and his second Queen Marie Anne of Neubourg (obv. PH. R. F. ; 
I^. P. R.); — 1693. Maximilian Emmanuel, Elector of Bavaria, 
governor-general of the Low-Countries (PH. R.); — 1694. 
Leopold I. (ph. R.); — 1697. Peace of Ryswick; — 1700. Access- 
ion of Philip V. to the Spanish throne (PH. R.); — 1701. Marriage 
of Philip V. ; obv. Bust of King; ^. Bust of Queen Marie Louise 
Gabrielle of Savoy ; signed on obv. : PH. ROTTI. F. (struck at the 
cost of the city of Ghent) ; — Medal of the city of Courtrai on the 
Marriage of Philip V. (PH. R.) ; — 1702. Medal of the city of Ghent 
struck in honour of Philip V. and his Queen (ROETTIERS); — 
Rejoicings at Brussels on the Accession of Philip V.; — 1708. 
Charles VI., Emperor of Germany, and his consort, Elizabeth 
Christina of Brunswick- Wolfenbiittel (obv. P. H. R. ; ^L. P. R.); 

— 1716. Birth of Prince Leopold; obv. Bust of Charles VL ; 
signed : PH. ROETTIERS. F. ; ^. Hercules and a nymph ; — Another, 
with different I^. ; — Taking of Temesvar (1716) (R.) — 1717- 
Presentation Medals of Courtrai and Namur to Charles VI. ; — 
Victories over the Turks; — 17 17 and 17 18; Numerous Jetons, 
and Religious Medals of the end of the seventeenth century and 
beginning of the eighteenth, variously signed: PH. R. ; P. ROTI.; P. R. 
or onlyR. 

To Philip (II) Roettiers Pinchart ascribes further some medals 
that are unsigned : 1689. Charles IL of Spain (^. in te domike 

— 190 — 

sPERAVi); — 1695. Proclamation medal of William III. (obv. 
Victory; ^L. William III. on horseback; in background, view ot 
the town and castle of Namur) ; — 1698. The five Sovereigns ot 
Europe who laid claim to the succession of Charles II. ; — 1700. 
Charles II., Portrait-medal, with arms on 1^.; — 1701. Spain 
offering the Crown to the Duke of Anjou; — 1702. Philip V. ; 
^L. Neptune ; Jeton, with bust of Philip V. (signed : R.) — 1703. 
Charles III. and Elizabeth Christina (Proclamation medal of Ghent); 

— 1709. Siege of Tournay by the Allies; — 1712. Charles VI. ; 
Occupation of Quesnay; — Charles II. ot Spain and his consort 
Marie Anne, undated {M. 50 mill.) ; — Charles II., 1690; 1^ Arms 
(signed : R.). 

In 171 2 Philip Roettiers prepared Patterns for a new coinage of 
Patacons, and other currency, but in 1718 we find the name of his 
son Philip already mentioned in connection with the engraving of 
dies for the Antwerp Mint. 

M. Alphonse de Witte has described a number of Flemish Jetons 
by Philippe Roettiers (Le jelon dans les Comptes des Maiires des Man- 
rtaies du diiche de Brabant, Tijdschrift voor Munt-en Penningkunde, 
VI, 21 sqq.). 

M. Alvin states : " Philippe Roettiers etait, il faut I'avouer, un 
graveur tres mediocre. II executa, dit Pinchart, dans les annees 1679 
A 1 7 17, une importante serie de medailles dans lesquelles la deca- 
dence de Tart est tres marquee : le dessin y est maniere et manque 
a la fois d'elegance et de correction ; le modele des chairs laisse par- 
ticulierement a desirer. " 

Bibliography. — V. Advielle, o/>. cil. — A. Pinchart, Histoire de lagravure des 
Medailles en Belgiqiie, 1870. — Rondot et De La Tour, op. cit. — Bolzenthal, op. 
cit. — Hawkins, ed. Franks and Grueber, Medallic Illustrations, &c. — Ruding, 
op. cit. — Plot, Catalogtif de Coins, Poiufons, &c. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

— Van Loon, Beschrijving van Nederlandsche Historie-Penningen,Supp\Qm^ms 1 — x, 
Amsterdam, 1822. — Gilleman et Van Wcrweke, Medailles gantoises, 1902. — 
Immerzeel, op. cit. — Kramni, op. cit. — F. Alvin, Document ine'dit relatij a Phi- 
lippe Roettiers, graveur general des tnonnaies des Pays-Bos et medailles inedites de ul 
artiste (^1640-ij 18), Gazette numismatique, 1504, p. 153 s. 


Philippe Roettiers was naturalized a Frenchman in 1674. 


(t 1732) (1685-1742) 

— 191 — 

ROETTIERS, PHILIPPE (III) LOUIS (Fh'in.). Son of Philippe (II) 
Roettiers ; born at Antwerp (?); his father's successor as Engraver- 
general of the coins of the Low-Countries, and Engraver to the 
Antwerp Mint, from 17 19 to 1732, died, without issue, at Antwerp, 
probably in 1732. His second cousin, James (II) was appointed to 
fill his place, which he did from 1733 to 1772. 

Pinchart ascribes to Philippe (II) Roettiers the following medals: 
1714. Charles VI. ; Presentation medal of the Castellany of Cour- 
trai ; signed on obv. PH. ROETT. lUN, F. ; — Peace of Rastadt 
(Stroehlin Collection); — 1716. Charles VI., Presentation medal 
of the Castellany of Franc (de Bruges); — Medal of the Brussels 
Academy ; with bust of Charles VI ; signed : PH . ROETTIERS. F. F. ; 

— 1717. Presentation Medal of Ghent to Charles VI.; signed : 
PH. ROETT. lUN. F.) ; — 1719- Peace in the Low-Countries ( R.); 

— 1720. Charles VI., Presentation-medal ot the Castellany of 
Ypres; signed : PH. ROETTIERS; — Another, of Tournay ; signed : 
PH. ROETTIERS ; — 1725. Charles VI. and Philip V.; Peace of 
Vienna; signed : PH R, etc, 

BiBUOGR.\PHY. — Pinchart, op. cit. — Van Loon, Supplements, i-io. — Kohlcr, 
Mun\belHSti^ungeii. — Gilleman and Van Werweke, Mmailles gantoises, 1902. — 
Imnierzeel, op. cit. — Kramm, op. cit. 

ROEVER.A. N. DE {Dittd)). Seal-engraver and Medallist at Amster- 
dam, during the first half of the nineteenth century. His productions 
are all of local interest only. 

ROFF, LETA R.{Brit.). Contemporar}^ Sculptor, residing in Lon- 
don, by whom I iiave seen at the Royal Academy Exhibition of 
1906 a Portrait-medallion of John Ebenezer RofF. 

ROFFIN. NICOLAS {French). Die-sinker at Toulouse, circ. 1553. 
Schlickeysen mentions this Engraver's name, but it is not given by 
either Mazerolle or Rondot. 

ROG. Vide MICHAEL ROEG supra. 

ROGAT, EMILE (French). Sculptor, Medallist, and Coin-engraver 
of the first half of the nineteenth century, born in Paris, in 1770, 
where he died about 1850. 

His medallic productions are mostly comprised between 181 5 
and 1853, and during that period he made, according to Chavigne- 
rie et Auvray, the following exhibits at the Paris Salon : 183 1. A 
Frame containing several Medallions, and a medal of Napoleon L ; 

— Head of Christ, after Leonardo da Vinci; — 1833. Frames 
containing several Portraits, and the models of Gohier and Rouget 
de Lisle, after medallions by David d' Angers; — 1834. A Frame 
containing Portrait-medals of Rouget de Lisle, Boulay de b 
Meurthe, and several Medallions; — 1835. Portrait of M. G***, 

— 192 — 

bronze bust : — Frame containing a model of the Portrait-medal ot 
M. Salverte, and two Portrait-medallions of Ladies; — 1837. Bust 

Pattern. 100 Francs, 1851. 

of a Man, plaster ; — Portrait-medallion and cliche of a medal of 
Audry de Puyraveau ; — Medal and Medallion with portrait of 
Hahnemann ; — Portrait-medallion of Chasseriaud, advocate of 
Rochefort; — ^845. Fourteen cliches of medals amongst which a 
Portrait of Jacquard, of Lyons. — 1849. Five Medallions, of which 
two are models for the Coinage Competition ; — Nine Portrait- 
medals, and a bronze Medallion executed in commission for the 
Paris Mint. 

Among this Engraver's Pattern for coins I know of the follow- 
ing : France. Louis Philippe L, 100 Francs, 18^1 (illustrated); — 
5 Francs, 183 1 — Second Republic, 1848. 20 Francs; 5 Francs; 
10 Centimes (3 types); — 5 Francs, with head of Liberty in Phrygian 
cap. — Monaco. HonoreV.,40, and 20 Francs, 1838 ; 5 Francs, 1837; 
2 and I Francs, 1838 ; r,, and | Francs, 1838. Decime, and cinq Cen- 
times, 1838 (all signed : E. ROGAT). 

The following medals bear Rogat's signature. — He executed 
several pieces for the Napoleonic series and also for the Durand 
series. — Henry VIIL of England, 1845; — D' William Harvey 
(intended for Durand's series, but rejected, Binfield's medal 
Being accepted); — William IIL of England, 1844; — 
William Penn, 1844; — Joseph Addison, 1823; — Visit 
of the French National Guards to London, Sept. 1848; — 
Medal of the Cercle britannique at Paris, about 1834 (with 
jugate heads of Washington, Kosciusko, and Lafayette) ; — 
Battle of Waterloo, 181 5 (struck after 1830); — Claude Joseph 
Rouget de Lisle, author of the' Marseillaise', 1833 — Antonio 
Maria Gasparo Sacchini, composer (1734-1786), 1823; — Jean 
Baptiste Louis Cresset, Inauguration of his Monument at Amiens, 

— 19^ — 

185 1 ; — Immanuel Kant, 1825; — Rene Descartes, 1846; — 
Commemorative medal of the three Revolutions of 1789, 1830 and 
1848 (struck at the Paris Mint, 1848); — Military Fete at Paris, 
20. April 1848 (2 var.) ; — Revolution of February 1848. — 
Leonardo da Vinci ; — Chambre des entrepreneurs de Maconnerie, 
octagonal jeton, 1810; — Anthony Thouret, statesman, 185 1 ; — 
Andry de Puyraveau, 1835; — Alexandre Bixio, 1848; — Armand 
Carrel, 1825 ; — A. N. Collet, composer, 185 1 ; — Louis Marie de 
Cormenin, 1842; - - J. F. Dupont, advocate, 1837; — C. Guil- 
laume Etienne, 1835; — E. J. C. Garnier-Pages, 1846; — 
L. J. Gohier, president of the Directoire, 1836; — D"" S. Hahne- 
mann, 1836; — Prize Medal for medicine, with head of Hippo- 
crates; — Joseph Marie Jacquard, 1843 ; — Mehemet-Ali, vice- 
roy of Egypt, 1840; — L Taylor, 1849; — Tycho Brahe, astrono- 
mer, 1825 ; — Prize Medal, with head of the French Republic 
(dies at the Paris Mint); — 1^. of Mining jeton of the Societe 
anonyme des Houilleres de Layon et Loire, 1849 ; — L. Galvani ; 
— Eugene Sue, 1846; — M. Brezin^ Hospital, Garches, St. Cloud, 
1834; — Eugene Sue. 1850; — Hippocrates; — Vaccination 
Medal (French Republic); — Cholera at Chateauroux, 1832; — 
Cholera at Paris, 1832; — Third Anniversary of the 1830 Revolu- 
tion, 1833; — Marshal Ney, 1832; — Protest of Napoleon L 
against his exile at St. Helena, 1815, etc. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — 
Hawkins, ed. Franks and Grueber, MedaUic Illustrations, &c. — Weber, op. cit. — 
De Saulcv, Souvenirs numistnatiqius de la Revolution de 1S48. — Florange, Jetons 
des Mines, &c. — Mitlh. des Kluhs, &c. 1901, 1902, 1909. — Brichaut and Van 
Peteghem, op. cit. 

ROGEL, HANS {Genu.). Modeller and Engraver {Formschmider) of 
the second half of the sixteenth century, who flourished at 
Augsburg, where he died in 1592. Bolzenthal states that he 
executed numerous models for the goldsmiths of that town, which 
boasted, about that time, of such clever masters as David Attem- 
stetter, Christoph Abbt, Mathias Fend, Balduin Drentwett, Elias 
Waldvogel, and others. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

ROGEN, OTTO (Germ.). Mint-warden at Nuremberg, 1444. 

ROGER, CORNEILLE {FreucJi). Goldsmith, and Medallist, who in 
1 617 supplied gold medals with bust of Louis XJL, intended for 
presentation to the Royal bodyguard. 

Bibliography. — Mazerolle, op. cit., I. cxlvii. — A. de Marsy, Rev. beige 
mini., 1888, p. 174. 

L. FoRKEX. — Biographical Notices of Medallist!. — V. 1} 

— 194 — 

ROGER, LAPINE (Brit.). Master of the Mints of London and 
Canterbury, in conjunction with John de Pontoyse, anni 6-8 of 
Edward II. (1313-1315); alone, anni 8-10 (1315-1317) but with 
Stephen Week as his locum tenens at Canterbury in 13 16; and 
again, anni 12-17 (i3i9~i326). His official title in the Mint 
account for the latter period is : Magister Monete monetand. in Cambiis 
London' and Cant. Under Edward III., anno 3 (1330) his name 
occurs as Warden for the Exchange at Canterbury, and previous to 
his Mintmastership, he had held the office of Assayer to the 

Bibliography. — Ruding, op. cit. 

ROGER, SIMON (French). Mint-engraver at Dijon, appointed on 
22. May 1690, and in office until 1720. He was born, 27. February 
1654, and worked as an Engraver from about 1681. His predecess- 
or at Dijon was Guillaume Menestrier, 1 688-1 690. 

Bibliography. — Rondot, op. cit., p. 422. 

ROGERS, RICHARD (Brit.). Comptroller of His Majesty's Mint in 
1602, and a goldsmith by profession. 

ROGER-BLOCHE, PAUL (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Paris; pupil of Cavelier, and Barrias. By him is a Plaquette, 
executed in commission for the * Soci^te des Amis de la Medaille ' in 
1906, representing Soldiers on the march. 

ROGET, GUILLERME (Siuiss). Mint-master at Cornavin, Geneva, 
under the Duke of Savoy, Philibert II., circ. 1504. 

ROGGE, GERHARD (Germ.). Mint-master and Engraver at Danzig, 
1639-1656, and at Thorn, 1645-1648. His initials G. R. occur on 
the coinage. He also engraved some medals. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Kirmis, Handbuch :(ur polnischen 
MiinxkunJe, 1892. — C. B. Lengnich, Nachrichten ^iir BUcher-und Miinikumie, 
Danzig, 1780, 1782. 

ROGIER, JEAN (French). Mint-master at Saint-L6, 1524. 

ROGLIO, TOMMASO (ItaL). Medallist ol the last quarter of the 
sixteenth century, who also worked as Mint-engraver at Passerano 
in Piedmont. His initials T. R. occur on a Portrait-medal ot 
U. Aldrovandi, a physician of Bologna. 

ROGUET, LOUIS (French). Sculptor, born at Saint-Junien (Haute- 
Vienne), 24 December 1824; died at Rome in 1850. By him are 
also Portrait-medallions. One ofM. Albin Bimbenet was exhibited 
at the Salon of 185 1. 

— 195 — 

ROGUIN, JEAN {French). Goldsmith, and Mint-engraver at Tours, 

ROHAULT ET MUZARD (Fr^wc/;). Issuers of Patterns for Coins, 1843, 
reproduced in Dewamin, PI. 57, n°^ 10 and 11. Tliey were Die- 
sinkers, established in Rue de Buffault, 12, Paris. The Patterns 
were engraved by Thonnelier. 

ROHLEDER, LEONHARD (Germ.). Medallist, and Warden of the 
Nuremberg Mint, in 1639; appointed Warden of the District of 
Lower Franconia, in 1665 ; died 1666. 

Will, Niirnbergische Miitiibehistigiingen, PI. i, 168 reproduces a 
medal by this artist, whom Ammon calls Rohlederer. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Heller, op. cii. — Lori, III, 8. — 
Gebert, op. cii. 

ROHT, A. (Genu.). Modeller in wax of the early part of the 
eighteenth century. His signature : A. Rohl occurs on a Portrait- 
medallion of Frederick L, first king of Prussia. This medallion is 
in the Berlin Museum. 

Bibliography. — J. Menadier, op. cit., n° 206. 

R0IN£, JULES fiDOUARD (French). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist, born at Nantes (Loire-Inferieure), 24. October 1857; 
pupil of Chantron at Mantes; came to Paris in 1877, where he 
studied under Morice. In 1886 he went to New York, and was 
employed there to decorate the new Law Courts, various Theatres, 
and Churches ; made the Bas-reliefs of the Grant Monument, 
Brooklyn Arch, Vanderbilt Mansion, Pittsburg Monument, &c. 
For five years he was Professor of modelling at the Trade Mechan- 
ical School, New York. 

The artist returned to Paris in 1894 and exhibited for the first 
time in 1895 at the Salon of the Soci^te des Artistes francais. He 
obtained a Mention honorable in 1897, ^^^ ^ Plaquette in bronze: 
Glorification de la Ville de Nantes, and a statuette in plaster : 
Perseus petrifying Atlas; in 1898 a Medal of the second Class, for 
a frame of Medals and several statuettes; in 1900 a Medal of the 
first Class, and a gold Medal of the Universal Exhibition of the same 

Among his principal works are : Silver Tray, Ceres, (belonging to 
the Ministere de I'Agriculture) ; — Silver Vase, Paix et Travail 
(acquired by the State ; in the Luxemburg Museum) ; — Portrait of 
the artist's daughter ; — Daphnis and Chloe, medal ; — Hygiaea, 

— 196 — 

medal ; — Commemorative plaquette of the Universal Exhibition, 
1900 (^illustrated). In commission for the Societe des amis de la 
medaille francaise ; obv. after a drawing by A. Besnard ; — Medal 
for the New York Architectural League ; — Dieu protege la 
France ; — Mon pere et ma mere ; — Ma fille ; — M. J. C*** ; — 
1 90 1. Marseillaise; — Ben^dicite ; — Ste Genevieve; — Honneur 
etPatrie; — Fiancailles;— 1902. M"*^^ D*** ; — MM. J. & P. D***; 
— Medal of the Ligue des Droits de I'homme ; — Inauguration of 



y : 

Plaquette, Paris Universal Exhibition, 1900 (IJt.) 

Popular French Universities; — Medaille de naissance ; — Christening 
medal ; — Virgin ; — La Terre a sa toilette ; — Floreal ; — Psyche 
and Cupid; — Music; — 1903. Medals and Plaquettes; — 1904. 
Venise; — Divine Love; — 1907. Ceres, agricultural prize medal; 
— American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological SocietA', 
13'^ annual meeting, 1907 (dies made by Deitsch Brothers; signed : 
J. E. R0IN£ I FECIT.) ; — 1908. Ceres ; — Agriculture ; — Abraham 
Lincoln; — Centennial medal, 1909 (Anier.Jonni. of Numismatics, 
XLiii, PI. 5). 

A recent writer describes Roine's work **d'une composition abon- 
dante, ais^e, pleine de verve, d'un dessin libre sans embarras devant 
les difficultes, dans le style des decorations du xvii*= siecle". 

Bibliography. — Information kindly supplied by the artist. — Catalogues du 
Saloii, 1895- 1 904. — R Marx, Medailleurs frangais contemporains . — Art et Deco- 
ration, 1899, II. — Dr J.-H. de Dompierre de Chaufepic, op. cit. — Gazette num. 
frangaise, 1898, p. 284; 1900, p. 430. 

— 197 — 

ROISIN. LAMBERT DE (BcJg.). Medallist of the first half of the 
nineteenth centurj', born at Namur, 24. June 1808. His first pro- 
duction of note was a Plaque representing the Almighty separating 
Light from Darkness, which he exhibited at Brussels in 1833. In 
1847 he took part in the monetary competition, and obtained a 
reward of 100 Francs for his Pattern Five Franc piece. There arc 
three medals known by him of 1844, and also the following : 
Presentation medal to Baron d'Huart, 1847 ; — Francois Gerard 
Pirson, 1848; — Agricultural Prize Medal of Namur, with bust of 
Leopold L, 1848; — Provincial Exhibition of Namur, 18^9; — 
Francois Joseph Cornet, 1852, &:c. 

His signature is : LAMBERT F. 

Fide LAMBERT DE ROISIN, Vol. Ill, p. 282. 

ROIZE, JACQUES DE. Also ROAIRE q. v. supra. Goldsmith and 
Medallist at Troves, circ. 1 520-1 571. 

ROKESLEY, GREGORY DE (5n7.). A celebrated goldsmith, who 
lived in the Old Change, about 1275. In the third year of Edward I. 
(1275), he was Chief Assay Master of all the king's mints 
throughout England, and Keeper ot the king's exchange in London. 
In 1282 he was Master of the London Mint, and somewhat later, 
1291, Warden of the Canterbury Mint. 

He was Sheriff in 1271, and eight times Mayor between 1275 
and 1285. 

Chaffers (Gilda Aurifabrorum, p. 27) states : "In the 8*'' year ot 
Edward I. (1279), the value of the coins had become so deteriorated 
by clipping, that a new standard ot value was established, and a 
new coinage issued, which was conducted by an agreement with 
William de Turnemire of Marseilles ; Groats and Half-groats were 
made as well as Sterlings or Pennies. The pound of Esterling 
money was to contain 12 ounces, to wit, fine silver, such as was 
then made into foil, and commonly called " Silverof Guthurons 
Lane", viz. u oz. 2 | dwt. The dies for this new money were 
delivered to Gregory de Rokesley on the 27*'' May 1280". 

Gregory de Rokesley was buried in Christ's Church, Newgate 
Street (129 1). 

Bibliography. — Ruding, op.cit. — Chaflfers, op. cit. 

ROKOSOWSKI, JACOB (Pol.). Treasurer to the Crown of Poland, 
1580. His initials occur on the coinage. 

ROLAND, NICOLAS (Fr^m:/;). G^n^ral des Monnaies, 1575. 

ROLANDIN (Flem.). Mint-master at Bar, 1321. 

— 198 — 

ROLARD, FRANQOIS LAURENT (^French). Contemporan' Sculptor, 
born at Paris ; pupil of Jouffroy and Crauk; obtained a Silver medal 
at the Paris Universal Exhibition, 1900. Amongst his medallic 
works, I only know: 1901. Portrait-plaquette of Gustave Raulin, 
architect of the salle des fetes at the Paris Universal Exhibition of 
1900; ^. View of the great Hall; — 1901. M. Parck ; — M"'<^ 
Paulin; — M. Schwartz, etc. 

Chavignerie et Auvray give a list of his works in sculpture 
between 1867 and 1882. 

Bibliography. — Catalogues du Salon, 1883-1906. 

ROLL, QlQ^VH (Swiss) . Mint-master at Lucerne, 152 8- 1532; 1535- 
1539; and 1 541-1543. He was still living in 1545. 

ROLL, WOLFGANG (^«^/r.). Goldsmith and Engraver of Kremnitz ; 
appointed Master of the Joachimsthal Mint, 2. July 1543; then 
transferred to Kremnitz, 1544-1550. In 1551 we find him in Vienna 
as Goldsmith to the Court and Mint-engraver. Privy mark, crescent 
moon. He was still in office at the end of November 1586, when he 
received fresh instructions regarding the Hungarian coinage. 

His mint-mark occurs on Joachimsthaler and Half-Thaler of Fer- 
dinand (1542-1544) and also on medals of a religious character. 
The following, however, although ascribed to Wolf Roll, do not 
bear his distinctive symbol : Obv. The Paschal Supper; ^. Christ 
and his disciples at the Holy Supper, 1534 ; — Obv. The Brazen 
Serpent; ^, Christ on the cross; — Portrait -medal of Mary of 
Hungary ; — Memorial medal of King Louis of Hungary, slain 
at the battle of Mohacz (Fiala, Beschreibung, etc.,n°* 984, 985, 4294, 

Bibliography. — Fiala, op. cit. — Num. Zeitschrift, 1890, p. 208. — C. Oes- 
terreicher, Regestfu aus J. Newald's Publicationen fiber osterreichische Mfitiipra- 

ROLLES (or ROLLOS), JOHN {Brit.). Mint-engraver, and Chief- 
engraver of the Seals, appointed in 1729, in succession to John 
Roos. " The latter's accounts for seals of George IL in 1729 reached 
the grand total of €. 1408. 3 5. 8 J. Of this sum, the officers of 
the mint struck off €. 20 for overcharge for the seal for South 
Carolina. The account included seals for England and Ireland, and 
also for the Plantations of America. The amount for Plantation 
seals came to £. 349. 13 s. 3 d.y which was paid out of the Virginia 
quit rents. The silver seal for New Jersey was lost in transit by 
shipwreck, and in the following year RoUes engraved a new one at 
a cost of£. 13. 14 .r. G d. for workmanship." 

Bibliography. — Ruding, op. cit. — Bloom, English Seals, 1906. 

— 199 — 
ROLLIN. LUDWIG (Genu.). Mint-master at Cassel, 1724-1744. 

ROMAN EMPERORS, MEDALLIST OF (Ital.). Armand describes 
under tlie name of ' Medailleur aux empereurs remains ' medallions 
with portraits of tiie Emperors Nero, Trajan, and Antoninus Pius 
with Faustina Senior. There is probably a larger series, but only 
fhe three mentioned have as yet been discovered. They date from 
the end of the fifteenth century. 

Bibliography. — Armand, Medailleiirs italiens, I, icx3. 

ROMANELLI, GASPARE (Ital.). Goldsmith and Medallist of Aquila, 
son of the goldsmith Bartolomeo Romanelli, and brother of Raffaele, 
who practised the art also. According to Milanesi, was working at 
Florence about 1560 to 1580. By him are : Antonio Francesco Doni, 
Florentine writer (1513--I- 1574) ; 52 mill.; I^. Sphere within 
wreath; — Pietro Vettori; signed : G. R. F.; obv. Bust to 1. ; 
I^. coNCEDAT.LAVREA.LiNGV.E. The dispute between Neptune and 
Minerva; ex. : cid.ic.lxxx; 40 mill. 

The Doni medal is attested by Doni's letter of thanks to the 

Heiss attributes to the same artist the other known medals of 
Pietro Vettori : (a). ^. labor. omnia. Olive-branch : 44 mill. ; — 
(b) Another, with an lxix instead of lxxix on obv. ; 43 mill.; — 

Ic). iNVENTRix . OLE.c . ET . ALTRix . INGENIORV. Minetva ; 40 mill. ; 

(d). si.MiHi .svscEPTVM. Minerva ; 45 mill. These medals allude to 
Vettori's work entitled : Lodi e coltivazione degli Olivi ". 

Bibliography. — Armand, op. cit., Ill, 103. — Heiss, op. cit. — Supino, op. 
cit. — C. von Fabrtczy, op. cit., Engl, ed., p. 182. — Giovanni Pansa, Masello 
Ciuelli di Sulmona e Gasparo Romanelli delV Aquila, Teramo, 1907. — Cicognara, 
Stor. della scoltura, etc. 

ROMANO, GIANCRISTOFORO (ltd.). Sculptor, Goldsmith, Medallist 
and Gem-engraver of the last four decades of the fifteenth century 
and early part of the sixteenth, circ. 1465-15 12. 

'' Strongly influenced by I'Antico", says Herr von Fabriczy, "but 
surpassing him in almost every respect, appears an artist whom, in 
spite of his foreign origin, we must rank here, since the most 
important part of his career belongs to Milan and Mantua. Giancris- 
toioro Romano represents in the third generation a family of artists, 
which, in his grandfitther, Pippo Gante at Pisa, and in his father 
Isaia of Pisa in Rome, had furnished distinguished masters of sculp- 
ture. From 1 49 1 to 1497 we find Giancristoforo occupied with 
important works of plastic art at the Court of Milan, from that time 
until the end of 1505 in Mantua, where in 1498 he made the medal 


of the Marchioness Isabella, his particular patroness". Recalled by 
Pope Julius II. to his native city, he designed there the Pope's 

Isabella d'Este. 

medal, in i$o6; also, in the following year at Naples, that ot 
Isabella of Aragon, widow of Giangaleazzo Maria Sforza who had 

Pope Julius II. 

been dethroned by Lodovico II Moro. After a passing sojourn at 
the Court of Urbiiio, where — accomplished courtier that he was 

I . " Thanks to the sympathetic personality of the Marchioness, honoured through- 
out Italy, as well as to the excellence of the medal as an artistic achievement, it 
became so popular and was so much sought after that in 1 505 Giancristoforo was 
obliged to issue a replica — the only instance known to us of an artist personally 
supervising a second edition of a medal. It deviates in a few features — the 
aquiline nose, the slightly projecting lower lip, the dift'erent necklace, the sharply 
defined edge of the bodice — from the original treatment, as is clearly evident 
from the example (in a gold frame set with jewels) in the Cabinet of Vienna. The 
reverse remained entirely unaltered in the replica. " 

— 201 

— he won all hearts, especially by his musical and poetic endow- 
ments, he was entrusted in 1509 with the position of architect ot 
the Cathedral at Loreto, where he died in the course of three years 
in the prime of life, a victim of the terrible disease which had been 
brought to Italv bv the army of Charles VIII. 

Lucrezia corgia. 

" A document onlv recently discovered has shown the master 
to be the author of the three medals already mentioned. All three 
are inspired with a grace hitherto unknown in works of the kind — 
even the "Papa terribile " has acquired an expression of fatherly 

— 202 — 

bonhomie in Romano's presentation. The relief is, at the same time, 
modelled with unusual delicacy, even a little affected nicety is not 
disdained : for example, the veil, which reveals rather than hides 
the features of Duchess Isabella, which the contemporary letter 
already mentioned extols as '^ cosa molto artificiosa. " The allegories 
of the reverses, in their carefully thought out composition, breathing 
throughout the keenest sense of beauty both in motive and form. 

Enlargement of Uniface Portrait-medallion of Lucrezia Borgia (60 mill.). 

are likewise jewels of their kind : inspired in both respects by the 
antique, they nevertheless forfeit nothing of their attractive indi- 
vidual cachet. The proudly standing goddess of Victory of the 
Gonzaga medal, with her draperies flowing round her ; the indes- 
cribably graceful seated nude maiden on the Aragon medal, a 
marvel of expression and modelling on so small a scale; Peace and 
Faith joining hands in alliance over the sacrificial fire on the medal 
of Julius — all are perfectly finished pictures. With entire justice 
does the witness already mentioned say that they *'ad judicio di 

— 203 — 

ogni intelligente alii boni antichi se possono comparar", since not 
only in motive, but in their innermost being they breathe the spirit 
of the antique. True, their composition has been dictated by an 
entirely different principle from the realism which in Pisano appeals 
to us with elemental power. We already stand confronted with the 
Cinquecento view of the world and art ! 

" Besides these three undoubted pieces, some others have been 
quite recently added to the number of his works. Hitherto they 
had been attributed to an anonymous artist (or even, without any 
justification, to the Florentine painter, Filippino Lippi). On the 
ground of their great similarity in style, the time and place of their 
origin, the ties of relationship or friendship which existed between 
the persons depicted, W. Bode has recognised the hand of Gian- 
cristoforo Romano in the medals of Alfonso I. of Este and of his 
wife, Lucrezia Borgia, as well as in those of the otherwise unknown 
Jacopa Correggio, Maddalena de' Rossi and P. Prancina, The medals 
ot the Este couple were made in the year 1503, while one of the 
three redactions of the medal of Lucrezia, deviating by some slight 
alterations from the original, is not earlier than 1505. The 
assumption that the artist made the former in Mantua, the latter 
when passing through Ferrara on his way to Rome, has every show 
of probability, since Alfonso and his wife were brother and sister- 
in-law of the artist's patroness, Isabella Gonzaga. It is likewise 
known that the families of the Correggio and Rossi ot Parma were 
related or on friendly terms with the Gonzaga and Este. Decisive, 
however, is the criterion of style. The medals of Jacopa and Madda- 
lena still retain much of the character of L'Antico — in the latter 
his realistic force, in the former the delight in emphasising the 
ornament in costume and headdress (see his Balzo medal) ; while in 
grace and delicacy of modelling both medals far surpass the earlier 
artist's skill. Now the portraits of Lucrezia have so much in common 
with those of Isabella Gonzaga both in style and arrangement, and 
that of Alfonso, more especially in its soft modelling, so vividly 
recalls the portrait on the medal of Julius, that the attribution ot 
the pieces to the same hand seems almost irrefutable. It is true 
that the perfectly charming representation of captive Cupid on the 
reverse of one of the medals of Lucrezia seems, in its free pictorial 
composition, to contrast with the severe plastic manner of the pieces 
certainly made by Giancristoforo Romano. Nevertheless it is more 
nearly approached by the earlier redaction of the Cupid scene on 
the Correggio and Rossi medals, and it is by no means inexplicable 
that the scene should be developed later in a more picturesque 
form. Above all, however, it is the same spirit of exquisite grace and 
deep sense of beauty that connects the fettered Cupid with the 
allegories of the undoubted pieces. Not without reason has so 

— 204 — 

accomplislied a judge as Friedliinder pronounced the medal adorned 
by this scene "one of the most beautiful, most charming, and most 
rare . 

"In addition to these pieces, restored to our master by Bode, 
we are inclined to ascribe to him the medal of the youthful Cardinal 
Domenico Grimani. Hitherto it has been regarded as a work of the 
Venetian medallist Vittore Gambello, probably on the sole ground 
that Gambello made a medal of the same personage in more advanced 
years, on the reverse of which the composition of the type of the 
earlier medal was copied exactly. In style, however, the two pieces 
are worlds apart ! While the latter may be classed with Gambello's 
other works, the former shows many points of similarity with the 
medals of Giancristoforo, even to the form of the letters and the 
peculiarity that the letters on the reverse are smaller and thicker 

Jacopa Correggio. 

than those on the obverse. Moreover, the subject on the reverse. 
Theology and Philosophy, symbolized by two temale figures, most 
strikingly corresponds, both in composition and outline, with those 
on the other medals of the master, but has not the smallest resem- 
blance to Gambello's style, as a comparison bet\veen this and the 
repetition of the same composition on his Grimani medal clearly 
shows. Since Giancristoforo's medal represents Grimani, who became 
cardinal in 1493 at the age of thirty, as at the most thirty-five years 
of age, it must have been made during the artist's Mantuan period, 
while on some chance visit to Venice, where the Cardinal may also 
have been accidentally at the time. That, however, his later medal, 
which represents him at the age of fifty to fifty-five, repeats the 
design on the reverse of the earlier piece was perhaps due to some 

— 205 — 

express wish of the sitter. According to what we have just said, 
these medals must have been made about 1515 ; in fact, Gambello 
was occupied in Rome at the Papal Mint from 15 15 to 1517. " 

The above admirable notice of Giancristoforo's Romano's work 
from the pen of Herr von Fabriczy, whom I have quoted in extenso, 
gives a clear account of the artist's work. 

Bertolotti was the first to discover Giancristoforo's name as a 
Medallist {Artisti in relaiione coi Gonzfiga) from a letter addressed to 
the Marchesa of Mantua, Isabella d'Este, by Giacomo d'Atri, her 
ambassador at Naples, who mentions three of his medals. Vasari 
informs us that he was a pupil of Paolo Romano, and he calls him 
a clever sculptor, by whom are some works at Santa Maria in 
Trastevere. Giancristoforo is known also to have executed a tomb 
Ml the church of St. Vincent at Cremona, while at Venice are still 
existing two crystal vases by him with Biblical representations cut 

Isabella d'Este. 

on them. He died at Loreto, 31. May 15 12, from fever, leaving, 
amongst other things, a collection of 36 bronze medals, 87 silver 
medals, cameos, rings, precious stones, and antique intaglios, etc. 
The medals known by this artist are : Isabella d'Este ; obv. Bust 
to r. ; ]^. BENE MERENTivM ERGO. Victor}% etc. J diam. 39 mill. 
(illustrated) ; — Isabella of Aragon, widow of Giangaleazzo Sforza 
(1470- -j- 1)2^) ; obv. Bust to r., veiled ; ^. Female seated to r. in 
front of palm-tree; diam. : 47 mill, (illustratedy, — Pope Julius U. ; 
obv. Bust to r. ; ^. Peace and Faith joining hands ; diam. : 
43 mill. ; — Alfonso I of Este ; obv. Bust to 1. ; I^. Bust of Lucrezia 
Borgia; diam. 56 mill.; — Lucrezia Borgia; uniface medal; 
60 mill. ; — Lucrezia Borgia ; obv. Bust to 1. ; ^. 
FORMAE.PVDiciTiA.PRAECiosissiMVM. Captive Cupid ; diam. 60 mill.; 
— Jacopa Correggio; obv. Bust to r. ; ^L. cessi . dea . militat 

— 2o6 — 

isTAT.p.M. Captive Cupid; diam. : 53 mill.; — Madalena de' 
Rossi; obv. Bust to I. ; ^. as last; 53 mill. ; — F. Francina; obv. 
Bust to r. ; ^. ignis . omnia . vorat . ipsam . recreat. Phoenix ; diam. : 
33 mill.; — Cardinal Domenico Grimani ; obv. Bust to 1. ; 

Isabella ot Aragon. 

^. THEOLOGiA-PHiLOSOPHiA. Two icmale figures joining hands, 
diam. : 53 mill, (ascribed to Gambello, who hovv^ever copied the 
^L. on his medal of the Cardinal, shown with an older portrait, 
Armand, I, p. 116, 8). 

M. de la Tour hesitates to accept von Fabriczy's attribution to 
Giancristoforo Romano of the medals mentioned above, beyond the 
three first, which M. Valton was first to give to him {Rev. num., 
1885, p. 316). Mr. Hill does not dispute the artist's authorship of 
the Lucrezia Borgia medal, but is not quite so confident about those 
of Alfonso I d'Este and Jacopa Correggio. The last was hitherto 
ascribed to Pomedello. M. de Foville suggests {Le Medailleiir a 
" r Amour capt if", Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1908, pp. 385-393) the 
Mantuan artist melioli as the author of the Lucrezia Borgia medal 
as well as those of Clara Gonzaga, and Jacopa Correggio. Melioli 
(</. v.\ the Engraver of the coins of Giovanni Francesco II. of 
Mantua, executed medals of that Marquis, and of Magdalena 
Gonzaga. M. de Foville finds a great analogy in the work of the 
medal and coin of Gian Francesco II and the portrait of Lucrezia 

Bibliography. — C. Von Fabriczy, Italian Medals, ed. Hill. — P. Valton, Giau 
Crisloforo Romano, Rev. num., 1885, pp. 317-^4. — Vasari, op. cit. — Armand, 
op. cit. — Blanchet, op. cit. — Venturi, Arch. Slorico deW Arte, I. — I. B. Supino. 
11 Medagliere Mediceo, 1899. — H. De La Tour, Rev. num., 1903, p. 196. — G. 
F. Hill, Num. Chron., 1903, p. 191. — Keary, British Museum Guide oj Italian 
Medals, 1893. — E. Muntz, Histoire des Arts a la Cour des Papes, Paris, 1898. 

— 207 — 

ROMANO, JULIUS (Ital.). Both Ammon and Bolzenthal mention 
this name in connection with a medal of Pope Clement VII. 
commemorating the 1525 Jubilee. The medal is placed amongst the 
anonymous in Armand. Fide Bolzenthal, p. 118, and Ammon, 
p. 125, n° 342. 

ROMANO, PIETRO (or PIER PAOLO- Vide Vol. 11, pp. 190-194 

C. von Fabriczy's notice of this artist in Italian Medals is worth 
quoting here : 

'• The most prolific of the Florentine medallists of the Cinque- 
cento — Pastorino excepted — was Pier Paolo Galeotti (died 1 584), 
called "II Romano", from the place of his birth, which, however, 
he exchanged in his early youth for Florence. We possess seventy- 
two authenticated pieces by his hand, of which no fewer than 
sixteen bear the portrait of Duke Cosimo I. To judge from the con- 
siderable number of Milanese and Genoese personages depicted, he 

Jacopo de' Medici, marquis of Marignano (1497-15SS), 
one of Charles V's great generals. 

appears to have worked in North Italy also. In 1575 he was 
appointed one of the die-engravers of the papal mint, but never 
seems to have made any prolonged sojourn in Rome. From 1550 
until his death he was employed at the grand-ducal mint. Vasari 
cites among his works twelve medals of Cosimo I., the reverses of 
which depict the most important works of peace executed during 
his reign — the sanitation of Pisa, the water-supply of Florence, 
the foundation of a city on Elba, the building of the Laurentiana, 

— 208 — 

the Palazzo Pitti, etc. All have been preserved : eight are even extant 
in marble replicas on a larger scale on the pedestal of a piece of 
sculpture, the purpose of which can no longer be ascertained, now 
standing in the Museum of the Refectory of the Ognisanti" (Engl, 
ed., p. i8i). 

Pier Paolo Romano's medals, which are usually signed : PPR. 
vary in sizes from 38 to 76 mill. 

M. Georges Gallet describes and reproduces in Musee Neucha- 
telois, 1907, p. 223, a Portrait-medal ot Isabelle de Challant, 1557, 
by this artist (two specimens in /R. and M exist in the Vienna 
Medal Cabinet). 

Fide also Avignone, Medagliede' Liguri, Genova, 1872. 

ROMBAUX, EGIDE (Belg.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist ; 
born at Schaerbeck, 17. January 1865. He has obtained many 
awards at the various exhibitions to which he took part. 

Amon^ his productions are : Medal on the Visit of H. R.H. Prince 
Albert of Belgium to Mariemont; ■ — Charbonnages de Mariemo-nt 
(2 sizes). 

Bibliography. — A. de Witte, La Medaille en Beloique, 1905. 

ROME, H. F. {Brit.). Gem-engraver of the early part ot the nine- 
teenth century. The late Duke of Cambridge possessed a two-strata 
cameo-portrait of H.R. H. Frederick Duke of York, K. G. by this 
artist. It was sold at Christie, Manson & Woods in June 1904. 


ROMIEUX, AUGUSTE (Swiss). Sculptor of Geneva, by whom is a 
medal on the 10''' Anniversary of the Life-saving Society of Lake 
Leman, i895;struckat the Die-sinkingestablishment of Louis Furet. 


ROMOND, ARENT VAN (Dutch). Mint-master at Zwolle (Overysel), 

ROMOND, DIRK VAN (Dutch). Mint-master at Zwolle 1705-1710. 

ROMOND, GERRIT (Dutch). Mint-master at Zwolle, 1674- 1683. 

ROMOND, JOHAN VAN (Dutch). Mint-master at Utrecht, 1679- 
1709. Another, of same name, 1734-1738. 

ROMOND, PIETER VAN (Dutch). Mint-master at Hoorn (West- 
friesland), 1695- 1704. 

— 209 ~~ 

ROMOND, SILBERTDS \kH (Dutch). Mint-master at Utrecht, 17 lo- 
1732 ; privy mark, cinquefoil. 

RONDELLE. Bolzenthal misspells this name, which should be 
ERONDELLE, JEAN (q. v.). This Goldsmith was appointed Mint- 
engraver at Paris in 1562, in conjunction with £tienne de Laulne 
(q. v.). But both engravers were replaced five months later by 
Jacques B^guin, on account of disagreements with Guillaume de 

Erondelle was still in Paris in 1554. He was later appointed 
Mint-master at Pau, and introduced there improved machinery for 

Another Erondelle (Guillaume), was Goldsmith to Marguerite de 
France, and is the maker of some jetons. He flourished circ. 1536- 

RONDOT, EDMONDE {French). Goldsmith of Troyes, born on 
7. October i6i3,died there on 27. February 1697. He was appointed 
Mint-engraver at Troyes on 24. February 1653, and received by 
the Cour des monnaies on 16. May 1653, on the presentation of a 
die for a Double Louis d'or of 10 Livres, with bust of Louis XIV. 
He remained in office at Troyes until 1680, when he was transferred 
to Reims, but on the reopening of the Troyes mint in 1690 he was 
reinstated there. His son Paul was Mint-engraver at Troyes from 
1693 to 1710. 

BiBuoGRAPHY. — Rondot and De La Tour, op. cit., p. 290. 

RONDOT, JACQUES {French). Surnamed'^Le Romain ", on account 
of his sojourn at Rome in 1752. He was a Goldsmith by profession, 
and was working at Troyes from 1755 to 1808. Between 1760 and 
1772 he acted as Assayer and Engraver to the Mint there. He was 
a clever draughtsman and painter of flowers. His signature occurs 
on some of his productions as Rondot graveur du Roy. He died at 
Charmont, 18. June 1808. 

Bibliography. — Rondot, Les Graveurs de Troyes. 

RONDOT, JEAN (I) (French). Goldsmith of Troyes, Mint-engraver 
there, 15 12-1520. 

RONDOT, JEAN (II) (French). Goldsmith of Troyes, and Engraver 
of jetons, 1545-15)7- 

RONDOT, LOUIS JOSEPH (French). Goldsmith, Draughtsman, 
Sculptor, Medallist, Engraver, and Chaser, born at Troyes, 28. 
November 1756; died there, 15. November 1802. He was a son of 
Jacques Rondot. From 1780 to 1783 he worked in Paris as assistant 
to Gouthiere, goldsmith to Louis XVL By him is a work on the 

L. FoKREK. — Biographical Noiica aj Medallisli. — V. 14 

— 210 — 

History of Dress in France from the fifth century to 1801, compri- 
sing 332 sepia drawings. 

He engraved also some medals, and executed silver and bronze 
medallions and plaquettes in repousse ^'orV. 

Bibliography. — Rondot and De La Tour, op. cit. 

RONDOT, NICOLAS (French). Goldsmith of Troyes, born in 1580, 
and died in 1646. He flourished between 1603 and 1646, and was 
Mint-engraver there for many years. 

RONDOT, NICOLAS JEAN-BAPTISTE {French). Goldsmith of Troyes, 
born in 1683; and died on 27. October 1740. He filled the office 
of Mint-engraver there from 1710 to 1726; privy-mark, annulet. 
He executed religious plate for churches, etc. 

RONDOT, PAUL(Fr««c/;). Goldsmith of Troyes, born 12. September 
1652, died 27. November 1710. Fie was Mint-engraver there from 
1693 ^o 1710. 

Bibliography. — Rondot and De La Tour, op. cit. 

RONGEY, ROGIER {French). Goldsmith and Engraver of jetons, at 
Bourges, circ. 1 600-1 606. 

RONSARD, PIERRE (I) {French). Mint-master at Bourges, 14 18. 

RONSARD, PIERRE (II) {French). Mint-master at Bourges, 15 14- 
1515, 1516-1528, and 1529-1540. A gold Ecu of 1519 bears this 
Master's privy-mark, a wild rose-leaf between B and cross. 

Bibliography. — E. Faivre, op. cit. 

RONSELER, JAKOB {Germ.). Mint-master at Konigstein, 15 15. 

ROOS, JOHN {Brit.). Chief-engraver of seals at the London Mint, 
under Anne, and George I. He died in 1720, and was succeeded by 
John Rollos. 

In 17 16 theTreasury paid the Engraver a bill for seals, the officers 
of the mint having reported that ' the work is good and he deserves 
the prices set down'. The charge for the workmanship of the great 
seal was € 200, and for the silver used (117 oz. 10 dwt. at 5^. 2 d. 
per oz.) € 30. i 5. i ^. The account included € 240 for the great 
and privy seals of Ireland ; € 26. 135. 3 1 c?. for a privy seal ; € 69. 
155.0!^. for the exchequer seal; £ 68. 15 5. 11 c^. for the judicial 
seal of Denbigh, Montgomery, and Flint, and a considerable sum 
for steel signets for Secretaries of State. 

Roos was a nephew of Thomas East. 

Bibliography. — Chaffers, GiUa Aurifabrormn. — Bloom, English Seals, p. 5 1. 
— Wyon, Great Seals of England. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

— 211 — 

ROOVERE, GEORGES DE (Flem.). Mint-master at Antwerp, 27. 
October 1685 to 9. November 1690. He issued also jetons for 

ROPE. MISS {Brit.). Contemporar}' London Sculptor, by whom 
are many fine works; amongst them, the Memorial in Salisbur}' 
Cathedral, the Reed Piper for Shelley House, etc. She has exhibited 
within the last few years numerous Bronze reliefs, as ' Hagar and 
Ishmael', plaques, etc. at the Royal Academy Exhibitions. 

Bibliography. — Spielman, op. cit. 

ROPS, F. (^French). Die-sinker of the third quarter of the nine- 
teenth centur}', by whom is a Waterloo commemoration Medal, 
1858, and a satirical medal, in imitation of Bertrand's St. Helena 
souvenir badge, but with the motto : A ses compagnons de raclee, etc. 

ROQUE, FRANCISCO (^Port.). Appointed Mint-engraver at Lisbon, 
17. July 1681, in succession to Feliciano Cypriano do Couto. He 
died on 27. October 1745. 

Bibliography. — Aragao, op. cit. 

ROQUE (French). Farmer of the mint at Toulouse, 1570. 


Sculptor, and Medallist; pupil of Charpentier; residing at Paris, 
who exhibited at the Salon of the Societe Nationale des Beaux- 

Female bust (a study). 

— 212 — 

Arts in 1906, a frame often Portrait-medals and Plaquettes, mostly 
depicting the female form in the nude. En artiste moderne, 
M. Roques s'applique a exprimer, dans des corps gracieux de 
femmes, dessines avec la precision geometrique et finement modeles, 
une sensualite exquise, le charme de la femme nue, interpretee par 
les traits d'un art elegant et plein de vie ". At the Salon, 1908, I 
noticed three Portrait-plaquettes by him, also a Birthday medal, 
and bronze Plaquettes representing a Female seated, and a Gardener 
in a landscape. He won the fourth Prize at a competition for the 
Centenary Plaquette of the Paris Firm of Pleyel, 1909. 

At the Salon of the Societe nationale des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 

1905, Roques exhibited the following works: Bronze Cup; — 
Bronze Plate ; — ^. of Plaquette, Art des Jardins (belonging to 
the 'Societe des Amis de la Medaille); — Plaquette, Lady seated; 
— ^. of Christening Medal ; Portraits (2), etc. 

Bibliography. — Adolphe Bader, Le Medailleur Francois Roques, Art d^coratif, 

1906, p. 155. 

RORDORF, RUDOLF VON {Swiss). Coin Artist in Zurich (Mitni- 
kiinstler). He was commissionned to instal a rolling-machine at 
the Mint of Muhlau near Innsbruck. He was granted special 
privileges by the Archduke Ferdinand, 1568, and the Emperor 
Maximilian II,, 1569. 

ROS, G. G. (Ital.). This signature occurs on a Portrait-medal of 
Eleonora di Toledo (-j- 1562), first consort of Cosimo I. of Florence 
(Armand, II, 199, n° 21). 

ROSA, GEORG TOBIAS (Germ.). Medallist at Basle, and later at 
Auo;sburg. He died in 1784. He studied the art of medal-engraving 
under J. C. Hedlinger. Bolzenthal mentions a Portrait-medal of 
Pope Pius VI. as one of his best works. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

ROSCHMANN, ALBRECHT (Germ.). Mint-master to the Counts of 
Hohenlohe, at Gnadenthal, and Neuenstein, 1621-1622. 

ROSE, ALBERT AUGUSTE (^French). Contemporary Sculptor, born 
at Amiens ; pupil of MM. Morice and Robin. At the Salon of 1887 
he exhibited a Portrait-medallion :" Mon ami M***, and in 1905: 
Amour, plaquette in steel, oi repousse work. 

ROSE, j£R0ME de la (French). Mint-master at Romans, 15. March 
1548 to 1556; privy-mark, a rose. 

ROSE, LEONARD (French). Painter and Engraver of Lyons, 1539- 
1547; was employed at the Mint there as Die-cutter in 1544. 

— 213 — 

ROSELIEB, L. FRITZ VON (Genu.). Sculptor, residing in London, 
by whom are a number of medallic works: 1904. Dawn, bronze 
plaque ; — 1906. Portrait-plaque of Longfellow; — Portrait-plaque 
of Nelson, etc.; — 1907. The late Mrs. SteinhofF, relief in silver ; 
— Cripplegate Photographic Society; — Lord Salisbury, Portrait- 
medallion ; — Southend-on-Sea Photographic Society ; — and 
other Plaquettes in bronze, 1909. 

His father is the Director of Kupron Ltd. 

ROSENAU, VON (Genu.). Mint-master at Kohurg,circ. 1430. 

ROSENAUER, HANS (Germ.). Forger of coins at Bamberg, 1443, 
for which offence he was burnt at the stake. 

Bibliography. — D"" A. K., Ein Miinifalscher und sein Ende, Bl. f. Miinzfr., 
1899, 92. 

ROSENBAUM, LORENZ (Swiss). Goldsmith and Medallist, born at 
Schaflliausen, probably a son of Meister Conrad Rosenbaum, gold- 
smith. He belonged to the Corporation of Dealers (Kramer), and was 

a member of the "Grosse Rath" from 1535 to 1539. In 1539, he 
left his native citv for Augsburg, where he worked for seven years, 
returning after Christmas 1546 to Scharthausen. 

Rosenbaum was no doubt a skilful artist, as von Stetten states 
(p. 499), and to him have been attributed the following medals: 
Albert V., Count Palatine and Duke of Bavaria; 9^. si - devs >< nobis- 
cvM X Q.VIS « CONTRA " Nos " (i 545). Accofdiug to Erman, itissigned 
Ey, but the monogram is indistinct ; and D"" Merzbacher expressed 
doubts as to the correct attribution of this medal, the style of which 
differs also greatly from the authenticated works of the artist. — 

— 214 — 

Charles V., i^ ^6 (illustrated), given to Rosenbaum on the strength 
of documentary evidence. The artist was paid 12 florins for the dies 
of this piece. — ReHgious medal; obv. also mvssen vmkmen, etc. der 
HERR NA — VMB.D.sissERA. Half-length female figure, veiled, holding 
hammer; ^L. der herr. hat nit verlas — etc. Half-length figure of 
Judith holding sword and the head of Holofernes ; in exergue, the 
artist's signature : LARENTZ ROSENBAVM (illustrated). Tiie work 
corresponds to that of the Charles V. medal. — Uniflice Portrait-medal 

Judith, by Rosenbaum. 

(apparently of the artist himself); vt.mortvvs.viverem. vivo.hic. 
MORITVRVS. 15 .l.r. 31. Bare bust to r. (Merzb, he. cit., PI. i, 4). 
Formerly in the Felix, then Gutekunst collections. — Hans Asper, 
of Zurich, 1540; obv. imago ioannis asper pictoris, etc. ; 
V)L. Skull. Ascribed to Jakob Stampfer by Erman and others. 

Many other fine medals of the German Renaissance may belong 
to Rosenbaum. 

Bibliography. — D^ Eugen Merzbacher, Beitrcige :(ur Kritik der deutschen 
Kunstmedaillen, Loreni Rosenbaum, Mitth. der Bayer. Num. Ges., 1900, i-io. — 
Stetten, Kunst-, Gewerb- und Handwerksgeschichte der Rekhsstadt Augsburg, 1779. — 
Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Erman, op. cit. — Fusslin, Geschichte der Sclnveiier Mahler. 
— Kull, op. cit. -- D"" Merzbacher, Kunstmedaillen Katalog, 1900. 

ROSENBERG, JOBST and PETER (Genu.). Were granted a Patent 
to work the mint at Prague for the coinage of silver, 1532. 

ROSENBERGER, HANS(G<!n;/.). Mint-master at Schwabach, 1495. 

ROSENBERGER, MARQUARD (Germ.). Mint-master at Nuremberg, 
15 12-15 17, and Schwabach, 1515. 

ROSENSTIEGEL, HANS (Austr.). Mint-master at Vienna, 1428. 

— 215 — 

ROSENTHALER, CHRISTOPH {Germ.). Mint-master and Warden at 
Nuremberg, 1545, and District Warden, 1560. In 1546-7 he was 
entrusted with the issue of a coinage of gold. 

Bibliography. — Kull, op. cit. — Ammon, op. cit. — Will, op. cit. — Gebert, 
op. cit., p. 56. 

ROSETTI, CAV. DOMENICO {ItaL). Bolzenthal mentions this name 
among those of Medalhsts of the second half of the fifteenth centur}', 
but no work has been attributed to him as yet. 

ROSEX. NICHOLAS (Jtal.'). Niello-engraver of Modena, by whom 
are some Plaquettes representing David and Goliath (two varieties), 
and a female figure holding sword and apple. 

Bibliography. — Duchesne, Essai stir Us nielles. 


ROSNEL, DE {French'). Assistant-engraver at the Paris Medal Mint, 
circ. 1715-1716. From the Journal historique de la inonnoye we learn 
that he engraved in 171 5 the medal with the legend : kella recepta 
X .MARTii 1703 (The French masters of the Rhine). 

Planchenault has ascribed to this Engraver a Jeton of Angers 
signed : D. R. 

ROSNER, IGNAZ {Atistr.). Mint-engraver at Prague, circ. 1833- 
1854; appointed Mint-engraver at Prague, 24. May 1833, and in 
office there until his death in 1854. He was born at Vienna in 1786, 
died II. January 1854. The Vienna Mint Museum preserves several 
puncheons for coins cut by him : Half Souverain d'or for Lombardy 
and Venetia, 1822; two varieties; one signed : IG. ROSNER F. ; — 
Scudo for Lombardo- Venetia, 1825 (IG. ROSNER F.) ; — Half-scudo, 
1825 ; — Four Ducat piece, 1830; signed R. (sev. var.); — Ducat, 
1830 ; also Two and One Gulden pieces, 1830. Also Currency for 
Bohemia, 1834-1854, in conjunction with other Engravers. 

ROSS, ALFRED {French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Tillieres-sur-Avre (Eure); pupil of Jouffroy. By him are also 
Portrait-medallions: 1876. M. Valade; — 1877. Camille Pelletan; 
1878. M-' D***, &c. 

ROSS, JOHN. Vide ROOS supra. 

ROSS, P. {Brit.). This signature occurs on a Portrait-medal ot 
Lord Byron, 18 18. His bust, without any inscription. 

ROSS. STEPHAN {Germ.). Mint- warden at Bamberg, 1536. 

ROSSEL, LEGER {French). Leodegarius Rosselli aurifaber de Romanis Goldsmith of Romans, appointed Mint-engraver to the 

— 2l6 — 

Archbishop of Lyons {Cissor cugnormn dicte tmmete Lugduneusis, scis- 
sor seu sculptor nostrarum monetaruni), 1379-1381. 

Bibliography. — Orfevres lyoimais. — Ibid., Graveurs lyoiinais. 

general to the Counts of Schlick, 1648- 1649. 

DOMENICO DE' CAMBARELLI. Sculptor of the fifteenth century, 
who was working at Florence, circ. 1427-1479. Bode describes 
the following Plaques by him, or in his art : Madonna 
enthroned (96x55 mill.); — Half-length figure of Madonna 
(153 X 105 mill.); — The Adoration (109x79 mill.); — Another 
(134X90 mill.). 

Bibliography. — Bode, Die italienischen Bronien, 1904. — Molinier, op. cit. 

ROSSELLOY (ROSSELLO), LORENZO (Jpfl!/?.). Contemporary Sculptor 
and Medallist, born at Alaro Mallorca; studied at Paris under 
D. Puech. At the Salon of 1895 he exhibited two Portrait- 
medallions : Germaine; — Charlotte, etc. 

ROSSET, JEAN (Swiss). Mint-engraver at Geneva, in conjunction 
with Charles Goulaz, 9 July 1573 to 24. February 1581. 

ROSSI (Jtal.'). Die-sinker of Buenos-Ayres, whose signature, in 
conjunction with that of another engraver's, Bellagamba, occurs on 
Inauguration medals of the steam tramway of La Plata, 1902; and 
Railway of the Humahuaca Valley, 1902, etc. 

ROSSI, GIOVANNI ANTONIO DE {Ital). Milanese Gem-, and Coin- 
engraver, and MedalHst who flourished from about 15 17 until 
after 1575. He was born at Milan, worked at Venice for some 
years, and in 1544 settled at Rome, where he was employed in 
engraving medals for the Popes Marcellus IL and Paul IV. In 
1557 he accepted an offer of two hundred ducats from Cosimo I., 
Duke of Florence, to cut a large cameo on which is depicted the 
entire grand-ducal family. This famous cameo is still preserved, 
although in a fragmentary condition, in the gem collection of the 
UflBzi gallery at Florence. The artist resided four years in Florence, 
1 5 57-1 560. To this period belong his medals on the conquest of 
Calais by Henry II. of France, 1558, and that of Giovanni Battista 
Gelli. In 1560, he returned to Rome, and there became Warden of 
the Papal Mint in Cesati's place. In this capacity he also engraved 
dies for coins, and medals of Cardinal Carlo Borromeo (1563), 
Popes Pius IV. (seven pieces), Pius V. (nine) and Gregory XIII. 


Surrender of Calais, 1558. 

— 2l8 — 

Medals. 1544-1557. MarceUus IL 1555; obv. Bust to r. ; 
signed : lO.ANT.RVB.MEDIOL. ; I^. Prudence; 75 mill. — Paul IV., 
1555-1559; obv. Bust to r. ; same signature; Rs. (a) anno. 
DOMINI . MDCVi . etc. Faith; 76 mill. ; — (b) antidotvm vitae. Reli- 
gion; 68 mill.; — (c) Christ handing keys to Peter; — (d) Christ 
on the cross between the two thieves; — (e) roma resvrgens. 
Female standing; 70 mill. 

i'^')j-i ^60. Henry II. of France. Conquest of Calais. Obv. Bust 
to r. ; signed : lO.ANT.RVB.MEDIOL. ; I^. maiora . seq.ventvr. — 
ANT.RVB.MEDIOL.F. King on horseback preceded by Victory and two 
soldiers carrying standards; 75 mill, (illustrated); — Obv. Similar; 


RECEPT. Type as last. — Giovanni Battista Gelli, 1498 -j* 1583; 
Uniface Portrait-medallion; signed: 10. ANT.RVB.MEDIOL.F. ; diam. 
83 mill. 

1 5 60-1 575. San Carlo Borromeo, archbishop of Milan, 1560- 
•j-1584; obv. Bust to 1.; I^. Roma seated presenting a laurel- 
wreath to the cardinal, who is followed by two priests; signed : 
10. ANT.RVB.MEDIOL.F. ; diam. : 70 mill.; — Pius IF., 15 59-1 565. 
Obv. Bust of Pope to r. ; signed : lO.ANT.R.F. ; Rs. (a) hodie . in . 
TERRA. CANVT.ANGELi. The Adoration-; 32 mill.; — (b) instavra- 
Tio . COLLEGII . 10 . MEDiOL . Three standing figures kneeUng in front 
of seated female figure; signed on obv, lO.ANT.RVB.M.F. ; 42 mill. ; 

— (c) AavA PiA. The Acqua Pia Fountain at Rome ; signed on 
obv. lO.ANT.R.M.F. ; 34 mill.; — (d) forvm carnarivm. View ot 
Public Market at Rome; — (e) providentia.pont. a.b. Draped 
female figure standing; Bust to r. on obv. and no signature; 
27 mill.; — (f) AQ.VA.piA. Fountain of Neptune on the Piazza at 
Bologna; 34 mill.; — (g) providentia . pont . a . b . As (e) but 
with bust of Pope to r. and signed : lO.ANT.R.F. — Pius V., 1566- 
1572. Obv. Bust of the Pope, usually with the signature : lO.ANT. 
R.F.; Rs. (a) contribvlasti . capita . draconis . Female figure 
standing with club in hand about to slay a dragon; 30 mill.; 

— (b) impera . dne . ET . FAC . TRANQViLLiTATEM . Christ in the boat 
with his disciples ; 30 mill.; — (c) Bust of Pius IV.; 30 mill.; — 
(d) LETAMiNi . GENTES . ROMA . Infant Jesus between Mary and Joseph ; 

— (e) DOMiNE . adivva . Nos . Christ in the boat; — (f) fecit. 

ing in front of temple ; two varieties of obv.; 41 mill.; — 
(g) FOEDERIS . IN . TVRCAS . SANCTio . Three female figures personify- 
ing Spain, the Republic ot Venice, and the Papal States, with hands 
interHnked; — (h) a . domino . factvm . est . istvd . 1 5 7 1 . Battle ol 
Lepanto. — Gregory XIII, 1 572-1 585. Obv. Bust of Pope; 
signature : lO.ANT.R. or lO.ANT.R.F. ; Rs. (a) et . in . nationes . gratia . 
spirit vs. sancti. Paul preaching at Athens; 35 mill.; — (b) ivbi- 

— 219 — 

LATE. DKO.OMNis. TERRA. i575j ^^' David kneeling playing the 
harp; 48 mill.; (c) do.mine. adivva.nos. Christ in the boat with 
the disciples. 

Beside these, Armand ascribes to Rossi a Portrait-medal of Vin- 
cenzo Bovio, apostolic protonotary of Bologna, 1550, and Keary 
three others, but without any justification (Brit. Museum GiiidCy 
Italian Medals, pp. 60-61). 

The workmanship of the Rossi medals is somewhat rough. 

As a Gem-engraver, this artist established a reputation by his 
famous cameo, an onyx of seven inches in diameter, with the 
portraits of Cosimo I. and his wife, Eleonora di Toledo, accompan- 
ied by their seven children in three-quarters length. " One of 
Rossi's signed works, " says King, " has come under my notice, an 
intaglio in sard, Saturn seated, holding a large scythe ; under the 
throne, G. ROSSI. The work exhibits that excessive polish which is 
the surest criterion for recognizing the productions of the cinque- 
cento school. This is the sole instance known to me of a cinque- 
cento artist's signature occurring, placed on any other of his works 
than the crystal plaques, with the exception perhaps, of the master- 
pieces of II Greco; and even his name may have been intended 
to pass current for antique with the world at large. Hence it is 
demonstrable that the smaller gems then so abundantly executed 
were meant to be brought mto the market as works of ancient 
engravers, just as the heaps of coins from the dies of the same 
artists are known to have been. " 

Giovanni Antonio de Rossi's period of activity as a Gem- engraver 
belongs to the earlier part of his life, which he spent at Milan, Venice, 
and Florence. A Portrait-cameo of a Mr. Marlyn, is signed : V. P. 
M. 10. ANT. R. (onyx). 

Bibliography. — C. von Fabriczy, op. cit., p. 189, Engl. ed. — Armand, op 
cit., II, 243 ; III, 116. — Bertolotti, Artisii lomhardi in Roma. — I. B. Supino, / 
MedagUere Mediceo, p. 145. — Hawkins, ed. Franks and Grueber, Medallic lllustra 
tions, &c. — Bolzenthal,o/>. cit. — Babelon, La gravure en pierresfims. — Mariette- 
op. cit. — Pinchart, op. cit., p. 13. — Van Mieris, t. Ill, p. 422. — E. Plon 
Benvenuto Cellini, pp. 275, 396. — Ammon, op. cit. — Dr Merzbacher, op. cit. — 
King, Antique Gems and Rings, 1875, p. 425. — Vasari, op. cit. 

ROSSI, GIROLAMO {Ital.). Gem-engraver of the first half of the 
eighteenth century, who resided at Livorno, and is known for his 
well-executed cameos and intaglios. By him are : Mercury facing, 
holding caduceus ; carnelian ; — Head of Apollo ; carnelian ; signed : 
l€P-p6ci-€nOI€l ; — Leander and Hero; sardonyx; — Head of 
Scipio Africanus ; carnelian; signed : I6PO-POZI02; — Head of 
Faustina I. ; carnelian, etc. 

BiBLiOGR.\PHY. — Babelon, op. cit. — King, op. cit. — Raspe, Tassie's Gems, 


— 220 — 

ROSSI. PROPERZIA DE' {Ilnl.). Gem-engraver of the first half of 
the sixteenth centur}-, who died in 1533 at Bologna. She commenced 
lier career by engraving minute rehevi on peach-stones. Vasari 
speaks with astonishment of a Crucifixion with an infinity of figures, 
besides the executioners and the Apostles, worked in this manner. 
Afterwards she distinguished herself in sculpture in marble, many 
pieces from her chisel being incorporated in the Cathedral of San 
Petronio. Finally, she gave herself up entirely to engraving copper- 
plates. Nothing is recorded of her proficiency in gem-engraving, but 
her extraordinar}' skill in the first art she cultivated makes it almost 
certain that she succeeded in cameo-cutting on harder materials. 
She died in 1 5 3 3 , in the very week that Clement VII . crowned 
the Emperor at Bologna, to that pontiff's infinite disappointment, 
who as a lover of art was extremely anxious to have seen her. 
(King, Antique Gems, 1872, p. 427.) 

Bibliography. — Vasari, op. cit.. Ill, 236. — Babelon, op. cit. 

ROSSKOPF, HANS (Gem.). Mint-warden at Munich, 1560. 

ROSSMANN, KASPAR (Gem.). Mint-master-general for Silesia, 
f 1622. 

ROSSNER, HANS (Germ.). Mint-master at Glatz, from 1633 
to 1636, and Mint- warden there for some years previously. He 
signed currency there with his initials HR (163 1. Ducat, Thaler, 
3 Kreuzer ; — 1632. 3 Kreuzer, Kreuzer; — 1633. 3 Kreuzer; 
Kreuzer; — 163 4-1 63 5. 3 Kreuzer; — 1636. Thaler). 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, op. cit. — Friedensburg u. Seger. p. 50. 

ROSSO, GIOVANNI (also named ROSSO DE GIUGNl) (ItaL). Floren- 
tine Goldsmith, Sculptor, and Gem-engraver of the first half of the 
sixteenth century, circ. 15 30- 15 60. He is said to have practised 
engraving in crystal and glass. He executed Portraits and Medals 
in wax, which he may have reproduced in metal. Fide Bolzenthal, 
p. 116. 

ROSSY, JEAN BAPTISTE (French). Mint-engraver at Bayonne, circ. 

ROST, A. E. L. (Brit.). Contemporary Sculptor, of Flemish origin, 
but naturalized English, and residing in London. Among his prin- 
cipal works of sculpture are : Marble bust of D"^ T. Cooke, C. I. E. 
(erected in the Science College, Poona); — Memorial Tablet of 
General Grant (the Portrait) in St. Paul's; — Marble bust of Solo- 
mon Sassoon ; — Marble bust of C. H. Tawney (erected in Senate 
House, Calcutta) ; — Marble and Bronze Medallion of D"" Beramjee 
Burjojee (Bhownagar Club, Bhownagar) ; — Relief in Grove Park 
Church, Chiswick; — Marble Portrait of Mrs. Dallas Glyn (erected 

221 — 

in Kensal Green) ; — also Busts of D"" Rost ; Sir Bartle Frere; Sir 
Edward Bradford; Sir Edwin Arnold; R. Hon. The Earl of 
Selborne; D"" W. A. Greenhill, etc. 

He is also the author of some Portrait-medallions in bronze, 
amongst which I have noticed those of D"^ Reinhard Ernest Rost, 
orientalist (182 1- 1890) ; — Queen Victoria; — H.R. H. the Prince 
of Wales (Edward VII.); — Portrait of an Englishman, 1896; — 
H. M. King Edward VII.; — H. M. Queen Alexandra, etc. 

Mr. Rost is a Fellow of the Imperial Institute and Northbrook 
Society . 

ROT, HANS (surnamed ROTENHAN) (Germ.). Contracted to work 
the Breslau Mint, 1540-1541 ; died, 21. March 1542. 

ROTH VON ROTHENFELS. The name of a family of Engravers. 

Hermann Roth von Rothenfels 

t 1504 

Hermann Christian Roth von Rotheni-els 
Chief- engraver at the Mint of Kremnitz, 1645-1690. 

Jeremias Roth von Rothenfels 
Mint- engraver at Kremnitz, -j- 173 1. 

Jbremias Hermann Roth von Rothenfels 
Mint- engraver at Kremnitz, f 1754. 

Hermann Roth von Rothenfels 
Mint- engraver at Kremnitz, later 
Seal, and Armorial- bearing- cutter; 
b. 1654 — J 1726. 

Hermann Roth von Rothenfels 
Die- cutter at Kremnitz, ■{- 1797. 

Bibliography. — Katalog der Miin:^- una Medaillen- Slempel- Satinnliiiig des 
K. K. Hauptmfin:{amtes in Wien, 1906. 

— 222 — 

ROTH, CHRISTIAN HERMANN (Aiistr.). Mint-engraver at Kremnitz, 
circ. 1645-f 1690. His initials C. H. R. occur on some of the coin- 
dies he engraved : Thaler of Leopold I. for Hungary, 1659; — 
15 Kreuzer, 1663; — Half, and Quarter Thaler, 1664; — Gros- 
chen, 1665; — Kreuzer, undated; — Ducats, 1667; — Five 
Ducats, 1674; — Quarter Thaler, 1677(0 Hi); — Ducat, 1685, etc. 
By him are also medals : Coronation medalet of Leopold L for 
Hungary, 1664; — Birth of Archduke Carl Franz, 1685 ; — 1686. 
Relief of Ofen, 1686 (several varieties); — St. George's Thalers and 
Gulden (several varieties); — Portrait-medallion of Charles VL, 
1686 (in the Hungarian National Collection), etc. 

Bibliography. — Katalog der MunT^en- und Medaillen- Stempel- Samtnlung des K. 
K. Hauptmuti:(aintes in Wien, 1902. — Belhazy, C. H. R. nicht C. H. Richter, 
soudern Christian Hermann Rolh, Num. Zeits., 1889, 490. 

ROTH VON ROTHENFELS, HERMANN (Ausir.). Engraver of seals 
and armorial bearings at Breslau, and later Mint-engraver at 
Kremnitz, circ. 1690-1695. He was born at Kremnitz in 1650, and 
died at Breslau in 1728. His wile was the daughter of the Engraver 
Georg Tannicht of Breslau. He signed some of his dies IR or H. R. : 

St. George's Thaler. 

Groschen for Hungary, 1681 ; — Quarter Thaler, 1687 ; — Kreuzer, 
1697; — Large St. George's medal, 1726 (^illustrated); — St. 
George's Ducats, Thalers, Half Thalers, Quarter Thalers, and 
Groschen (some signed : R), etc. ; — Friendship medals, undated ; 


This Engraver is especially noted for his interesting series of 
Kremnitz St. George's coins which command high prices. He 
died on i6. November 1726, at the age of 72. He was the eldest 
son of Christian Hermann Roth, and married in 1688 a daughter 
of Georg Tannicht. 

— 22? — ' 

There is a medal with his arms on ^L. 
Bibliography. — As above. — Friedensburg, op. cil. 

ROTH, VON ROTHENFELS JEREMIAS {Aiislr.). Mint-engraver 
assistant at Kremnitz, circ. i699-t9. January 175 1. 

engraver at Kremnitz, arc. 1728-^17. February 1754. 

ROTH, JOHANN BAPTIST (Atistr.). Mint-engraver at Vienna, 
1840-1856; born 22. January 1802; died in 1875. Amongst the 
dies executed by this artist are : Double Gulden of Ferdinand I. on 
the building of the Schottenthor at Vienna, 1840; — 1852. Study, 
after a Rosenberg Conventionsthaler die of 1793 ; • — ■ Coin-dies of 
1854 (signed : I. R.); — 1858. AT. Krone and Half Krone (in 
conjunction with J. Weiss); — 1859. Ten Kreuzer; — 1861. N. 
Krone ; — Prize Medals of the Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
1849 (obv. by J. D. Boehm); — Medals with the Imperial Motto, 
1849 ; — Medal of the Catholic Young Men's Society, 1872 
(signed : ROTH F.)'; — Commemoration of the Kaiser Fanz 
Monument at Gratz, 1841 ; — Peace of Paris, 1856 (signed : 
ROTH. F.); — Campaign of 1864 (l. ROTH INV. ET FEC); — Inau- 
guration of the Railway from Vienna to Gratz, 1844 (l. B. ROTH F.); 
— Railway from Vienna to Prague, 1845 (in conjunction with 
Ekhart); — New Year's medal, 1850, with bust of Emperor Francis 
Joseph I. (I. ROTH F.) ; — New year's iMedal, 183 1, etc. 

Bibliography. — As above. — Mitlheil.des Klubs, etc. 1890-1905. 

ROTH, JOHANN A. {GermS). Mint-engraver at Darmstadt, circ. 
1 740- 1 76 5. There is a Portrait-medal by him of Louis VIII., land- 
grave of Hesse ; ^. aufrichtig bestaendig so lang ich lebendig ; 
signed: R- ; also a Jet on on the Recovery of the Empress Maria 
Theresia from chicken-pox, 1767 (signed : /R; perhaps not by 
this Engraver); — Jeton on the Marriage of the Archduchess 
Maria Carolina of Austria with Ferdinand IV., King of the Tw'o- 
Sicilies, 1768. 

It is possible that this Engraver may be the same who about 
1 767- 1 768 was working at the Vienna Mint in an official capacity. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen, op. cit. — Reimmann Sale Catalogue. 

ROTH, JOHANN BAPTIST {Austr.). Chief Coin- and Medal-engraver 
to the Imperial Mint at Vienna, was born in that city in 1802, 
and died there in 1869. His first work of note was the Milanese 
Coronation medal of Ferdinand I., 1838, which after Manfredini's 
medal was the best of the eight competitive medals issued to 
commemorate that event. In 1840 he engraved the Medal on the 
Inauguration of the Kaiser Ferdinand Waterworks at Vienna ; — 
1 84 1. Return of Syria to the Porte by Mehemet Ali ; — 1843- 

— 224 — 

Completion ot the Tower of St. Stephan's Church at 
Vienna ; — 1844. Inauguration of the Southern State Railways 
from Vienna to Gratz; — 1845. Inauguration of the Northern State 
Railways from Vienna to Prague; — Industrial and Agricultural 
Exhibition at Vienna; — 1846. Tenth Anniversary of the Death 
of Francis I. 

In 1840 J. B. Roth undertook the issue of Viennese Historical 
Thalers, but only one, that commemorating the construction of the 
Schottenthor was struck. 

In 1841 he executed the official medal on the Building of the 
famous Bridge over the lagoons at Venice, which however is not 

Roth's activity as a Medallist ceased about 1846. He owned the 
gold Cross of Merit with crown of the Austrian empire. 

Bibliography. — Josef C. Adam, AU-lViener Medailleiire, Mitteilungen der 
Oesterr. Gesellschaft fiir Miinzund Medaillenkunde, Juni 1907. 

ROTH, JOHANN C. (Germ.). Mint-engraver at Darmstadt, circ. 
1696-1727. By him are also Medals: Ernest Louis, Landgrave ot 
Hesse-Darmstadt ; ^L. nil terrent Lion (signed : R.) ; — Gulden 
of John Reinhard III., Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg, 1721 ; — 
Thaler of Ernest Louis, 1696; signed: ^^.^.c/l,. 

ROTHBERGER, ALFRED (Austr.). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist, residing at Vienna. In the Mittheilungen der Oesterrei- 
chischen Gesellschaft fiir Miln:^- nnd Medaillenkunde, Oktober 1907, 
p. 109, his latest medallic works are described and reproduced : 
F. F. Chopin; — Th. Leschetizky ; — A. Door; — Berthe Marx- 
Goldschmidt, etc. 

ROTHE, GONSTANTIN (Germ.). Mint-master at Dresden, 1640- 
1678. He was a son of Michael Rothe, and grandson of the 
Annaberg Mint-master, Matthaeus Rothe; born 16. September 

John George II, Reichsthaler, 1660. 

— 22S — 

i6oo; died, 6. June 1678. He was city Warden of Leipzig, and was 
called over to Dresden about 1640. As Mint-master ne^ placed his 

John George II, Broad Double Thaler, 1663. 

initials and an acorn on tiie coins. He married on 21. September 
1 64 1 and had eleven children. 

This Mint-master's privy mark occurs on the coins of John 
George I. and 11. 

L. FoRKE*. — Biographical Notices of Medallitls. — V. Ij 

— ll(i — 

''The Reichs-Thalers of Johann Georg II., Halves and Oris pro- 
duced by Mint-master Constantin Rothe are of the usual type but 
the Elector is represented in his robes and ermine-mantle with drawn 
sword, the cap of State being placed on a table before him. These 
portraits are of very poor execution, but this monarch probably 
furnished a ver>' ungrateful task to the artist, for his features are ol 
surpassing ugliness on all coins of his reign. Of splendid conception 
and execution however are the " broad" multiple thalers of 1663 
which represent a large standing figure of the Elector facing, robed 
over his armour, and standing upon a tesselated pavement between 
a draped column and a table upon which is placed his plumed 
helmet and gauntlets. 

George II, Reichsthaler, 1675. 

** The reverse shews the Electoral Arms with date etc. within a 
narrow wreath surrounded by twenty shields of Arms of the Saxon 
territories and dependencies. This was also issued by Constantin 
Rothe whose initials appear with the Annaberg mint-mark, an 
acorn. " 

"In 1667 John George II. entered into convention with the Elec- 
tor of Brandenburg and the Duke of Brunswick by which the 
"Mark" of fine silver should in their lands be converted into ten 
Thalers and twelve Groschcn whence the distinction between 
" Reichs" and "Species" Thalers. 

" The second series of Reichs-Thalers produced by Rothe shew a 
half-figure of John George II. in armour and wig with naked 
sword, his plumed helmet placed before him. The reverses continue 
the conventional type. 

" Probably the most remarkable numismatic productions of this 
reignto British notions would be the several so-called " Hosenband" 
Thalers which commemorate the joyful reception by John George II. 
of the Order of the Garter from King Charles the Second of 
England in 1671 and the Chapter of 1678 which was celebrated at 
the Saxon Court with great circumstance. 

— 227 — 

" The obverse of these pieces shews a large and ehiborate 
representation of the combat between St George and the 
dragon, surrounded by En honneur du Souverain du tres noble 
ORDRE DE i.A Iartiere. On the reverse in nine Hues within a 

— 52ni\DBiAjfiy>jr 


John George II., Hosenband (Garter) Thaler, 1678. 

wreath : du tre haut tre puissant et tres excellent prince 
Charles. II. PAR la grace de Dieu roy de la grande bretag: 
Fran : et Irlande Defenseur de la Foy and date in Roman 

BiBLioGFtAPHY. — Erbstcin, Erorteningen, &c. — Higgins, Sketches of European 
Continental History and Heraldry for the use oj Numismatists, Num. Circular, X, XI. 

ROTHE, AEGIDIUS (Germ.). Son of Constantin Rothe; appointed 
Assayer at the Royal Swedish Mining College at Stockholm, 1674. 

ROTHE, MATTHAUS (Germ.). Mint-master at Annaberg, 1545- 
1554; died 13. April 1578 at the age of 78. His privy-mark, an 
acorn, occurs on Annaberg Thalers and subdivisions of 1546, 1547, 
and other dates. 

Thaler of Maurice, 1547 (Annaberg). 

— 228 — 

ROTHE, MICHAEL (G^rw.). Mint-master at Annaberg, 1 621-71623. 
Elder brother of Constantin Rothe. 

ROTHEISEN, GLAUS (Gcnn.). Mint-master at Liibeck, before 1602. 

ROTHENSTEIN, W. {Germ.'). Sculptor and Medallist, residing in 
London. At one of the exhibitions of the Societ}- of Medallists, oi 
which he was a member, he exhibited a Portrait-medallion. 

ROTHERHAM (Brit.). Archbishop ot York, temp. Edward IV., who 
issued Pennies with his private mark, T or R. 

ROTHMANN, ERIK (SwciL). Contemporary' Sculptor and Medallist, 
born at Sunderland (Sweden) ; pupil of Chapu of Paris. At the 
Salon of 1892 he exhibited five Portrait-medallions. 


R0TI£RE, PIERRE DE LA (French). Goldsmith and Enameller 01 
Troyes, circ. 1 379-1406. He acted as Engraver to the Mint of Troyes. 

Dordrecht, 163 6-1 652. 

ROTTERMOND, SIMON (Dutch). Mint-master at Dordrecht, 1652- 
1678. Besides the regular coinage, a number of Patterns and Pied- 
forts were issued during his tenure of office. Vide Verkade. 

ROTY, LOUIS OSCAR (Fremh). Contemporary Medallist, born at 
Paris on II. June 1846. He is the chief exponent of modern French 
medalUc Art, and with the late J. C. Chaplain one of the leaders of a 
school which is first in the world. The artist entered the Ecole des 
Beaux- Arts in 1864, and first studied painting under the direction 
of Lecoq de Boisbaudran. Later he entered the workshop of the 
sculptor Augustin Dumont. In 1872 he obtained the second grand 
Prix de Rome, and in the following year, he was rewarded at the 
Salon with a Medal of the Third Class for a model of a medal, 
U Amour pique. He won the first Grand Prix de Rome in 1875 for 
a model in wax representing a Shepherd endeavouring to read an 
inscription engraved on a rock on the Pass of the Thermopylae. 

L. O. Roty made a three years' stay at Rome, during which 
period he modelled a Venus and Cupid, Youth, a medallion, Fauns 
dancing, Pittura, an allegorical bas-relief, and a medal. Art applied 
to Industry. 

The artist was awarded a medal of the Second Class at the Salon 
of 1882, and a medal of the First Class in 1885. At the Universal 
Exhibition of 1889 he won the Grand Prix. 

He was created a Knight of the Legion of Honour in 1885, and 
promoted to the rank of Officer, on 29. October 1889. In June 

— 229 — 

1 888 he was appointed Professor at the Academie des Beaux- Arts 
in the place of Bertinot, line-engraver, and in 1897 he was named 
President of that Institution. 

M. Roty is a Member of the Institute. 

There is a Portrait-plaquette of Roty by M. Patey, chief-engraver 
of the Paris Mint. 



Chili. N 20, 10 and 5 Pesos; obv. Bust of the Republic; 
I^. Arms; — ^. i Peso, 20. 10, and 5 Centavos; obv. Condor; 
I^. Laurel-wreath. 

France. Pattern tor Five Franc pieces (two varieties) ; — 2 Francs; 
— I Franc; — 50 Centimes. AH of the "Semeuse" type; three 

— 230 — 

designs of I^. (a) liberte.egalite.fraternite. Torch on olive- 
branch, 1897; (b) Scales on oUve-branch : 5 francs. 1897; (c) 
Olive-branch, oak-branch and ears of corn; 1897. 

Haiti. yR. I Gourde, 50, 20 and ro Centiemes (after La Fores- 
terie's models). Obv. Young female head ; I^. Trophy. 

Monaco. Albert I. N. 100 Francs; obv. Bust of the Prince; 
^. Shield, (illustrated). 

Albert I. de Monaco. 100 Francs, 1891. 


1879. Imprimerie Chaix. Statue of Gutenberg (50 mill.). The 
first work entrusted to Roty after his return frorii Rome. 

1880. Canal de Panama. The Banque parisienne to his subscribers 
(two sizes : 57 and 34 mill.). 

1881. Diner de la Marmite (2 var. 51 mill.). 

1882. International Exhibition of Electricity (188 1) (80 mill.). 

1883. Leon Gambetta (68 mill.). 

1884. Enseignement secondaire des jeunes filles (68 mill.); — 
Art applied to Industry; Vulcan presenting a shield to Minerva 
(80 mill.). This was the last work of the artist sent from Rome. 

1885. Maison d'^ducation of Auberive (45 mill.); — Henri 
Bouley, president of the Academic des Sciences {6G mill.). 

1889. Franco-American Union (68 mill.); — Michel Eugene 
Chevreul (19 mill. ; illustrated) ; — Railway Company of the Est 
Algerien (68 mill.). 

1887. Sapeurs-Pompiers (50 mill.). Edited by A. Desaide. 

1888. D"" L^on Gosselin, president of the Academic des Sciences 
(Plaquette, 58x42 mill.); — Assistance publique (68 mill.); — 
La Fermiere(5i mill.; illustrated). Edited by Bescher; — The Suez 
Canal Company (Two sizes : 59 and 41 mill.). 

1889. Suez Canal Company. Universal Exhibition of 1889 
(41 mill.); — Rifle Meeting Prize Medal (two sizes: 50 and 
41 mill.) ; — Societ^s de Secours m utuels (27 mill.); — The Cen- 
tury (two varieties; 15 mill.); — Jeton ot the Buenos-Ayres 

Micliel Eugene Chevreul. 

— 232 — 

Jockey-Club (27 mill.) ; — Gustave Adolphe Hirn (plaquette : 
61X46 mill.); — Club Alpin francais (plaquette: 61 X 46 mill.); 
— Ceiitenar}' of 1789 (two varieties of plaquettes ; 23 X94 mill.). 



La Fermiere. 

1890. French Association for the Advancement of Science (two 
sizes: 68 and 45 mill.); — Sir John Pope Hennessy (68 mill.); — 
J. Roty to his Friends (plaquette : 50x58 mill.). 

Louis Pasteur. 

1891. Inauguration of the Prefecture of the Rhone (50 mill.); 
■ Invalides de la marine (63 mill.); — Owl (two sizes: 32 and 

— 233 — 

21 mill.); — Wounded Cupid (two var: 30 and 21 mill.); — Acad- 
emy of Lyons (Prix Jean Chaziere) (plaquette : 62 X 42 mill.). 


25'ii Anniversary of the French Republic. 

Marriage Medal. 

1892. Louis Pasteur (plaquette : 67X 48 mill. ; illustrated); — 
Jeton of the Chamber of Commerce of Lyons (octagonal jeton, 
41 mill.) ; — Prefecture de Police ; Commissions d'hygiene pubhque 

— 234 — 

et de salubrite (36 mill.); — French Exhibition at Moscou (1891) 
(63 mill.); — Jules Girard (plaquette: 59X43 mill.); — Pierre 
Soyer (plaquette : 34 X 26 mill.); — Henry Loze, prefect of police 
(plaquette: 59X43 mill.); — L. A. Collin (plaquette: 59 X 
43 mill.). 

The Virgin. 

1893. Dinner offered by M. H. Loze to the officials of the Pre- 
fecture de Police (plaquette : 59X 43 mill.); — Jeton of the Pasteur 
Institute (two varieties : 2 1 and 3 6 mill.) ; — Maternite (Christening 


X V 


Joan of Arc. 

of J. G. Roty) (36 mill. ; illustrated); — Another, with ^L. Bird 
flying towards its nest (21 mill.); — Jeton of the Chamber ot 
Commerce of Saint-Nazaire (octagonal, 41 mill.); — Prize Medal 
of the Ministry of the Interior (two var., 50 and 36 mill.); — 
Jules Cambon, governor-general of Algeria (plaauette : 59 X 
43 mill.); — Jubilee of the firm Christofle (1892) (plaquette: 
59X95 mill.); — Another (41X29 mill.; illustrated). 


1894. Aux Combattants de Nuits (50 mill.); — Paris Chamber 
of Commerce (50 mill.); — St^phane Derville, president of the 
Tribunal de Commerce of the Seine (plaquette : 59X43 mill.); 
— International Exhibition of Chicago (1893) (plaquette: 50X 
58 mill.). 


1895. Assurances mutuelles of Rouen (68 mill.); — Fifth Inter- 
national Congres penitentiaire (50 mill.); — The Mariani Wine 
(plaquette: 52X38 mill.); — Jeton of M. Angelo Mariani 

Union Centrale des Arts d^coratifs. 

(30 mill.) ; — Two other varieties (30 and 21 mill.); — Twenty- 
fifth Anniversary of the foundation of the Republic (four varieties, 
36, 30 and 21 miW.); one illustrated, with patria . non . immemor. 
Bust of France ; I^. Cock; — Marriage Medal (41 mill . ; illustrated). 
1896. Military Medal of Madagascar (30 mill.); — Introduction 

— 236 — 

primaire (50 mill.); — Another, a variety (27 mill.); — National 
and Colonial Exhibition at Rouen (68 mill.); — Actes de Devoue- 
ment (27 mill.); — Jeton of the Administration penitentiaire 
(27 mill.); — Inauguration of the Musee Social (25 . March 1895) 
(60 mill.); — The Virgin (oval medal, 36/36 mill. ; 22/17 mill.; 

Obv. France mourning over President Carnot, 1894. 

19/16 mill.; 16/12 mill.; illustrated); — Joan of Arc (two sizes: 
50 and 28 mill.; illustrated)', — A. de Fovillc, Directeur des 
Monnaies, member of the Institute (64 mill.) ; — Visit of the 
Tzar Nicholas II. and Tzaritza Alexandra Feodorovna to 
Versailles, 8. October 1896 (plaquette: 60X43 mill.); — Emile 
Gaston Boutmy, member of the Institute, director of the Ecole des 
Sciences politiques (plaquette: 60X43 mill.); — Ste Genevieve 

— 237 — 

(oval medal: 45X37 mill.; illustrated); — French Republic 
(46 mill.). Edited by Desaide; — Minerva (two sizes: 27 and 
21 mill.). 

1897. Ch. Perier, hospital surgeon (plaquette: 60X43 mill.), 

1898. Colonel Laussedat (50 mill.); — Agents de change de 

Rev. France mourning over President Carnot, 1894. 

Paris (50 mill.); — Jules Simon (60 mill); — Venus and Cupid 
(26 mill.). 

1899. Venus and Cupid (26 mill.); — Union centrale des Arts 
decoratifs (plaquette; ^. illustrated); — L. H. Farabeuf, professor 
of anatomy at the Faculty of medicine (plaquette: 61X43 mill.); 
— 25''' Anniversary of the Marriage of Alfred Engel and Catherine 
Emilie Koechlin of Mulhouse, 16. February 1873-1898 (plaquette); 

— 238 — 

— Compagnie des bateaux parisiens (32 mill.); — Enfants de la 
Haute-Marne morts pour la patrie (50 mill.) ; — D' Alfred Riche 
(plaquette: 60X42 mill); — Famille Engel; plaquette (58X 
51 mill.); — L'Ange gardien au berceau (various sizes). 

1900. Caisse des Victimes du devoir (36 mill.); — L' Amour 

L'Amour consolant rHumaniic. 

consolant I'Humanite (three varieties); — The Flag; Plaquette 
d'identite (three varieties; lozenge shaped); — Guardian Angel 

Inauguration ot the Prisons of Fresnes-les-Rungis. 

(oval medal, 18 mill,); — Mines of Lens (18 5 2- 1899) (plaquette); 
— Faun and Nymph (30 mill,); — Congres des Valeurs mobi- 
lidres (small plaquette: 27X20 mill.); — Obsequies of President 
Sadi Carnot, 1894 (commemorative plaquette (105X75 mill.; 
illustrated) ; — Insignia, Fireman's helmet (hexagonal plaquette, 

— 239 — 

32 mill.); — La Toilette (plaquette: 69X34 mill.); — Vestal Virgin 
near tripod on which the sacred fire is burning (plaquette: 51 X 
32 mill.) ; — Commemorative Plaquette of the Universal Exhibi- 
tion of 1900 ; — Firemen's medal (Medaille des Sapeurs-pompiers) 
(27 mill.); — Inauguration of the Prisons of Fresnes-les-Rungis 
(plaquette : 59X80 mill. ; illustrated); — CEuvre des Lib^rees 
de Saint-Lazare, founded in 1870 (plaquette :. 51 X 36 mill.); — 
Alfred Riche, professor of chemistry at the Ecole superieure de 
Pharmacie, member of the Academie de Medecine (plaquette) ; — 
Guardian Angel protecting a child against a serpent (plaquette) ; — 
M. Rossigneux ; — L'Etude; — Vierge consolatrice de I'enfance; — 
Medaille des Sapeurs-pompiers (27 mill.) ; — Mines of Lens (pla- 
quette: 68X48 mill.). 

The new Gare de Lyon, at Paris. 

1 90 1. Guardian Angel; — Inauguration of the new P.L.M. 
Gare de Lyon at Paris (plaquette ; illustrated); — Raffinerie Say 
(plaquette) ; — Centenary of the Bank or France ; — Silver 
Wedding of M. and M""" Morel-Journel (plaquette: 65 X76 mill.); 
— M.G. C. Dubar (plaquette: 71X50 mill.); — D"" Lepine; — 
Mrs. A. Stevens-Hewitt, founder of the University of California 
'68 mill.); — M.and M"^= Aynard (21 mill.); — M""^ Marie Laurent 

41 mill.); — D"" J. R. Lepine (plaquette: 59X42 mill.). 

1902. M. E. Demagny (plaquette; 60X39 mill.); — D' Paul 
Brouardel (plaquette: 70X50 mill.); — Medal of the Compagnie 
des Agents de Change of Lille (36 mill.); — Exhibition at Hanoi 
(50 mill.). 

1903. Marriage Medal (second type): a elle toujours (two 

1905. D' Paul Brouardel ; — Defense des interets du travail dans 
la Region du Nord ; — Gustave Louis Dubac ; — La Science 
decouvre la Vcrite ; — A elle toujours!; — Marie Laurent; — 

— 240 — 

Louis Delaunay ; — Centenar)- of the Bank of France ; — Aux 
ames bris^es secours ; — Henri, Jacques, Jeanne, Georges. 

1907. Jules Lefebvre, painter; — 1908. D"^ A. Paulier, of Paris, etc. 



A elle toujours. 

1878. Venus embracing Cupid (175 mill.); — 1879. Painting 
(plaquette : 200 X 140 mill. ; illustrated ; no ^.) ; — Greek 
young lady at her toilet (plaquette : 184 X 92 mill.) ; — Another ; 
a reduction, oval (72 X 52 mill.); — Jeanne (plaquette : 60 X 47 
mill.). The first plaquette executed by M. Roty ; — Maurice Albert, 
member of the French school at Rome (27 mill.) ; — Edouard Bron- 
gniart(i$o mill.). 

1880. M"""^ M. A. Roty (plaquette : 148 X 113 mill.); — Faun 
dancing with a nymph (medallion in form of a cup ; 100 mill.) ; 

— A reduction (30 mill.); — Vicomte Henri Delaborde, secretaire 
perp^tuel de 1' Academic des Beaux- Arts (95 mill.) ; — A. Brongniart, 
member of the Acad^mie des sciences (65 mill.). 

1881. J. E. Lenepveu, member of the Institute (65 mill.). 

1882. M""' Fr^teau de P^ny, comtesse CafFarelli (plaquette : 
103 X 70 mill.). 

1883. F. Engel-DoUfus (69 mill.). 

1884. L. F. Lecomte (plaquette : 122 X 81 mill.). 

1885. M. etM"' Pierre Boulanger (plaquette: 140 X 100 mill.); 

— Paul Beurdeley, advocate (plaquette: 67 X 51 mill.); — 
Victor Hugo (68 mill.) ; — Edmond Picard, advocate (75 mill.). 

1886. Maurice Roty (plaquette : 64 X 48 mill.) ; — L. F. M. 
Amedee de Boissieu (plaquette : 73 X 52 mill.); — Georges 
Duplessis, keeper of prints at the Bibliotheque Nationale (plaquette : 

— 241 — 

1^0 X 90 mill.) ; — Eudoxe Marcille, director of the Orleans 
Museum (plaquette : 75 X 56 mill.); — Charles Piet-Lataudrie 
(plaquette : 74 X 5 3 mill.) ; — Franco- American Union (100 mill.) ; 
— The French Youth to Michel Eugene Chevreul, member of the 
Academie des Sciences (98 mill.); — Railway Company of the Est 
Algerien (99 mill.); — The artist's Parents, J. B. Roty and 
Elisabeth Virginie Roty (plaquette : 139 X 169 mill.). 

La Peinture. 

1887. M. and M'"^ Bigo (plaquette : 92 X 68 mill.) ; — M"''= Bou- 
cicaut (60 mill.); — M. and M""^ fimile Goubert (30 mill.); — 
Louis Herbette, director of the Administration penitentiaire 
(70 mill.); — M™*^ J. L. Henriette Herbette (70 mill.) ; — Ferd. de 
Schickler(73 mill.); — F. deSchickler (plaquette :7oX 114 mill.); 
— Fortune (plaquette : 251 X 130 mill.) ; — Venus (plaquette : 
91 X 176 mill.). 

L. FoRREK. — . Biographical Notices oj MtJallists. — V. l6 

— 242 — 

1 888. D' L^on Gosselin (plaquette : 140 X 99 mill.) ; — Fer- 
dinand de Lesseps(99 mill.) ; — Bergere (plaquette : 64 X 100 mill. ; 
illustrated) . 

"•WfTW^H^^VJ ' 

VVLT\^^7^;p,i f!XI 

nP£P. ANU 0CVL05. MABtAAi. 
JVV£NFr> jf.A\PtK 
: ETFELirFO.^ 

Madame Roty 

1889. Leopold Delisle, member of the Institute (100 mill.); — 
Gustave Adolphe Hirn (98 mill.) ; — Mounet-Sully, secretary of 
the Com^die tran^aise (89 and 30 mill.); — French Alpine Club 
(plaquette : 129 X 96 mill.). 

— 243 — 

1890. O. Roty to his Friends (plaquette : 100 X 106 mill.). 

1891. Wounded Love (155 mill.). 



1893. Lewis Campbell, professor of Greek at St. Andrews 
University (no mill.); — Maternite (150 mill. ; illustrated); — 
Fiftieth Anniversar}' of the Firm of Christofle (plaquette : 130 X 
85 mill.). 

— 244 — 

i894- M. and M"'^ Aynard (plaquette : in X 133 tiiiH-); — 
M"<= Louise Taine (plaquette : 140 X 105 mill.); — International 
Exhibition of Chicago, 1893 ^97 X69 mill.)- 

1895. M. and M™^ Simon (plaquette : 63 X 68 mill. ^L. illus- 
trated); — Twenty -fifth Anniversary of the Foundation of the 
RepuDlic (67 mill.). 

1896. Colonel Laussedat, member of the Institute (120 mill.); 
— Henri Germain, member of the Institute (68 mill.); — Charles 
Rossigneux, architect (plaquette: 120 X 87 mill.) ; — National 
and Colonial Exhibition of Rouen (i 18 mill.) ; — Sainte Genevieve 
(oval medal: 175 X 135 mill.). 

I^. of Plaquette of M. and M^ne bimon. 

1897. Angelo Mariani (plaquettes) ; — E. Rousse, member of 
the French Academy (plaquette : 115 X 84 mill.). 

1899. L. H. Farabeuf, professor of anatomy (plaquette). 

Chavignerie et Auvray give the following works by Roty : 1873 . 
Wounded Cupid (model in clay); — 1874. Flora, bas-relief, after 
an antique painting ; — Portrait-medallion of M. M*** ; commemo- 
rative medal of the devotedness of the brothers of the Christian 
Doctrine during the War of 1870-71, model in clay; — 1875. De 
Patria Bene Meriiis, after Baize, model in clay ; — Portrait-medallion 
of Lieutenant-colonel Riu ; — 1876. Portrait of M***, clay ; — 1878. 
Venus caressing Cupid, wax medallion ; — 1879. Study, engraved 
gem; — Study, bas-relief, clay, &c. 

— 245 — 

M. Saunier, referring to Roty, exclaims : « Void un artiste qui 
suffirait a lui seui a la gloire d'une epoque. A une science parfaite, 
a un gout toujours pur, M. Roty joint des qualites de coeur qui ie 
servent etrangement. Dessinateur passionne, s'ils'estattarde i\ noter 

^A \\fs) 

\ \\ 


j - 1 r^ 


Sketch by O. Roty for " la Semeuse ". 

une attitude, un beau pli antique, la vie contemporaine I'a pris 
bicn davantage. Les puissants et les humbles ont tour a tour passe 
devant lui, et tous lui ont laisse le secret d'eux-memes, car il a sur- 
pris chez les uns et les autres I'exp ession ou le geste simple qui 
caracterise une vie. De la ces dessins pleins de charme, si naturals 
en leur seduction {L'Arl decoratij, III, p. 244). 

— 246 — 

« Qjai done aujourd'hui ne connait les exquises merveilles de 
Roty, ces precieuses petites tablettes de metal si vivantes et si emou- 
vantes, qui parlent avec tant d'eloquence a nos sentiments les plus 
hauts et les plus desinteresses, les plus profonds et les plus in times? 
Qui ne connait cette medaille commemorative du 25^ anniversaire 
de la fondation de la Republique « Patria Non Immemor », cette 

\ \ 





Sketch for an Agricultural Prize Medal. 

Patrie, grave, serieuse, triste, au grand oeil creux et refl^chi, tou- 
jours en deuil, mais dont le revers reveille le frisson des grands 
espoirs avec son coq qui chante dans I'aurore, sur la terre inondee 
de rayons, ^ventree par la charrue ? Qui ne connait cette grande et 
immortelle figure de Jeanne, li^e au poteau infame, levant au ciel. 

— 247 - 

dans les flammes du bucher, ses yeux pleins de foi, qui semblent 
repeter les paroles de Texergue : « Ma mission etai: de Dieu ! ». 
Qui ne connait routes ces nobles et touchantes allegories qui font 
vibrer si discrctement etsi profondement les fibres les plus sensibles 
de nos coeurs : La Malernitd, pressant sur son sein, dans un geste 
de tendresse si chaude et si caressante, le cher petit etre qu'elle baise 
au front, la Jcumsse offrant ses hommages au vieux Chevreul, la 
fiancee de la Midaille de Mariagc qui tend sa main pour recevoir 
I'anneau du fiance, avec une dignite si modeste, si chaste, un don 
si pur et si entier de son etre ? Et toutes ces figures, d'une grace 
infinie, ces types enchanteurs de jeunes femmes d'une beaute parti- 
culiere qui les fait toutes parentes, d'une gravite simple, d'une ele- 
gance s^rieuse et reser\'ee, ayant toutes, dans leur attitude calme et 
leurs gestes rythmes, je ne sais quoi de noble, de chaste, de fier et 
de virginal. II s'en exhale un parfum tres frais de nature, uni a un 
souvenir lointain et suave des plus beaux exemples de I'antiquite. 
Ce charme opere si instantanement, avec une telle puissance, qu'on 
a I'impression, devant cet ensemble si riche et si varie, si imprevu 
et si nouveau, d'etre en contemplation devant I'oeuvre d'un genie 
ardent et spontane, a I'imagination active et toujours mouvante, 
produisant sous I'empire de I'inspiration et de I'entrainement. On 
ne percoit pas au premier abord toute la science, la reflexion, la 
logique, I'esprit d'observation rigoureuse, d'analyse methodique 
subtile et delicate, qui ont contribue a former cette magnifique 
eclosion poetique, si seduisante et si emouvante, cette splendeur 
d art et cette profondeur de pensee (L. Benedite, L. O. Roty : Art 
et Decoration, 1897, Ij P- 34)- 

" Ever}' one knows how important a position has now been 
reached by the medal in the domain of jewellery. For a long time 
it was the fashion to have a piece of antique mone}' mounted as a 
brooch or pin ; then came the idea of substituting effigies of more 
recent date for these relics of by-gone civilisations, these little discs 
of metal, with their time-worn, half-effaced relief; finally, it seemed 
desirable to be, as Daumier strove to be, de sonepoque — up-to-date, 
in a word ; to pass over works which were not conceived with a 
view to ornament, and in their stead to model specially medals 
appropriate in character to the part they were to play in setting ofl 
the modern toilette. 

M . Roty was the first to understand their legitimate conditions, 
the first to realise them fully. His native delicacy, his sentiment at 
once subtle and strong, did much to support his ambition. Again 
and again, to the delight of womankind, he has revived the smiling 
graces of the eighteenth century. His success, as was only natural, 
produced imitators; and to-day, even in the small towns in France, 
one may see in the jesvellers' windows these medal-brooches, some 

— 248 — 

the work of M. Roty himself, others by M. Vernon, M. Prouve, or 
M. Yencesse — all most attractive and appropriate articles of orna- 
ment, and at the same time genuine works of art " (Roger Marx, 
French Medal, XXV, 23). 

" The powers of men like Roty or Chaplain stand out the more 
prominently as they mark the logical conclusion, the result of half 
a century of labour and research. There is an abundance of contrasts 
between the works of the two men ; and the diversity of talent 
shown by these leaders, while adding considerable lustre to the 
present movement, is also an incentive to fresh rivalry between 
them. Chaplain is remarkable for his force. His works gain fulness 
by the boldness of their plan, their sober style of draughtsmanship, 
and the pronounced fondness of their author for powerful figura- 
tion. He is above all a rigorously truthful portraitist, excelling in 
the characterisation and the definition of the male physiognomy. 
His series of portraits of the members of the Academy of Fine Arts 
deserves hence-forward to be regarded as classic. M. Roty's art 
reveals other phases of French thought. More sensitive and more 
imaginative than M. Chaplain, and more solicitous of grace and 
distinction, at once ingenuous and subtle, he recalls Proud'hon, 
inasmuch as, like him, he has the gift of realising, arousing, and 
making evident at the first glance the meaning of the most abstract 
generalities. In his allegories, as in his symbols of faith and love 
and maternity, poetry and truth are delightfully mingled. His whole 
work proclaims and sings the beauty of womanhood, now revealed 
quite unclothed, now the contour of the form left to be divined 
under the transparent draperies. These garments, flowing in har- 
monious folds, have been compared to those seen in Grecian 
statuary and in the coroplastes of Tanagra. It would be more correct 
to say that M. Roty has rejuvenated the art of antique drapery, and 
has derived therefrom many exquisite effects. His, too, is the credit 
of having restored to honour the plaquette, which would seem to 
have lost its use since the Renaissance " (R. Marx, The Renaissance 
oj the Medal in France, The Studio, XV, 15). 

« Avec M. Roty *' says M. Roger Marx", I'art du medailleur 
atteint sa pleine expression d'originalite, d'independance. L'allego- 
rie, qui a r^pudi^les mythesconsacres, s'humanise, s'individualise, 
de maniere a decouvrirau premier regard lesens des generalisations 
les plus abstraites ; moderne par le type, le galbe, I'ajustement, 
ellc revet une forme d^finitivement d^gagee des lourdeurs du 
second Empire, une forme jeune, svelte, nerveuse, dont la courbe 
se suit sans peine sous I'envolee des draperies legeres. Et I'accord 
est exquis quand a I'allegorie se mele quelque r^alit^ naivement 
observ^e. Une m^daille, une plaquette de M. Roty, c'est cette 
alliance imprevue : la fraicheur souriante de I'imagination s'accom- 

— 249 — 

pagnant de I'etude passionn^e de la nature, rinvention s'ajoutant a 
la verite pour se penetrer delicieusement ; c'est encore le metal qui 
s'anime et emprunte a la degradation a peine accus^e des reliefs et 
a la transparence des ombres le secret de la couleur, I'attrait dune 
harmonie apaisee. D'ou vient pourtant que cet art nous trouble a 
ce point, sinon qu'il est tout d'instinct, plein de sincerite, d'emotion 
tendre et neuve ? L'exemple d'Evainetos, de Kimon, de Sperandio 
n'a done que faire ici. M. Roty a pu gouter le charme del'antiquite, 
a la facon d'Andre Chenier, mais rien ne vaut a son gre la nature 
ambiante, qu'il interroge ardemment, en analyste patient et sen- 
sible, qu'il exprimesans subtilite florentine, avec la pure bonne foi 
et la chaleur d'ame d'un maitre de vraie lign^e francaise » 
(^Medailleurs franfais, p. 21). 

Bibliography. — F. Mazerolle, L. O. Roty, 1897. — R. Marx, Les Medailleurs 
fratifais, 1897. — Ibid., Medailleurs fravcais contemporaitis, 1900. — Ibid., Me'dail- 
letirs modernes en France et a Vetranger, 1900. — i7;« Studio VII, XV, XXV. — 
Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit., II, 420. — Catalogius du Saloii, 1874-1906. — 
Gazette numismatique frangaise, 1897-1905. — Revue numismatique , 1901-4. — Arts 
decoratifs, 1901. — L'Art, 1895, II, p. 44. — Moihrne Medaille, 1900. — Art et 
Decoration, 1897, 1900. — Revue universelle, 1891, 577. — Journal de Saint- 
Pe'tershourg (1889 and 1891). — Neue Freie Presse, of Vienna (1892). — Die 
Kuiist fur AUe (15. May 1893). — Die Zeitschrift jUr bildende Kunst ("December 
189s). — E.B.S., Oscar Roty and the Art of the Medallist, Studio VII. 


ROUARD, GEORGES JEAN BAPTISTE {French). Contemjporar}' 
Sculptor, born at Angers ; pupil ofGerome. At the Salon of 1886 
he exhibited a Portrait-medallion of M™' L***, and he has also done 

RODBAUD, FRANQOIS F^LIX (French). Sculptor of Lyons, born at 
Cerdon (Ain) in 1825, died on 21. December 1876. He was a pupil 
of Pradier, and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He is the author of 
numerous Portrait-medallions: 1853. D"^ Ph. Ricord; — 1857. 
Sixteen Portrait-medallions; — 1859. M'"^ J.***; — 1863. 
M. Vicaire; — 1866. Anatole Duruy de Graffenried ; — 1869. 
M. Jourdan;— M. Guerouet ; — 1870. Albert Duruy, historian ; — 
President Gilardin, etc. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op cit. 

RODBAUD, LODIS ADGDSTE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born at Cerdon (Ain), 29. February 1828; pupil of H, Flandrin, 
Duret, and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. By him are also several Por- 
trait-medallions: 1861. M. Girardon ; — Eugene Jouve; — 1868. 
Frederic Chevalot ; — 1886. M""' B***, and others. 

Bibliography. — Cha\ignerie et Auvray, op. cit. — Catalogues du Salon. 

— 2)0 — 

ROUCHOMOWSKY, ISRAEL (Russ.). Goldsmith of Odessa, born at 
Mozyr (Russia), now residing in Paris, who earned world-wide 
notoriety as the maker, from drawings and designs supplied to him, 
of the famous ** Tiara of Saitaphernes ", purchased as an antique 
work by the Louvre Museum, and kindred articles, worked in imi- 
tation of the ancient jewellery found on the coast of the Black Sea. 
He was called over to Paris, at the expense of the French govern- 
ment, to demonstrate the spurious nature of the articles by 
practical tests, and he has since settled there with his family. 

At the Paris Salon of 1904 to 1906 he has exhibited several 
reliefs and plaques, of repousse work, which are classed under the 
section of medal-engraving: 1904. Three Plaquettes; — Four Pen- 
dants ; — Hotel Lambert : — Four miniatures Plaquettes ; — 1905. 
Portrait-medallions ; — Pendants ; — Russian Portrait-types, etc. ; 
— 1906. Portrait-medallion of Zadoc-Kahn, Grand Rabbi of France, 

One of his sons is studying sculpture in Paris. 

ROUFF, JEAN {French). Contemporary Sculptor, Modeller in wax, 
etc., born at Lugny (Cote-d'Or) ; pupil of Hubert, Lavigne, and 
Li^nard. By him are: 1866. Homage to the Virgin, relief in wax; 

— 1867. Portrait-medallion of M. R.***; — 1876. Portrait- 
medallions of Children; — 1879. Velleda, reHef in wax; — 
Francis L and Diane de Poitiers, relief in wax ; — 1880. Portrait- 
medallion of Jean Rouff; — M. Fontaine; — 1881. Sylia, coloured 
wax; — Victor Hugo, coloured wax; — 1882. Leda, relief in wax; 

— 1886. M. F.***, and others. 
Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

ROUGELET, JEANNE {French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Tournus; pupil of her father. She has been a frequent exhibitor 
at the Paris Salon between 1883 and 1895, and also executed 
Portait-medaUions in bronze. 

ROUGERON, CHRISTOPHE {French). Contemporary Sculptor, born 
at Recourt (Haute-Marne) ; pupil of Cavelier, and A. Millet. By 
him are a number of Portrait-medallions : 1874. M"'= T***; — 1875. 
M"« M***; — 1876. M"- Cecile; — 1879. M. Tiphaigne; — 1883. 
M"« Jeanne C***; — M"« Leontine C***; — 1884. ^M. T. E.*** ; 

— 1885. M. Vesseaux; — M-"' A. Verniette ; — 1886. M*** and 
his family; — L. Verniette; — 1887. M"'^ Amdie C*** ; — 1888. 
Portraits of Friends; — 1890. Edouard Druey ; — 1891. Prosper 
Belot; — 1892. G. Michel; — 1895. ^"^ Celestine Bertrand; — 
1896. Firmin Bertrand, etc. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvrav, op. cil. — Catahgtus du Salon, 1882- 

— 251 — 

ROUGET, CLAUDE (French). Circ. 15 30-1 554. Engraver at Paris; 
Master of the " Nesle " Mint, appointed 19. February 1530; impri- 
soned in 1533. Privy-mark, a rose in the first c of franciscvs and 
in the c of the first xpc, or another rose beneath the cross and shield. 
Later he became Master of the' Monnaie des Etuves',and in 1550 of 
the 'Monnaie du Moulin ', and combined with this office that of 
Engraver, in which he was however succeeded in the same year by 
Jean Erondelle and Etienne de Laulne. 

He also engraved jetons, amongst which those of Louis Estissac, 

Bibliography. — E. Faivre, op. cit. — Rondot, op. cit. — Mazerolle, op. cil. 

ROUGET, M""' EMILIE CAROLINE {French). Contemporary 
Sculptor, born at Paris; pupil of M*"*" de Cool, and M. Carlus. By 
this artist are several Portrait-medallions, M"*" Gabrielle *** ; — 
M"^B***, which were exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1886 and 1887. 

ROUGEY, ROGIER {French). Engraver of Jetons at Bourges, seven- 
teenth century. 

ROUILLfi, JACQUES (French). General of the Coins, 1563. 

ROUILLON, PIERRE PHILIBERT (French). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born at Savigny-le-Temple (Seine-et-Marne) ; pupil of H. Chapu. 
Bv him are numerous Portrait-medallions in bronze: 1864. 
E"! Seguin; — 1865. L. Warnet ; — 1867. M. D.***; —M. G.***; 

— M^-'S***; — 1868. M-^X***; — 1869. M.X***; — 1870. M. A***; 

— 1874. M. Warnet ; — 1878. M'"'^ A***, and others. 
Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

ROUKENS, W. (Dutch). This signature occurs on the I^. of a 

medal commemorating the Death of Queen Mary of Great Britain, 

28 Dec 

— j — ' 169 5. The obv. is signed : W. R. The work is poor. 

Bibliography. — Franks andGrueber, op. cit. ,11,'^^. — Catahgus8cc.,no 1762. 

ROULIN, ZACHARIE DE (French). Mint-engraver at Dieppe, from 
1592 to 1594, during the Ligue, for Henry IV. He struck there 
Doubles and Deniers tournois his with privy-mark, a trefoil sur- 
mounted by a star above the bust. 

Bibliography. — E. Faivre, op. cit. — Annuaire de nutnistiuxtique, 189J, p. 65. 

ROULLEAU, JULES PIERRE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born at Libourne (Gironde); pupil of Cavelier, andE. Lafon. He is 
the author of a number of Portrait-medallions in bronze: 1878. 
M. G. C.***; — 1879. Portrait d'un Luron ; — 1887. Hermann, 
violinist ; — 1892. Charles Auguste Lefebvre, etc. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

— 252 — 

ROULLIER. HENRI {FreiKh). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Lyons ; pupil of Fremiet. By him are several Portrait-medallions, 
some of which have been exhibited at the Paris Salon. 

ROUME, FRANQOIS (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Marseilles; pupil of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts of Marseilles. At the 
Paris Salon of 1905 he exhibited three Portrait-medallions : Jules 
OUive; — M. Baudoin ; — M. Roume. 

ROUMIEUX, CHARLES FRANQOIS (Suiss). Die-sinker of Geneva, 
by whom I have noticed a medal on the Golden Wedding of Pierre 
Machet and Josephine Pfister, of Geneva, 1879. 

ROUPELIN, JULIEN (French). Mint-master at Saint-L6, 1 529-1 540; 
privy-mark, a bird's head at the end of legends. The Paris Mint- 
engraver Claude Lemay supplied him with dies for the coinage. 

ROUSSAT, TEOTA AS (French). Mint-master at Paris, 1491; privy- 
mark, annulet under the b of benedictvm . 

ROUSSEAU, EUGiNE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Paris; pupil of Lequien. At the Salon of 1890 he exhibited three 
Portrait-medallions in bronze. 

ROUSSEAU, GUILLAUME (Fr^w*:/;). Mint-engraver at Tours, 1527. 

ROUSSEAU, JEAN (French). Also ROSSEAU. Goldsmith of Lyons, 
of the first half of the sixteenth century ; died between 1538 and 
1544. In 1533 he executed, in conjunction with Jacques Gauvain, 
the dies for the gold medals which were presented by the Consulate 
to Queen Eleonora, the Dauphin, and Chancellor Duprat. 

Bibliography. — Rondot, Medailletirs lyonnais. 

ROUSSEAU, JEHAN (French). Mint-master at La Rochelle, 1495- 
1498; privy-mark, a small acorn. 

ROUSSEAU, PIERRE (French). Mint-engraver at Paris, circ. 1673- 
1679. He engraved Jetons for the * Ordinaire' and ' Extraordinaire 
de la Guerre . 

ROUSSEAU, ROBIN (French). Circ. 1508-11529. Goldsmith ot 
Tours, in the service of the Dauphin, and Cardinal d'Amboise. He 
also acted as Engraver to the mints of Poitiers and Tours. Barre 
gives his date as 15 14-15 32, and states that he engraved dies for 
the Gros and Demi-gros struck at Tours. 


ROUSSEAU, VICTOR (Belg.). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Feluy-Arquennes, on 16. December 1865 ; Knight of the Order of 
Leopold. He is a pupil of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of 

— 2)3 — 

Brussels, and of the sculptor Charles van der Stappen. Professor at 
the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. His name is mentioned by M. A. 
de Witte in his '* La Medaille en Belgique au xix^ siecle", in 
connection with a plaquette in bronze by the artist : ** La science 
prenant possession de 1 enfance". 

ROUSSEL.HIPPOLYTE RENll ?AVL(Fmich). Contemporary Sculptor 
and Medallist, born at Paris, on 23. October 1867; pupil of Cavelier, 
Barrias, and Coutan. He obtained the first Grand Prix de Rome in 
1895 for statuary; a Medal of the Third Class at the Paris Salon 
in 1896, one of the Second Class in 1898, and a Silver Medal at the 
Universal Exposition of 1900, in which year he became an Officier 

Besides numerous works of sculpture and decorative work, this 
artist has also executed a Medal of the Photo-Club (La Lumiere unit 
I'Art et la Science), and Portrait-medallions of Prince Gabrielli ; — 
Princess Gabrielh nee Bonaparte; — Count Parisani; — Diego 
Angeli, poet; — Roux, sculptor; — M. Germain; — M.Lavergne; — 
M"'^ de Skoropadsky (gold) ; — Accession of Louis XVIII {Bramsen, 
II, 1391); — M. Charles Diehl, professor at the Sorbonne ; — 
Saint Christofle ; — Plaquette for motor racing, etc. ; — M"'^ G.***. 

Bibliography. — Information kitidly supplied by tix artist. 

ROUSSEL, jfiROME (or HI£R0ME) {French). Medallist, born in 
1663, ^i^^ ^^ Paris on 22. December 171 3. He was Medal-engraver 
to Louis XIV., and was received a member of the Academic 
royale de peinture on 28. March 1709. 

His medals are numerous, and some are signed : H. ROVSSEL; — 
H. ROVSSEL F., or ROUSSEL F. By him are also series of Jetons of 
charming design, especially those issued in 171 1 for the Jeu de 

He began working for the Medal Mint about 1686. For his recep- 
tion to the Academy he executed a portrait of the Due d'Antin. 

From the Mint Accounts we learn that he received payments for 
the following productions: 1686. Wax model, puncheon, and 
medal-die ; — 1687. Commemorative medal of the capture of the 
Citadel of Besancon ; — Birth of Monseigneur, and Te Deum for the 
King's Recovery; — Marriage of the Dauphin; — 1688. Medal 
with a view of Cambray; — Taking of Besancon; — 1589. Surren- 
der of Issel by the Dutch; — Capture of Aire; — Head of 
Louis XIV. ; — 1692. Capture of Philippsburg (signed :H. ROUSSEL); 
— Convalescence of the King in 1658; — Relief of Arras; — 
1693. The three Victories (ROUSSEL F.); — Institution of the 
Academic des sciences (H. ROUSSEL F.) ; — Relief of Audenarde 
(H. ROUSSEL); — Capture of Heidelberg; — 1695. Capture of 

254 — 

Heidelberg; — Return of the King to Paris (H. ROUSSEL F.); — 
Three Portrait-medals of the Dukes of Burgundy, Anjou, and Berry ; 
— Portrait-models of the King and Dauphin ; — Portrait ot 
Louis XIV.; — Portrait-medal of the Dauphin and three Dukes; 

— 1699. Foundation of Neu-Brisach; — 1700. Portraits of the 
Dauphin, and Dukes of Burgundy, Anjou and Berry; — 1701. 
Portrait of the Queen ; — Portraits of the Dauphin and Dauphine ; 

— Engagement off Tobago ; — Capture of Besangon (H. ROUSSEL) ; 
German Campaign; — English defeat at Brest; — 1704. Four 
Portraits of the Royal Family; — 1705. Conquest of Franche- 
Comte; — Bombardment of Genoa; — 1706. Capture of Thion- 
ville; — Capture of fourteen Towns, &c. 

In 17 1 5 Jerome Roussel's widow handed to M. de Launay, 
Director of the Medal Mint, the following dies : Bust of the King ; 

— Head of the King; — Two other puncheons; — Head of Monsei- 
gneur; — Ten puncheons with the King's head, having served for 
jetons ; — Nine puncheons for reverses of jetons ; — Five puncheons 

- 2)5 — 

with the head of the Due du Maine ; — Puncheon ot the Comte 
de Toulouse; — Four puncheons with head of Madame la Dauphine; 
— Various other dies, alphabets, &c. 

The following medals by Roussel are all signed : Fortifications 
of Huningen; — Fulfilment of Louis XIII's vow; — Bust of Car- 
dinal de >4oailles ; — Bust of Maximilien Titon ; — Bust of Chamil- 

Duchesse du Maine, 1703. 

lart; — Marriage 01 the Duke of Burgundy (H.R./.); — Bust of 
Mansart ; — Extinction of Heresy (H. ROUSSEL F.) ; — Bust of 
Louis XIV, ; — Crowned head of King; — Jeton with bust of the 
Due du Maine (H.R.F.) ; — Head of the King; ^L. View of Paris 
(H.R.F.); — Jetons of 1699 and other dates (Parties casuelles; — 

Louis XIV. receives James II. 1689. 

Artillerie ; — Batiments ; — Head of the Duchess of Burgundy ; — 

— Bust of the Duchesse du Maine, &:c.). 

Among the Lest known medals to which Roussel contributed 
we find : Battle of Dunkirk, 1658 (obv. signed R. ; ]^. by Molart); 

— Dunkirk taken, 1658 (obv. by Mauger; I^. signed R.); — 
Alliance of France and Holland, 1666 (obv. by Roussel; very rare); 

— Louis XIV. receives James H., 1689 (obv. by Roussel; ver}' 

— 256 — 

rare); another, by Mauger; — Battle of Fleurus, 1690 (obv. 
signed R; ^L. by Molart); — Action off Beachy Head, 1690 
(]^. bv Molart); — Another, on the same event (obv. signed R; 
^. ROVSSEL F.) ; — Capitulation of Mons, 1691 ; — Another, on 
the same event, with ^L. by Molart; — Namur taken, 1692; — 
Battle of Steinkirk, 1692 (2 var.) ; — Sea fight off Gibraltar, 1693 
(obv. signed : H. ROVSSEL F.); — Battle of Landen, 1693 (fc- by 
Molart"); — Expedition to Brest, 1694; — Peace of Ryswick, 
1697 (sev. var., signed : R); - Jeton on the Rupture of the 
second Partition treaty, 1700; — French Indian Medal, 1693 
(obv. Bust, signed; H. ROVSSEL.F. ; ^L. felicitas domus augustae. 
Busts of the member of Louis XIV's family; signed : H.ROVSSEL. 
IN.). Medal used for presentation to the Indian Chiefs, but not ori- 
ginally struck for that purpose. 

To these medals, which are of interest to English collectors also, 
I may add : Peace between France and Spain, and Marriage ot 
Louis XIV., 1660; — Birth of the Dauphin, i66i ; — Louis XIV. 
crosses the Rhine and conquers Batavia, 1672; — The French 
Troops invade Dutch territory, 1672; — The French capture 
twelve Cities, 1672; — To Louis XIV's praise (sev. var.); — 
Engagement of Senef, 1674; — Victories of the French at Kassel 
in Flanders, 1677 (2 var.); — Peace of Nymwegen, 1678; — 
Military Display of Louis XIV. at Ghent, 1678 ; — To the Glory of 
Louis XIV. as Restorer of the European peace, 1679; — Peace 
between France and Denmark, 1679; — The French capture 
Philipsburg, 1688 (H. ROVSSEL F.); — Capture of Bergen by 
Louis XIV., 1691 ; — Maximilian II. Emmanuel, Prince Elector ot 
Bavaria, 1703; — Peace of Utrecht, 17 13 (^L. by Duvivier); 
— Colbert; — Titon ; — Hotel des Invalides, 1675 (se^'- var.); — 
Recovery of Louis XIV., 1687; — Royal Academy of Sciences, 
1667; — L. H. Rouviere, Paris, 1706, &c. 

By Roussel are a larger number of Jetons, besides a series ot 
60 medalets or playing counters, made in 171 1, for the *' Jeu de 
I'hombre" on which he represented subjects drawn from Ovid's 

D''Eug. Demole of Geneva has just published a memoir in Rcuiie 
Suisse de numisuiatique, t. XVI, 19 10, entitled: " Les Jetons repre- 
sentant les Metamorphoses d'Ovide sont-ils I'ofuvre de Jerome 
Roussel, de Jean Dassier ou de Ferdinand de Saint-Urbain " and 
conclusively proved that the jetons in question are by Jerome 
Roussel, who had them struck at Geneva. The dies apparently came 
into the possession of Jean Dassier, who in conjunction with a 
certain Barthelemy Favre, had the series restruck with three fresh 
dedication pieces to Philip Duke of Orleans to take the place of 
those issued by Roussel. 

Roussel's jetons illustrating Ovid's Metamorphoses are : Lib. I. 

A. Dedication Jeton to Louis XIV, 171 r, with : son tres humble 


JEROME roussel; — I. The Chaos; — 2. The Creation of man; — 

3. The Golden Age ; — 4. The Seasons; — 5. The Silver Age ; — 
6. The Bronze Age; — 7. The Iron Age; — 8. Destruction of the 
Giants; — 9. The Council of the Gods; — 10. Lycaon metamor- 
phosed into a wolf; — 11. The Flood ; — 12. Repopulating of the 
l:arth ; — 13. Defeat of the serpent Python ; — 14. Daphne changed 
into a laurel-tree; — 15, lo changed into a cow ; — 16. loon the 
borders of Inaca ; — 17. The Sleep of Argus; — 18. The nymph 
Syrinx changed into Reeds; — 19. The Peacock adorned with the 
eyes of Argus; — 20. lo worshipped as Isis ; — 21 . Quarrel between 
Epaphusand Phaeton; — 22. The Oath of Cleimenes. — Lib. II. 

B. Dedication Jeton to the Dauphin Louis; — i. The Palace of the 
Sun; — 2. Phaeton in the Sun's chariot; — 3. Phaeton's Fall ; — 

4. Phaeton's Tomb; — 5. Jupiter takes the form of Diana; — 
6. Diana banishing Calisto; — 7. Calisto changed into a bear; — 
8. Calisto and her son Areas changed into Stars; — 9. Juno com- 
plaining of Jupiter; — 10. Retreat refused to the new Stars; — 
II. Protection extended to Nyctimenes; — 12. The daughters of 
Cecrops discover Erectheus; — 13. Coronis changed into a crow; 

— 14. The Raven's colour changed from white to black; — 15. 
Ocy roe changed into a mare; — 16. The shepherd Battus changed 
into a touch-stone; — 17. Mercury enamoured of Herse ; — 18. 
Pallas in Envy's grotto ; — 19. Aglaura changed into a stone ; — 
20. Jupiter transforming himself into a bull. — Lib. III. C. Dedi- 
cation Jeton to the Duke and Duchess of Burgundy; — i. Cadmus 
in Boeotia; — 2. Cadmus avenging the death of his soldiers; — 
3. Soldiers born from the Dragon's teeth; — 4. Cadmus builds the 
city of Thebes; — 5. Actaeon changed into a stag; — 6. Actaeon 
devoured by his dogs; — 7. Juno transforming herself into an old 
woman; — 8. Semele consumed by the lighthing of Jupiter; — 9. 
Bacchus fed by the nymphs of Nisa; — 10. Tiresias changes his sex 
twice; — 1 1 . The Juagment of Tiresias; — 12. History of Narcissus; 

— 13, Bacchus before Panthaeus; — 14. Sailors changed into 
dolphins (a variety exists in M. Paul Bordeaux's collection at Neuilly- 
sur- Seine); — 15. Panthaeus torn up by his mother and aunts. 

Jean Dassier, who acquired the dies of Roussel, issued the follow- 
ing additional Jetons of the above series : Dedicatory Jeton to Philip 
of Orleans, regent of France, 1717; — i. Semiramis builds the 
walls of Babylon; — 2. Py ramus and Thisbe; — Unfinished die, 
represented Semele consumed by Jupiter's fire. 

The Paris Mint Museum possesses 18 unfinished dies depicting 
various subjects of Ovid's Metamorphoses, which are copies of some 

L. FoRRER. — Biographical Notices oj Medallists. — Y. 17 

- 258 - 

of the above-described types, of a slightly smaller size, but D' Demole 
does not decide on their authorship, and so they may be either by 
Jerome Roussel or Jean Dassier. 

Roussel's dies came ultimately into the possession of Ferdinand 
de St. Urbain (^.i-.) who intended reissuing these jetons, but there 
is nothing to prove that he did so. 

Bibliography, — Rondot et De La Tour, of>. cit. — J. J. Guiffrey, Jerdme 
Roussel, Rev. num., 1891, pp. 335-341. — J. d'Affry de la Monnoye, Jetons de 
Vechefinage paristen. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. — Hawkins, ed. Franks 
and Grueber, op. cit. — Betts, Historical Medals of Avierica. — Catalogus der 
Nederlandsche en op Nederland betrekking hebbende Gedenkpentiingen, 1906. — 
Oranje-Penningen — Nagler, op. cit. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Ammon, op. cit. — 
Blanchet, op. cit. 

ROUSSEL, l£0 {French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at Ourches; 
pupil ot Thomas, and Payen. He is the author of numerous 
Portrait-medallions, some of which were exhibited by him at the 
Paris Salon : 1902. Three Portrait-medallions in bronze; — 1903. 
Portrait-medallions of D"^ Bilhaut; — M. Millot; — M. Jacob; 
— 1906. M"^ Pi***; — Ma bonne mere, &c. 

ROUSSEL, MAURICE PASCAL (Fretich). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born at Cette; pupil of Falguiere. At the Salon of 1892 and 1905 
he has exhibited Portrait-medallions. 

ROUSSEL, NICOLAS (French). One of the Engravers who were 
commissioned to engrave Pattern *' Francs " of the Cardinal King 
Charles X. in 1590. He was born circ. 1575, and was residing at 
Paris in 1624, where he was earning his living as an Engraver of 

ROUSSEL, PAUL RENfi (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Paris; Pupil of Cavelier, Barrias and Coutan. In 1889 he exhibited 
at the Paris Salon a Portrait-medallion of M"' Ch. Desfontaines, 
and in 1901 he showed a series of seven Portrait-medallions, which 
are of undoubted merit. In 1909 he exhibited a Portrait-medallion 
of a Lady, in cast bronze. 

ROUSSELET, ALEXIS fiTIENNE (French). Engraver of Seals, Coins, 
and Medals of Rheims, circ. 1726-1732. He acted as Mint-engraver 

ROUSSELET, JACOB (French). Mint-engraver at Rheims, circ. 

ROUSSELET, CHARLES ANDRE (French). Gem-engraver of the 
second half of the nineteenth centur}', born at Paris; pupil of 
Jouanin and Levasseur. At the Paris Salon of 1878 he exhibited : 

— 2)9 — 

Night, sardonyx intaglio; — Portrait of M. Rousson Sen"^, sard- 
onyx cameo ; — Portrait of the Artist, sardonyx intaglio. 
Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

ROUSST, JEAN BAPTISTS {Frencli). Contemporary Sculptor, born 
at Villerupt (Meurthe-et-Moselle); pupil of Paris. At the Salon ot 
1902 he exhibited two Portrait-medallions, and a Plaquette. 

ROUVItlRE, JOHANN PETER (Germ.). Warden of the Mint at 
Breslau, 1764-1777; appointed Mint-master in 1777. 
Bibliography. — Friedensburg, Neuere Mun:^esclnchte Schlesiens. 

ROUVRE, B.L.M. PHILIPPE DE (^French). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born at Lille ; pupil of Bourgeois. The following Portrait- 
medallions in bronze have been exhibited by him at the Paris 
Salon : 1881. Emile Bournouf, honorary director of the 
French School at Athens; — M™= Leonie-Emile Bournouf; — 
1882. Mon fils Georges; — 1883. M""= S. de F***; — 1884. 
Mile M. J***; — 1885. M"'^ Marie J***; — 1886. Portrait-medallion; 
— 1890. M"^ Georges Paillot, &c. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

ROUW, PETER (Flein.). Son of Percy Rouw, and also a noted 
Modeller in wax, who flourished during the first half ot the nine- 
teenth century. He worked largely on tinted wax of pinkish colour, 
and some of his Portrait-medallions are in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, South Kensington, the best being those of Pitt, Fox, 
Prince Lucien Bonaparte, and George Prince Regent. 

This artist's signature occurs, as that of the modeller, on several 
Portrait-medals, engraved by other artists : Matthew Boulton; 
Memorial medal, 1809 (by P. WYON; MODELLED BY ROUW; 
PUBLISHED BY THOMASON ; size : 4 inches, illustrated), a noble 
piece of medallic work; — William Cobbett, 1762-1851 ; Memo- 
rial medal; uniface (engraved by J. BADDELEY — P. ROUW MOD.); 
Queen Caroline, consort of George IV., 1820 (by G. Mills); 
— Joseph Hanson, 1781-1811; Portrait-medal of 1810 (by 
T. Wyon) ; — Francis Rawdon, first Marquis of Hastings, 1754- 
1826; Pindarees and Mahrattas subjected, 1818 (signed on obv. : 
MODELLED BY P. ROUW — W. WYON F.) ; — Thomas Graham, 
Lord Lynedoch; — Engagement of St. Sebastian, 1813 (by Webb; 
Mudie's series), &c. 

Bibliography. — H. A. Grueber, English Personal Medals, Num. Chron., 
i8i»8, 1890, 1892. — Mudies National Medals. — Cochran-Patrick, Medals 0} 
Scotland. — J. M. Gray, James and William Tassie. — The Connoisseur, VIII, 

ROUW, PERCY (Fleiii.). Modeller in wax of the end of the eighteenth 
century and early part of the nineteenth. He was noted for his 

— 26o — 

small high reliefs in multi-coloured wax, comprising several por- 
traits of the family of George III., in which the colouring is har- 
monious and the modelline; bold and accurate. 

Matthew Boultou. 
Modelled by Peter Rouw. 

This artist was contemporary with James Tassie, John Bacon, 
Eley George Mountstephen, Edward Burch, I.ady Diana Beauclerc, 
Miss Mary Slaughter, and the Hon. Mrs. Damer. 

ROUX {French). Engraver of the second half of the seventeenth 
century, bv whom is a medal of Charles Evrard, signed ROUX 

ROUX, JULIEN {French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at Saint- 
Michel de Ghaisne (Maine-et-Loire) on 28. July 1836; pupil of 
Jouffroy. By him are the following Portrait-medallions : 1861. 
Emmanuel de Cosse, comte de Brissac; — Abbe Vincelot; — 

— 26l — 

1865. M. Beraud ; — 1868. L. C. Davon; — 1870. Berryer; — 
M. Ratisbonne; — 1879. M. X***; — I^ Pensee, bas-relief in 
bronze; — 1880. Commandant J. F. Salneuve. 
Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

ROUX, NICOLAS DE {French). Mmt-engraver at Rouen, appointed 
on 12. August 1656. 

ROVIRA, L. {Mexic). Die-sinker of Mexico, about 1843. His ini- 
tials L. R. occur on the obv. of a Medal of the Military Asylum at 
Mexico, 1843. 

ROWLET, RALPH (Brit.). xMint-master in London, temp. 
Henry Mil, from about 1527 to 1531. 

ROY, BABD MADHAB CH. (Indian). Native Mint-engraver at Cal- 
cutta, I. April 1886 to I. January 1887, and 10. June 1889 to 
I. October 1893. 

ROY, DAVID (French). Watchmaker at Tours, appointed Mint- 
engraver there in 1595. 

ROY, FRANQOIS (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at Bissy- 
sur-Fley (Saone-et-Loire) ; pupil of Hiolin. At the Salon of 1884 
he exhibited a Portrait-meciallion of M. L. Laroze, and in 1889 
another of M™^ A. D***. 

ROY, GUILLAUME DE (French). Mint-master at Angers, 1588. 

ROY, HIPPOLYTE LE. Vide Vol. HI, p. 420. 

ROY, MARIE CONSTANT (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Champlor (Yonne); pupil of Collin. By him are Portrait- 
medallions, amongst which one of a young Lady was exhibited at 
the Paris Salon in 1885. 

ROY, PIERRE LE (French). Goldsmith, and Seal-engraver at 
Bruges, circ. 1470-1478. In 1470 he made a pattern for the silver 
Denier de la Toison, or Briquet, and in 1478, a secret seal of the 
Archduke Maximilian and Mar}^ of Burgundy, for which he was 
paid 60 Flemish livres. 

Bibliography. — Pinchart, Biograplnes, &c., Revue num. beige, II, 2*. 219. 

ROYER, L. (French). Designer (or Inventor) of the Medal of the 
Medical-Chirurgical Society of Amsterdam, 1840. 

ROYAUME, ISAAC (French). Son of Pierre I. Royaume, born 1563, 
died 1648. He is said to have been Engraver at the Geneva Mint, 
and to have produced dies for medals. 

— 262 — 

ROYAUME, PIERRE I. (French). Mint-engraver at Geneva, from 
1 1. March 1588 until his death in November 1605. 

ROYAUME, PIERRE II. (French). Son of the preceding, born in 
1573, died 3. June 1646. Mint-engraver at Geneva from 1605 to 

ROYAUME, PIERRE III. (French). Grandson of Pierre I. ; Assayer 
at the Mint of Geneva, before 30. June 165 1, when he was 
appointed in the same capacity at Lyons, and again from 1668 to 
1669. He was born in 1595. 

ROYAUME, PIERRE IV. (French). Son of Pierre II. Royaume, born 
in 1605, died 8 September 1676. Appointed 'Graveur en survi- 
vance ', 18. December 1640; succeeded Pierre II. on 5. June 1646 
and in office until 1669, in which year both he and his cousin 
Pierre III. were employed as Assayers to the Mint. 

ROYAUME, PIERRE V. (French). Son of the preceding; born in 
1635, died in 1678. Mint-engraver at Geneva from 1670 to 1678. 
From 167010 1676 Pierre IV. and Pierre V. acted as Assa5'ers and 
Mint-engravers, but it is difficult to ascertain who was Assayer and 
who was Engraver. 

M. Louis Dufour-Vernes, La Mire Royaume ei sa Mannite, Geneve, 
1880, and Descendance genevoise de la Mere Royaume, Geneve, 1881, 
gives the filiation of the various Engravers of the name of Royaume, 
as follows : 

Pierre I (f 1605) 

Isaac (1563 f 1648) Pierre II (1575 t 1646) 

I I 

Pierre III (1395 f ?) Pierre IV (1605 f 1676) 

I I 

Pierre V (1635 ti678) 

Isaac Royaume is said to have engraved one of the Genevese 
Scholastic medals (Haller II, 1937. Poole, p. 232, n° 21). 

To the Royaumes we may probably ascribe the following coins 
of Geneva: M. Four Ducats, 1635-1647; Double Pistoles, 1637-8, 
1659; Double Ducats, undated, 1634, 1646, 1654, 1656-60, 
1662-66; Vieilles Pistoles, 1636-42, 1676; Pistoles, undated. 1634- 
35; Ducats, 1644-52, 1654, 1656-57, 1667, 1674; Florins d'or, 
1590-91, 1594-96, 1603, i6ir, 1619, 1622, 1625, 1630, 1634-51; 
— iR. Quadruple Thaler, 1593; Double Thaler, undated, 1598; 
12 Florins, 1590; Thalers, undated (sev. var.), 1589-96, 1598, 
1603, 1610, 1612, 1620-23, 1625-30, 1633-35, 1637-43, 1652, 1657, 
1659; Half-Thalers, 1597, 1620-23, 1625-29, 1633, 1638, 1640- 

— 263 — 

41, 1657-59; Quarter Thalers, 1602, 1619-20, 1623-24, 1626-27, 
1633-34, i635~36> 1641, 1644-45, 1647, 1657; Twenty-four 
Sols, undated, 1620, 1624-25, 1633-36, 1644-47, 1657, and 
subsidiary coinage. 
Bibliography. — Demdle, op. cit. — Rondot, op. cit. — Poole, op. cit. 

ROYtRE, ANTOINE (f mz^^). Also ROIEYRE. Mint-engraver at Vil- 
lefranche en Rouergue, circ. 1517-1522. 

ROZ, ROZV (Germ.'). Moneyer at Cham, circ. 990 (Dannenb. 
(190), II, 687). 

ROZE, ANDRfi DE LA (French). Mint-master at Lyons, appointed 
in 1529. Privy-mark, a rose. Later, he was Mint-master at Cham- 
ber}', 1542. 

ROZE, ALBERT AUGDSTE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born 
at Amiens ; pupil of Dumont, Thomas, and Bonnassieux. At the 
Paris Salon of 1884 he exhibited two Portrait-medallions; in 1890, 
one of M"^ Elizabeth F***; and in 1905, M. A. L***. 

ROZE, LEONARD (French). Painter of Lyons, circ. 15 39-1 547. 
Mint-engraver at Lyons, 1544. 

ROZET, REN£ (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at Paris; 
pupil of Cavelier. Besides numerous works of sculpture, this artist 
has also produced some Portraits-medallions, and in 1902, a 
charming Plaquette commemorating the Centenary of Victor Hugo 

Centenary of Victor Hugo, 1902. 

(illustrated). His latest work is a commemorative Plaquette of the 
Separation of the Church from the State in France, 1907. 

ROZET, GASTON (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Cayenne from French parents, by whom is a fine Portrait-medallion 
of Colonel Mancel, exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1887. 

— 264 — 

ROZZI (ItaL). Gem-engraver of the second half of the eighteenth 
century, whose signature occurs on a sardonyx intagho representing 
Hero and Leander. 

R. S. These initials occur on the truncation of William IV's bust 
on a Double Mohur of 1835, engraved by Kasi Nath (Vol. Ill, 
p. 122). These letters R. S. stand fo Robert Saunders, who was 
Mint-master at Calcutta from 1826 to 1836. 

R. S. Fide RUDOLPH STADELMANN. Medallist at Darmstadt, circ. 

R. T. (IlaL). Signature of a Medallist who was working circ. 
1579, and who executed a Portrait-medal of Pope Gregory XIII. of 
which two reverses are known : (a) vir.ab.vrbe etc. Madonna and 
Child; (b) viatorvm salvti. Bridge over a torrent ;diam. 42 mill., 
and others. Fide TIMOTHEUS REFATUS supra. 

Bibliography. — Armand, op. cit.. Ill, 151. 

RUBEMPRfi, M"« MARIE COZETTE DE {French). Contemporary 
Sculptor, born at Amiens ; pupil of Chapu. One of her medallions 
in bronze representing Hope was exhibited at the Paris Salon 
in 1873 ^"^ 1874, ^"^ ^he also modelled Portraits. 

RUBERTO, GIANFRANCESCO (Jtal.). Medallist of the third quarter 
ot the fifteenth century, who was working «Vc. 1484. His signature: 
10. PR. RVBERTO. OPVS occurs on a Portrait-medal of Gian Fran- 
cesco II. Gonzaga, fourth marquis of Mantua; ^. favent.for. 
voTis. Roman horsemen fighting (52 mill.). Armand ascribes to the 
same artist another Portrait-m.edal of a Laay (legend : diva.ivlia. 
PRiMVM . FELix) and analogous reverse, but the piece is by L'Antico, 
one specimen, formerly in the Wellenheim collection being signed : 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Armand, o/>. cit., I, 81. — Friedlander, 
op. cit., p. 127. 

RUBIN, AUGUSTE (French). ContemporarySculptor, born at Gren- 
oble (Isere), pupil of his brother Hippolyte Rubin. He is the 
author of some Portrait-medallions : 1882. M. L***; — 1898. 
Louise Sagnier; — 1905. M. & M"*'= Bartholdi, etc. 

RUBINO, EDOARDO {ltd.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist. 

At the New York International Medallic Exhibition, March 19 10, 
he has exhibited the following works : Angel of Charity ; — Sailmg; 
— Prize for an Exhibition of photography ; — In memoriam ; — 
To a worker; — Heart; — The mountain climber; — Cup for 
horse races ; — H^lene d'Orl^ans, Duchess of Aosta ; — Professor 
Carlo Cipolla ; — Victory ; — Professor Alberto Gamba ; — The 
Duke of the Abruzzi; — Life; — Motherhood; — Homage; — The 

- 265 - 

RUCK. Fide ROEG supra. 

RUCK. Vide RUECK infra. 

RUCKDESCHEL, JOHANN LORENZ (Germ.). Mint-master at Bay- 
reuth, 1726-1736. He signed usually : I. L. R. 

Bayreuth, 1747-7-30. June 1768. He signed his issues C. L. R. and 
also L. R. His signature occurs also on a Marriage Medal of Duke 
Charles II. Eui^enius of Wiirttemberg-Stuttgart with Princess 
Elizabeth Friederike Sophie of Brandenburg, 26. September 1748. 

RUCKEN, HILDEBRAND (Gf/'W.). Mint-master at Marburg, 1588-7 
29. June 1593. His initials RH occur on some of his issues, and 
even on a Reichsthaler of Louis III. of Hesse, dated 1595. Schlick- 
eysen gives his name as RUCKER in error, 

^tiCKE. Vide RVLCKZ infra. 

RUCKINSATTEL. JOHANNES (Austr.). Seal-engraver of Hermann- 
stadt (Transylvania), circ. 1660. His initials occur on the I^. of a 
Ten Ducat piece of Achatius Barczai, 1660. 

RUDDER, ISIDORE DE {Belg.). Contemporary Sculptor, residing 
at Brussels, by whom are several medallic works of exceptional 

To the Memory of M. Louis Wollers, 1900. 

— 266 — 

merit : Medal of the Photographic Society " L'Effort " ; — Portrait- 
plaquette to the memory of Louis Wolfers, 1900 {illustrated). 
M, Laloire speaks very highly of this artist, who was born in 1855. 
The Antwerp Museum possesses a very fine group by him, " Le 
Nid". His Portrait-plaquette of M. A. Mabille, offered by the City 
of Brussels, and thePlaquette on the Entente Hollando-Belge deserve 
also mention here. 

M. Emile De Keyzer, Director of the Finance Department of the 
Congo State has lately shown me an Inauguration medal by De 
Rudder of the First Railway of the Congo, i. July 1898. 

Bibliography. — Laloire, La Medaille en Belgique, 1902. — Magazine of Art, 
nov. 1 90 1. 

RUDE, FRANQOIS (^French). Sculptor of the nineteenth century, 
born at Dijon on 4. January 1784, died at Paris on 3. November 
1855; pupil of Derosge, and Cartellier. In 1812 he won the first 
Grand Prix de Rome and in 1833 he became a Knight of the Legion 
of Honour. His busts of Monnier,La Peyrouse, David, F. Devosge, 
and his statues ot Louis XIII. , Marshal Ney, Cavaignac, Joan of 
Arc, Louis d'Armagnac, Neapolitan fisherman. Mercury, Hebe and 
Jupiter, are all well-known. His signature occurs also on large 
Portrait medallions in bronze, among which Marx mentions one of 
Antonin Moine. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cii. — C. Poisot, Notice stir le 
sculpteur Frartfois Rude, 1857. — Fourcaud, Francois Rude, Gaz. des Beaux-Arts, 
1888, I, 353. — R. Marx, Medailleurs franfais, 1887. — Fortnum, Bron:^es in the 
South Kensington Museum, 1870. 

RtJDER, CHRISTIAN LUDWIG (Germ.). Mint-master at Hanau, 
1 77 1- 1 784. Privy mark, C. L. R. 

RtDEL, GEORG (Germ.). Mint-master at Erlangen, in conjunction 
with Neubergerand Keller, May to end of August 1622. 

RtfDEL, JONAS (Germ.). Mint-master, in conjunction with Hans 
Rentsch, at Erlangen, June 162 1 to May 1622, and Culmbach, 
March to August 1621 ; alone, at Bayreuth, 25. July to 11. Sep- 
tember 1 62 1. 

Bibliography. — C. F. Gebert, Die Brandenburg-FrankiscJjen Kippermunistatten, 

RtJDESHEIM, PETER (Germ.). Mint-master at Dusseldorf, 1783- 
1804. His initials occur on coins he issued. I have noticed them on 
a Reichsthaler of Maximilian Joseph, Prince Elector of Bavaria, 
dated 1804, whereas the Half Reichsthaler ot 1804 is only 
signed R. 

RUDGERUS (Germ.). Moneyer at Ratisbon, 1207. 

— 2^7 — 

RCDIGER, HERMANN (Genu.). Polish Mint-master-general, 1595- 
160 1, and Contractor of the Mints at Posen, Fraustadt, and Brom- 
berg. His issues are usually signed H. R. 

RUDOLPH, CHRISTOPH (Germ.). Mint-master at Straubing, 1459- 

RUE, PIERRE DE LA (French). Mint-master at Bayonne, 1542- 
1547. His initial letter P occurs on his coins at the beginning of 
the two legends. He signed also Douzains a la croisette without the 

RUECKE, HANS (Germ.). Mint-Official at Liineburg, 1 579-1 588; 
Mint-master to the Archbishop Johann Friedrich of Bremen at 
Vorde (Holstein), 1616; Mint-master at Moisburg, 10. July 1622 
to 29. September 1626 ; at Harburg, October 1626 to 24. September 
1627. In 16 19- 1622 he also acted as Mint-master at Burg Friedberg. 
He signed his issues 'Hi' with a hoe. 

Bibliography. — M. Bahrfeldt, Beilrage ^iir Mfin^gescJnchte der luneburgischen 
Lande im ersteti Drittel des XV H. Jahrhundtrts. — Berliner Mfm:^- Blatter, 1904, 353. 

RUEDEL Vide R0DEL supra. 

RUEDER Vide RODER supra. 

RUEF, ULRICH (Germ.). Moneyer at Passau, I459- 

RUEFLIN (Germ.). Mint-master at Wending (Oettingen), 1395. 

RUELLES. JEAN DES (also RUYELLES) (F/^;«.). Mint-engraver at 
Ghent, circ. 14 19-1425. In 1421 he was also working at the Namur 
mint, probably during a temporary closing of the mints of Bruges 
and Ghent. Pinchart states that this Engraver is certainly the 
author of the coins struck at Ghent in 1419 and at Namur, 1421- 
1429, of which he gives a list in Revue de la mimismatiqtie beige ^ 
1852, p. 295. 

RUES, JEAN I. DES (French). Goldsmith of Moulins, appointed 
Mint-engraver there, 1554. 

RUES, JEAN n. DES (French). Mint-engraver at Riom, circ. 1558- 

RUFFIN, NICOLAS (French). Mint-master at Toulouse, aVr. 1564- 
1566; privy-mark, a crescent moon surmounted by a hean. 

RUFFS, FRANCOIS (French). Mint-engraver at Toulouse, circ. 

RUFTMEYER. JOACHIM (Germ.). Mint-master at Hamburg, 1692- 
1724. His initials I. R. occur on the coins he issued. 

— 268 — 

RUFUS (^Rotn.). Gem-engraver of the first century before our era. 
His signature : POYOOC €nO€l occurs on a cameo in the Ermi- 
tage Museum, representing Victory driving a quadriga. The 
engraver Rufus copied a picture by Nicoraachos, thus described by 
Pliny : Victoria quadrigam in sublime rapiens. "This picture", says 
M. Babelon, " which L. Munatius Plancus brought back from Greece 
to have it placed in the Capitol, is also reproduced on the reverse 
of a denarius, which the moneyer L. Plautius Plancus, struck at 
Rome about B.C. 45." 

Koehler and Brunn ascribed this cameo to the sixteenth century, 
but Furtwangler maintains that it is antique. Some modern replicas 
exist . 

Denarii ot L. Plautius Plancus. 

Furtwangler Qahrhuch, &.C., 1889, p. 60) discusses at length the 
evident proofs of authenticit}' of this fine gem . 

The signature ROTOOY occurs also on a Portrait-intaglio ot 
Ptolemy Physcon {Vide RASPE). 

Bibliography. — Babelon, Pierres grave'es. — Daremberg et Saglio, Diet. art. 
gemmae. — S. Reinach, Pierres graves. — Furtwangler, JahrbuchSic., 1889, p. 60. 
— Raspe, lassie's Gents. 

RUGNY, JEAN DE (French). Mint-master at Tours, 15 32-1 5 34; 
privy mark,) on crosslet. 

RUHIERRE, FRANgOIS THEODORE (French). Contemporary 
Sculptor, born at Paris, where he died in 1884 ; pupil of his father. 
At the Salon of 1884 ^^ exhibited a Portrait-medallion of Robes- 
pierre . 

RUISSEL, GUILLAUME (French). Provisional Mint-master at 
Amiens, from 26. November to 9. December 1428, and actually in 
office from 4. February 1430 to 27. January 143 1. 

RULL, K. (Swed.). Medallist of the first half of the seventeenth 
century, by whom are several medals of Gustavus Adolphus, struck 
on his death, 1632. They are signed : K. R. Three are described by 
Hildebrand, n°^ 178, 178-' and 179. It would however appear that 
the monogram R V thus interpreted is that of the engraver Ruprecht 
Niclas Kitzkatz (q. v.). 

— 269 — 

RUIZ, E. (Span.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist ; a pupil 
of the French School of medal- engraving. I have seen by him a 
medal struck to commemorate the Third Centenary of Velasquez, 
1899, with a portrait of the famous painter on obv. ; and a Prize 
Medal of the Academy of Arts of Madrid (^. illustrated). 

A 1 . 


^L. of Prize Medal for Arts. 

RUMANN, WILHELM VON (Germ.). Contemporary Bavarian 
Sculptor, residing at Munich, by whom are also some medallic 
works, amongst which a commemorative medal of the Inauguration 
of the Prince Luiipold Siatue at Nuremberg, 1901. This medal is 
reproduced in frontispiece, Mittheil. der bayerischen numismatischen 
Gesellschaft , 1901 . 

RUMFORD, AM£d£e DE (French). Contemporary Medallist, born 
at Bordeaux; pupil of Bordeaux. At the Salon of 1886 he exhibited 
a Portrait-medallion of a young Lady. 

RUMHEL, H. (Germ.). Acted provisionally as Mint-master at 
Nuremberg in 1504. 

RUMUND, ARENT VAN (Dutch). Mint-master at Zwolle, 1659- 

RUMUND, DIRCK VAN (Dutch). Mint-master at Kampea, 1675- 

RUMUND, GERRIT VAN (Dutch). Mint-master at Zwolle, 1674- 

270 — 

Mint-master at Teschen (Silesia), 


RUNDELL, BRIDGE AND RUNDELL (Brit.). A Firm of Jewellers and 
Silversmiths, who edited a number of medals in the early part of the 
nineteenth century, some of which will be found described under 
the names of their respective engravers. One of them, by Thomas 
Wyon, commemorates the Bombardment of Algiers, 181 6. The 
following medals bear this firm's name in full : — The peace of 18 14. 
Laureate bust of the Prince Regent, georgivs princeps walli^ 
PATRiAM PRO PATRE REGENS. MDCCcxiiii (J. Barber on truncation). 
drooping figure of Europa ; above, Victory with laurel wreath 
(T. Wyon jun. in exergue); — Bombardment of Algiers, 1816 
(illustrated) (T. Wyon jun. on obverse. T. Wyon on reverse); — 
Accession or George IV, 1820 (without the artist's name). 
^. ACCESSiT XXIX IAN MDCCCxx ; — Coronation of George IV, 
1821 (Without the artist's name). I^. god save the kikg, &c. 

Bombardment of Algiers, 1816. 

RDNET (French). The signature is said to occur on a Pattern 
5 Franc piece of Charles X., but Dewamin evidently did not know 
of it, as he does not mention it. 

RUNG, HANS (Germ.). Goldsmith and Medallist at Augsburg, circ. 
1565, died in 1602. He worked for the mint at Munich, and received 
payments for work done from the Mint-master, Anton Hundert- 
pfund. He married his second wife in 1588. His name also occurs 

RUNGE(G^m.). Director of the Mint at Breslau, 1770-1775. 
RUNGEN. Fide HANS RUNG supra. 

RUNGIUS (GdTw.). Mint-contractor at Mannheim, 1747. 

RUNTINGER, MATHAUS (Germ.). Mint-contractor at Ratisbon, 
circ. 1392-1395 . 

RUOFOLER (?) (Germ.), Mint-master at Kempten, 153 6-1 540. 

RUOLZ, LEOPOLD DE (French). Sculptor of the second quarter ot 
the nineteenth century, and the author of numerous Portrait- 
medallions, some of which were exhibited by him at the Paris Salon 
in the thirties. 

RUPERTI, LUDWIG CHRISTIAN (Germ.). Mint-master at Zellerfeld 
(Brunswick), 1774 to 1779. His issues bear his initials L. C. R. 

RDPRECHT (Austr.). Moneyer at Vienna, 1378; died before 1385. 

RUS, CHRISTOPH (Germ.). Mint-warden at Kallmunz-Neuburg, 
circ. 1619. 

RUSKIN, JOHN (Brit.). Born in London, 1819. He graduated at 
the University of Oxford, and gained the Newdigate Prize for Poetry 

in 1839. Later, he studied art under Fielding and J. D. Harding, 
attaining an ordinary proficiency as a draughtsman, but never 
becoming a professional artist. Kuskin is known, however, through- 
out the English-speaking world as an art critic, and a brilliant 
and prolific, as well as original, writer upon art subjects. Not always 
temperate in his strictures upon existing art and contemporary artists, 
he has frequently been the subject of severe criticism from rival 
critics ; but, unquestionably, no work of its kind has been more 
widely read than Ruskin's "Modern Painters", and to no single 
work and to no single author does the world of art owe so much. 

In 1867 Ruskin was appointed Rede Lecturer at Cambridge, 
and in 1869, Slade Professor of Fine Arts at Oxtord. In 187 1 he 
endowed the Taylor Gallery at Oxford with i. 5.000 for the 
mamtenance of a master of Drawing, and he generally spent 
the greater part of his private fortune in other schemes for art 
education and the public good. 

Ruskin furnished illustrations for "The Stones of Venice ", and 
for the later volumes of "Modern Painters". 

Ruskin, in his works on art, did not omit the coin- and medal- 
engravers' productions, and he certainly influenced in some measure 
present-day British medallists. The famous critic had great power 
of observation and much skill in expressing that observation. 

RUSMEYER, JOACHIM (Germ.). Mint- master at Hamburg, circ. 
1 694-1 7 1 7. Ammon states that his issues are signed : I. R. 

RUSPAGIARI, ALFONSO DA TOMASO (7/^/.). Sculptor, and Medallist, 
born at Reggie d'Emilia, on 28. July 1521, appears to have died 
before 1577. Bolzenthal, D. Promis, and Armand, have ascribed 
to this artist a series of medals, mostly signed A. R. or /R. Ver)^ little 
is known about Ruspagiari's career. Balletti, who has made thorough 
investigations in the Reggian archives, has not been able to add much 
to the scant information given by former writers. He appears to 
have been descended from one of the patrician families of his native 
city, and was very well connected. 

He married in 1540; his wife's name was Ippolita. She presented 
him with four daughters : Filarida Anna, 12. March 1541; Dalia 
Anna, 31. May 1556; Celia, i. February 1559; and Isabella. Con- 
temporary documents show that he held a prominent position in 
the Council of Reggio, and that he was several times deputed to 
superintend public works. 

The medals attributed to Ruspagiari are : Self Portrait, with 
legend: alf.ruspagiarii.regien. and on truncation of bust: idem 
A. R. ; diam.: 78 mill, (illustrated); — Another, smaller (repro- 
duced in Rassegna d'Arte, July 1901) ; — Camilla Ruggieri; 
signed : A. R.; diam.: 69 mill. (^Rassegna d'Arte, May 1904, p. 45); 

— 273 — 
— Lucia Ruspagiari; uniface; signed: A.R.; diam. : 63 mill 
{Rassegm dArte, July 1901); — Alessandro Ardenti, painter 

Selt Portrait-medal of Alfonso Ruspagiari. 

L. Fc 

Portrait-medallion of a Lady. 

Biographical Notices of Medallists. — V. 

— 274 — 

of Faeiiza; signed : A.R. This medal has a reverse, whereas 
the preceding are uniface; diam. : 53 mill.; — A specimen of 
Alessandro Ardenti's portrait in the Rosenheim Collection is attached 
to the portrait of Agostino Ardenti, who may have been his brother; 
— Portrait-plaquette, uniface, of a Lady, veiled, with left shoulder; 
bare: 70x53 mill.; — Portrait-medallion, uniface, of a Lady, in 
oval frame ; in front of her, profile of beardless man ; signed : A.R. ; 
diam : 68 mill, (illustrated) ; — Claudia Pancalieri ; uniface ; 
signed : A.R.; diam. : 65 mill. ; — Filiberto Pingone, baron of Cusi, 
1 5 26- 1 5 82; dated 1573 and signed: A.R.; ^L. sapienter avde. 
Eagle and peacock perched on a tree. A specimen, without the 
signature, is dated 1 574 (According to Mr. Hill, this medal cannot be 

Asdrubale Bambasi. 

by Ruspagiari, and may even be of Flemish origin); — Unknown 
Lady, in the attributes of Pallas, helmeted; uniface ; 62 mill. 

Testoni of Alfonso II d'Este for Reggio, 1571, have been 
ascribed to the artist also. Armand, and more recently, Balletti, 
have drawn attention to the gieat difference in style and execution 
between the medals just mentioned, and those signed /R, which may 
be by another artist, although Promis did not hesitate to give 
them to Ruspagiari, and that most of the personages represented 
are Savoyard, and especially the medal of Asdrubale Bambasi, who 
was a poet of Reggio, and consequently a fellow burgess of 
Ruspagiari, seems likely enough to be the latter's work. 

The following medals, signed M, are described by Armand: 
Asdrubale Banlbasi ; uniface; diam. : 58 mill, (illustrated); — 
Emanuele Filiberto, duke of Savoy, 1528-1580; uniface; diam.: 

— 275 — 

76 mill. ; — Carlo Emanuele, duke of Savoy, 1 562-1630; uniface; 

77 mill. ; — Another specimen has a j^. by Leone Leoni (the 
three Graces) affixed to it ; — Marie de Grillet, contessa Pancalieri; 
uniface; 62 mill. ; — Beatrice Langosco, contessa Scarampi; uniface; 

54 mill. ; — Jacqueline de Montbel et d'Entremont, wife of the 
famous French huguenot admiral, Gaspard de Coligny; diam. : 

55 mill.; two reverses: (a) in . tenebris . lvcet. Five butterflies 
fluttering around a torch; (b) premitvr.xo.oprimitvr. Stormy sea 
from which emerges an anchor ; — Unknown Lady, as Pallas, 
helmeted; legend : virtvti.victrici.; unsigned ; uniface; 72 mill.; 
— Pietro Machiavelli of Lucca; signed: AAR. These medals cannot 
be by Ruspagiari, and Mr. Hill suggests Alessandro Ardenti, who 
worked in Lucca and Savoy, as their author. 

To these Armand adds a medal of Ercole IL d'Este, fourth duke 
of Ferrara, 1508-1559, and Domanig, another of Alfonso II d'Este, 
1 53 3-1 597, which he calls" in the art of Ruspagiari. " 

"There exists "says Mr. Hill", a group of medals signed: M 
representing Charles Emanuel and Emanuel Filibert of Savoy, which 
have been without any reason attributed to Ruspagiari. With these 
(on grounds of style) may be classed a medal of Pietro Machiavelli 
of Lucca, which is signed: AAR. All these medals, as well as some 
others of Savoy an personages, signed M, may possibly belong to 
Alessandro Ardenti, who worked in Lucca and Savoy. Ruspagiari 
should also be relieved of the medal of Filiberto Pingone, which 
has absolutely no relation to his style. Its high relief, method of 
dating on the truncation, its reverse design, its whole treatment and 
feeling, are as different from his as possible. Closely related, in the 
manner of treating the bust, to the medallist A. A. are Bombarda 
and the artist who signs S, and who has on quite insufficient 
evidence been identified with Niccolo Signoretti. We must for the 
present be content to place S alongside of A. A. as a probable pupil 
of Ruspagiari ". 

Ruspagiari's style betrays, say Balletti, the influence of Pastorino 

(1553-7) and Bombarda (1557-9). 

Bibliography. — A. Balletti, Alfonso Ruspagiari medaglista del secola XVII, 
Rassegna d'Arte, July 1901, and May 1904. — Armand, op. cit. — Bolzenthal, 
op. cit. — Vcrnazza, Vita di Giambatt. di Savoja. — G. F. Hill, Some Italian Medals 
Burlington Magazine, XII, 141. 

RUSS. CHRISTOF (STOFFEL) {Swiss). Assayer at the Mint of 

Lucerne, 1330-1538. 

RUSS. NICOLAUS (vS"cy/5j). Mint-master at Lucerne, 1529. 

RUSSANGES, NICOLAS I DE {French). Mint-engraver at Paris, circ. 
1469-71511. He cut dies also for the Mints of Amiens, Angers, 
Bayonne, Bourges, Chalons, Limoges, Lyons, Saint- L6, Saint- 

— 276 — 

Pour(;ain, Tournai, Tours, and Troyes. He died at Paris in 15 11, 
and was succeeded by Guillaume Le May. He also engraved jetons 
in 1488, 1494, 1 501 and 1508. In 1506 he was forbidden to engrave 
jetons. Rondot(p. 54) reproduces a jeton witli tliearms of Alencon, 

Jeton with the arms of Alengoii. 

which is the first that can be attributed with certainty to the 
engraver. Among his other jetons are : 1488. Jetons banaux named 
*'l^ BequeHne"; — I493- Jetons for Jean Gueudon; — 1494. 
Jetons for Jean d'Albret ; — 1501, Jetons for Louis Malet de Gra- 
ville; — 1503. Jetons for Jean Bourdin; — 1506. Chambre des 
Comptes, and Tr^sor; — 1508. Jetons for Antoine d'Estaing, 
bishop of Angouleme. 

Bibliography. — Rondot, Graveurs Je Lyon. — Rondot and De La Tour, op. 
cit. — Mazerolle, op. cit. 

RUSSANGES, NICOLAS II DE (French). Goldsmith, and Engraver 01 
jetons, at Paris, circ. 1 545-1 561. In 1547 he engraved jetons for 
Francois de Dinteville, bishop of Auxerre. 

RUSSE, WILLIAM (Brit.). Master of the Mints of Calais, Bristol, 
York, and London, anni 10 and 11 of Henry VI., 1432-33. 

RUSSEL (or ROSSEL), L£GER (French). Goldsmith of Romans, who 
was employed as Engraver of coin-dies by the archbishop of Lyons, 
circ. 1379-1381. 

RUSSO, CONTE CAPPOLA (//rt/.). Mint-warden at Naples, circ. 
1747, whose initial R occurs on some of the Neapolitan coins of 
that date. 

RUSTELSBERGER (Swiss). Engraver at the Papal Mint in Rome, in 
the middle years of the eighteenth century. 

RUTHALL, THOMAS (Bril.). Bishop of Durham, under Henry VIII. 
He issued Pennies at the episcopal mint, bearing the letters T. D. 

RUETIMEYER, NICHOLAS FRIEDRICH (Szuiss). Engraver, born at 
Berne on 17. March 1797, died at Mache in the SchlossU on 

— 277 — 

8. February 1847. He was apprenticed to a goldsmith and silver- 
smith of his native town, ana resided later for several years in Italy, 
— Naples, Turin, and Genoa. On his return to Berne he settled 
down as an Engraver of seals, armorial bearings, &c. He was entrusted 

Medal of the Federal Rifle Meeti 

ne, 1830. 

with the confection of the seal of the Bernese Grossrat, that of the 
Post Office, and many other official seals. The only medal that I 
know by him is the Federal Shooting Fete medal at Berne, 1830, 
which exhibits tolerable work . There are varieties. One specimen 
in bronze, probably unique, exists in M: Arnold Robert's 
Bibliography. — Revue suisse de numismatique, 1891, pp. 288, 316. 

RUTILIO GACI (Ital.). Caci or Cacius (q. v. Final supplement) w^as 

Rutllio Gaci. 

Doiia Beatriz de Rojasy Castro, 1618. 

a Florentine nobleman, and a Sculptor in the service of Philip IV., 
King ofSpain, at Madrid, during the first half of the seventeenth 
century. He was held in high esteem as an artist, and especially 
noted as a modeller in wax. 

— 27« — 

He likewise distinguished himself as a Medallist. His works 
betray the influence of Leone Leoni, and Jacopo da Trezzo. 

Don Pablo Bosch of Madrid possesses a Portrait-medal, uniface, 
depicting a man, aged about forty, accompanied by the legend : 
RVTiLivs CACivs. MDCXV, undoubtedly the artist's self portrait ; also, 
that of his wife, Dona Beatriz de Rojas y de Castro, uniface, and 
signed : (both illustrated, by kind permission of the owner). 

Philip III and Margaret. 

The signature rvt or R° occurs also on two uniface medals of 
Philip III. of Spain, and his consort, the Archduchess Margaret, 
daughter of the Archduke Charles of Styria. The latter is dated 
1609. A medal, formerly in the Gutekunst collection had both 

Piiilip III and Margaret. 

portraits affixed ; another is in the Madrid Museo Arqueologico 
Nacional, and a third is in Don Pablo Boscli's cabinet. Both "are 
described in Van Loon. 

— 279 — 

Mr. W. Moore formerly owned a fine Portrait medal in bronze ot 
Philip II., 1 62 1, signed on both sides with lvstrat et fovet and 
Chariot of the Sun on I^ (55 mill.), copied from the^ of a medal 
ot Philip II. by Jacopo da Trezzo. A specimen in lead is preserved 
in the Madrid Museo Arqueologico, and another in bronze is also 

Philip IV. 

in Don Pablo Bosch's collection. Published by Van Loon and in the 
Catalogue of the Vidal y Quadras Collection . 

Pinchart mentions the monogram of the artist on a Portrait- 
medal of Archduke Leopold William. 

Herrera gives an interesting monograph of Rutilio Gaci and 
dwells on his manifold activity in various branches of art and letters. 

A further uniface medal in lead with the same monogram was 
formerlv in Mr. Max Rosenheim's Collection, and is now in that 

— 28o — 

of Don Pablo Bosch. The personage depicted, Alexander Rodul- 
phius, appears otherwise unknown . I owe to the kindness of the 
above gentlemen the favour of giving an illustration of this 
interesting portrait-piece, which is one of the finest of the medallic 
works of Rutilio Gaci. 

Alexander Rodulphius. 

A specimen of Rutilio Caci's Self-portrait, 1615, uniface, in lead, 
was sold in November 1910 (Gutekunst Sale, n° 91) for 80 Marks. 

Don Pablo Bosch exhibited his medals of Rutilio Gaci at the 
International Numismatic Congress at Brussels, June 1910. 

Bibliography. — Adolfo Herrera, Rutilio Gaci, Boletin de la Sociedad 
Espanola de Excursiones, Abril 1908. — Infmmation kindly supplied hy Sefior Don 
Pablo Bosch of Madrid, Mr. Max Rosenheim, F. S. A., Mr. G. F. Hill, M. A., 
British Museum, Mr. fV. Moore. — Domanig, Ein neuentdeckter Medailleiir : 
Rutilio Caci, Monatsblatt der numismatischen Gesellschaft, 1905, p. 342. — Van 
Loon, op. cit. — Cean Bermudez, Diccionario Instorico. 

RUTZ, GEORG (G^r;n.). Mint-master at Lauf (Palatinate), 1380. 

RUWENER JORG (Germ.). Mint-warden at Frankfort-Nordlingen, 

RUYMUND, DIEDERIK VAN (Dutch). Mint-master at Enkhuizen 
(Friesland), 1649-1652; mint-mark, cinquefoil. 

RUYMUND, GERRIT VAN (Dutch.). Master of the Mints of Hoom, 
Enkhinzen. and Medemblik (Friesland) 1652-1680; mint-mark, 

RTDELL, or RIEGER (Germ.). Mint-engraver and Medallist at 
Breslau, circ. 161 5-1 63 5. His initials are said to occur on a rare 
Hunting Thaler of Ferdinand II., dated 1626. 

— 28l — 

RYDEN. HENNING {Amer.). By this artist a Portrait-group was 
exhibited at the New York International Medallic Exhibition, 
March 19 lo. 

RYKEMAN, ROGER (Brit.). Master of the Mints of London and 
Canterbury, appointed in the first year of Edward III.'s reign, 1326, 
and in office until 1344. 

RYKTER, HERMANN (Pol.)- Mint-master at Krakau, 1596-1598. 
The coins issued by him bear the letters H. R. K. Henuann Rytkcr, 

RYNNEBERG, HEINRICH (Germ.). Mint-master at Hammelburg 

(Fulda), 1400. 


RYTHER. Fiik RYATER supra. 

RYTKYER, CASPAR (Pol.). Mint-master at Olkusz, 1 586-1 599, 
and General Warden of the Crown mints of Poland, 1 599-1604. 
His initials C. R. occur on coins he issued. 

RYTZSE PETER (Drt».). Mint-master at Hamar, under Christian II., 

RZASNA, 6E0RG KARL VON (Bohem.). Goldsmith, and Mint- 
engraver at Kuttenberg, Prague and Joachimsthal, 1557-71599- 

RZIHA, MARTIN (Auslr.). Mint-engraver at Kuttenberg, 1499. 

— 282 — 

S. Fide SCHRAUFFEN. Mint-master at Frankfort-on-Main, 1469. 

S. Vide NICOLO SPINELLI. Mint-master at Naples, 1472. 

S. Fide H. STABLER. Medallist at Augsburg, 1620- 1630. 

S. Fide THOMAS SIMON. Mint-engraver and Medallist in London, 

S. Fide LB. SCHULTZ. Medallist at Berlin, 1681-1697. 

S. Fide L.C. SCHNEIDER. Mint-master at Berlin, 1682-1713. 

S. Fide IAN SMELTZING. Medallist at Leyden, 1686- 1703. 

S. Fide SGHATTAUER. Mint-master at Babenhausen, 1676-77. 

S. Fide D. SIVERT. Mint-warden at Dantzig, 1698-1734. 

S. Fide A, SELVI. Medallist at Florence, first half of the eighteenth 

S. Fide A. SCHULTZ. Medallist at Copenhagen, 171 6-1724. 

S. Fide W. SCHAFFER. Mint-engraver at Mayence and Heidelberg, 
1716-1744, and Warden of the Mint at Mannheim until 1758. 

S. Fide C. P. SPANGENBERG. Mint-master at Clausthal, 1725-175 3. 

S. Fide SAMSON. Mint-engraver at Basle, <:/Vr. 1730. 

S. Fide SCHAUPP. Mint-engraver at Biberach, 1730-1757. 

S. Fide F. A. SCHEGA. Mint-engraver at Munich, 1739-1787. 

S. Fide A. SCHAFFER. Medallist at Mannheim, 1744-1799. 

S. Fide F. SCHAFER. Mint-engraver at Weilburg and Eisenach, 

S. Fide JOHANN HEINRICH SCHEPP. Court- and Mint-medallist at 
Kassel, 1750-1760; later at Frankfort-on-Main, where he died in 

S. Fide GEORG LUDWIG SCHEPP. Medallist at Cassel, 1751-1764. 

- 283 - 

S. Vide I. C. SCHEPP. Medallist at Diez, Cassel, and Hanau, 1750- 

S. Vide JOHANN HENNIG SCHLUTER. Mint-master in Hessian ser- 
vice, i750-i76o;diedat Frankfort-on-Main in 1773 (Schlickeysen- 
Pallmann, p. 373). 

S. Vide S. SCHOLZ. Mint-warden at Nuremberg, 1 760-1774. 

S. Vide F. STIELER. Medallist at Dresden, 173 5 -f 1790. 

S. Vide I. W. SCHLEMM. Mint-master at Clausthal, 1753-1780. 

S. Vide SCEMIDT . Medallist at Brunswick, 1760-1776. 

S. Vide H. C. A. SIEGEL. Mint-master at Sondershausen and 
Harzgerode, 176 3- 1796. 

S. Vide STOHR. Mint-warden at Prague, 1768-1773. 

S. Vide STOCKMANN. Mint- master at Sodagura (Moldavia), under 
Russian administration, 1771-1774. 

S. Vide STEDELIN. Mint-engraver and Mint-master at Schwytz, 

S. Vid^ I. SILIPRANDI. Medallist and Mint-engraver at Parma, 

S. Vide GIOVANNI ANTONIO SANTARELLI. 1769-1826. Medallist at 

S. Vide SIEGLING. Director of the Mint at Erfurt, 1801-1802. 

S. Vide JEAN HENRI SIMON. 1752-1834. Medallist at Brussels. 

S. Vide T. STOCKMAR. Mint-master at Diisseldorf, 1805-1818. 

S. Vide I. G. STUDER. Mint-master at Dresden, 1813-1832. 

S. Vide SUERMONDT. Mint-master at Utrecht, 1816-1839. 

S. Vide KARL SCHLUTER. Mint-warden at Hanover, 1832-1839, 
and Mint-master, 1839-1844. 

S. Vide W. SCHLEMMING. Medallist at Cassel, 1880. 

Bibliography. — SchUckevsen-P.illmann, op. cit. 

S. F/V/^ NICCOLO SIGNORETTI. Mint-engraver at Reggio, 1556- 
1562. The medals signed S described by Armand (I, 213) will be 
found enumerated under this Medallist's name, identified by 
U. Rossi. In the Florence Museum there is a lead Portrait-medal of 
Gabriele Lippi thus signed. 

- 284 - 

S. This signature occurs on French sixteenth century medals, 
which are cast and chased. The medalHst, who signed thus co , was 
working arc. 1 617-1620. MazeroUe describes two medals by him: 
Nicolas de Verdun, first President of the Parliament of Paris, 16 17, 
43 and 44 mill. ; and Roger de Saint-Lary, Duke of Bellegarde, 
1620, 42 mill, (illustrated). 

Roger de Saint-Lary, due de Bellegarde, 
by the Medallist co . 

Bibliography. — F. Mazerolle, MMailleurs frangaii, 1902.— Tre'sor de uuvi., 
Med. Jrs., Part. I, PI. lvi, 4; PI. lxiv, 2. 

S. This initial occurs on a Louis XIV. medal, dated 1692, and 
commemorating the Capture ot Namur by Vauban {Med. III., II, 
^3). From the work it does not appear to be of French origin. 

S. A Spanish medal of King Philip III., dated 1609, is thus signed 
(Domanig, Portrdtmedaillen , &c., PI. ix, 61). 

A. S. on Papal coins 1 549-1 5 50 =ASCANIO SFORZA, Papal Camer- 

A. S. F/Wg ANTONIO SIGNORETTI. Mint-master at Parma, 1559- 

A. S. Vide A. STADLER. Medallist at Augsburg, first half of the 
sixteenth century. 

A. S. Vide ANTONIO SEGNI. Papal Mint-master at FuHgno, 1500- 

A. S. Vide ANDREAS SCHEELE. Goldsmith, and Mint-master at 
Hanover, 1666- 1674, and from 1668 to 1672 conjointly at 
Eimbeck; appointed in 1676 Warden of the Ducal Mint at Hanover. 

A. S. or A. STR. Vide ANDREAS STROmER. Mint-master at 
Stockholm, 1684- 1699. 

- 285 - 

A. S. Fide ANTON SGHAFFER. 1722-7 1799. Mint-master and 
Engraver at Mannheim, third quarter of the eighteenth century ; 
worked also for the Landgrave of Hesse. 

A. S. Fide ANTONIO SELVI. MedaUist at Florence, circ. 1720. 

A. S. or A. S. F. Fide ADAM SCHULTZ. Mint-engraver and Medallist 
at Copenhagen, c/r^, 1716-1724. 

A. S. Fide JOHANN ANTON SCHRODER. Mint-master at Hanover 
and Neuhaus, near Paderborn, 175 i-i 777; also I. A. S. 

A. S. Fide ANTON SCHABEL. Medallist of Venice, 1765-1797, who 
was living, according to Schlickeysen, at Vienna, from 1766 to 1769, 

A. S. Fidi' A. STIELER. Medallist and Mint-engraver at Mayence, 
circ. 1 767- 1 774. 

A. S. Fide ANTON STOHR. Mint-warden at Prague, 1768-1773. 

A. S. Fide ASCHBACHER (Mint-master) and STOCKER (Mint- 
warden) at Hall in Tyrol, 1765-1771. 

A. S. or g. Fide ABRAHAM ABRAMSON. 1762-f 181 1. Medallist at 

A.S. Fide ANTON SCHARFF. 1845-f 1903. Medallist at Vienna. 

B. S. Fide BASILIUS VON SONN. Mint-master at Reichenstein, 

B.S. Fide JOHANN BERNHARDT SCHULTZ. Engraver and Die-sinker 
at Berlin 1 681-1697. 

B. S. Fide B. SCOTT. Russian Medallist, who was working circ. 

B. S. Fide BANDEL (Mint-master) and STUMER (Mint-warden) at 
Detmold, 1763-1769; also I. C. B. and H. D. S. 

C.S. Fide CRACAU (Mint) and SZYDLOWIECKI (Treasurer) on 
Polish coins, 1 5 3 2- 1 5 3 5 . 

C.S. T/Wc CHRISTIAN SCHIRMER. Mint-warden at Dantzig, 1623- 

G. S. Fide CONRAD STUTZ. Mint-engraver at Fiirth, and Mint- 
master to the Franconian district, 1622-1654. 

C.S. Fide CASPAR SIEVERSEN. Mint-master at Stralsund, 1636 

— 286 — 

C.S. Fide CEMSTOfE SCHULTZ. Mint-master at Elbing, 1671-1672. 

C. S. T/W^ CHRISTIAN SCHMIDT. Mint-warden at Domitz, 1675- 
1676 ; he coined also for Wismar. 

C.S. Fide CHRISTOPH SCHNEIDER. Medallist at Copenhagen, 1678- 

C.S. Fide CHRISTOPH SUCRO. Mint-master at Stettin, 1677-1681. 

C.S. Fide CHRISTOPH STRIEKER. Mint- warden at Berlin, 1675 ; 
Mint-master 1697; again Mint-warden in 1713 ; died in 1715. 

C. S. Fide C. SCHMALTZ. Medallist at Stuttgart, 1737-1738. 

C. S. Fide CHRISTIAN SCHIRMER. Mint-warden at Konigsberg in 
Prussia, 1718 ; Mint-master, 1742-1743. 

C. S. Fide CHRISTIAN LEBERECHT SCHILD. 1711-7 1752. Medallist 
at Frankfort-on-M., from about 1742. 

C.S. Fide C. SCHNITZSPAHN. Medallist at Darmstadt, circ. 1860- 
BiBLiOGR.\PHY. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, o/». cit. 

C.S. possibly COSTANTINO DE SERVI (according to Milanesi). 
These initials occur on a medal of Sixtus V., with bust to r., on 
obv. and ^L. St. Francis of Assisi supporting a Church crumbling 
to pieces. 

C.S. probably G. SELLAN (^Span.). Mint-engraver at Madrid under 
Alfonso XII. His initials occur amongst others on the 5 Peseta 
pieces of 1875-85. Fide infra. 

D. S. possibly DOMENICO SANTINI (according to Milanesi). These 
initials occur on a Portrait-medal of Prospero Visconti (-j-1592); 
^. SOLA. LVMiNA. sous. Phoenix in its nest and landscape; diam.: 
58 mill. Santini was a Florentine Goldsmith. Fide Armand, III, 136 
and Heiss, VIII. 2.80. 

D. S. These initials in monogram are found on a Saxon medal ot 
John William of Saxe-Weimar, 1554-73, dated 1560, with bust on 
obv. and ^. -ich vertrav • got • i 5 DS 60 shield of arms with 
triple helmet (Merzbacher, Kuustmedaillen Katalog, 1900, 349). 

D. S. A Thaler of Ravensburg, 1624, is thus signed. The Engraver 
maybe Daniel Sailer, of Augsburg, 1620-1625. 

D.S. Fide DUKEAM (Mint) and SHERWOOD (Bishop of Durham), 
oil coins of Henry VII. of England, 1483-1494. 

— 2S7 — 

D. S. or DS. Fide DANIEL STUMPFEL. Mint-master for Anlialt, 
1573-1579, and at Halle, 1579-1585. 

D. S. Fide DANIEL SAILER. Mint-engraver and Medallist at Augs- 
burg, 1620-162 5, 

D. S. F/We DAVID STEIN. Mint-master at Christophsthal, 1624- 

D. S. FideBAmLL SIEVERT. Mint-master at Stettin, 1672-1681, 
and Colberg, 1684. 

D. S. Fide DAVID SCHIRMER. Mint-warden at Koenigsberg in 
Prussia, 1668- 1690. 

D. S. Fide DANIEL SIEVERT. Mint- warden at Dantzig, 1698-1734. 

D. S. Fide DOMAINE DASSIER (SENIOR). Mint-engraver at Geneva, 

D. S. Fide D. STOmeR. Mint-warden in Detmold, 1763, and Mint- 
master, I 769-1 787. 

D. S. Fide DAVID STEDELIN. Mint-engraver and Warden at 
Schwytz, 1 778- 1 780, 

D. S. D. Fide DANIEL SIEGMUND DOCKLER. A Nuremberg Medallist 
of the end of the seventeenth century. His son, of same name, 
worked during the first three decades of the eighteenth century. 

E. S. Fide ERNST SCHULTES. Mint-master at Gera, 1622, and 
Lobenstein, 1623. 

E. S. Fide EBERHARD SGHMIEDHAMMER. Mint- warden at Baireuth, 

E. S. Fide EMIL SCHILLING. Medallist at Berlin, 1844-1865. 

F. S. Fide FRIEDRICH STIERBITZ. Mint-master at Sorau, 1622. 

F. S. Fide FRIEDRICH SCHRATTAUER. Mint-master at Coblenz, 

F. S. or F. S./. Fide FRANCESCO SEVO. Medallist of Piedmont, 
who wab working at Rome circ. 1705. 

F. S. Fide LLOFOhB FERDINAND SCHARFF. Administrator of the 
Mint at Prague, 1713; Mint-master, 1714-1744. 

F. S. F/flfg FRIEDRICH SIEGMUND SCHAFER. 1725-71776. Mint- 
engraver at Weilburg, 1749-1754; Mint-master at Eisenach, 1755- 

— 288 — 

F. S. Fide TRILUKICE SYLM. Mint-ma«:ter at Warsaw, 1765-1767. 

P.S. Vide FRIEDRICH SCHULTZE. Administrator of the Coinage at 
Rostock, 1783. 

F. S. Fide FRIEDRICH STIELER. Mint-engraver at iMayence, end 
of the XVIII century. 

F. ST. Vide FRANZ STUCKHART. Medallist at Prague, 1796, and 
Vienna, 1801-1816. 

F.W. S. These initials occur on a Memorial medal of Elizabeth 
Sophia Maria, Duchess of Brunswick, 1760. 

G. S. r/(/f G. STAUDE. Mini-master at Gotha, 1 677-1 680; also 
G. F. S. 

G. S. Vide GREGOR SESEMAN. Mint-master at Copenhagen, 1680- 

G. S. Vide GEORG SGHULER. Medallist in Transsylvania, 17 10. 

G. S. Vide HANS JAKOB GESSNER. Medallist at Zurich, 1706- 173 6. 

G. S. Vide GOTTFRIED STUDER. Mint-master at Dresden, 18 13- 
1822; also I. G. S. 

M. G. S. These initials occur on the Pattern by Droz of Charles IV. 
and Queen, 1804. 

G. S. or C. S. Initials of an Engraver (possibly G. SELLAN) on 
5 Peseta pieces and subsidiary currency 1875-1885 of Alfonso XII. 
of Spain. 

H. S. Vide HANS SCHWARTZ. Medallist at Nuremberg and Augsburg, 
circ. 1520. 

H.S. or HIS Vide HANS JAKOB STAMPFER. Medalhst at Zurich, 

H.S. or is. Vide HEINRICH SCHABBEL. Moneyer at Wismar, 
1 5 79- 1 600. 

H.S. VideEAHS SCHAMPAN. Mint-master at Stettin, 1612-1619. 

H. S. Vide HENNING SCHREIBER. Mint-master at Halberstadt, 
1 614-1626; Goslar, 1622 ; and Clausthal, 1 630-1 640. 

H.S. Vide HANS STADLER. Medallist at Augsburg, 1620- 1630. 

H. S. Vide HERMANN SCHLAUBUSCH. Mint-master at Goslar, 1619- 

— 289 — 

n.S.Vide HEINRICH STRAUB. Mint-master at Nuremberg, 1622. 

H. S. F/W<? HENNING SCHLtJTER. Mint-master at Zellerfeld, 1625- 
1672. He also worked for ilie Harburg brancli of the Ducal house 
of Brunswick-Liineburg, from about 1636. 

the Princes of Anhalt at Thesa in 1623, and Dessau in 1624. 

H. S. Mint-master's initials on coins of the Bishopric of Ratzeburg, 
circ. 1634. 

H. S. or I. S. Fide HANS SCHMIDT. Mint-master at Frankfort-on- 
M., 1624-1637. 

H. S. These initials occur on a medal, dated 1620, commemorat- 
ing the Inauguration of the Augsburg Town Hall {illustrated). 

The Augsburg Town Hall. 
H. S. Fide HENNING STOHR. Mint-master at Wismar, 1661-1670. 

H. S. Vide HEINRICH SIEVERT (or SIEBERT). Mint-master at Thorn, 
1668-167 1, and Koenigsberg in Prussia, 1674-t ^^94- 

H. S. Fide HEINRICH SEBASTIANI. Mint-Master at Steuer^vald, 
1 694-1702 ; also H.I. S. 

H. S. Fide JOSEPH HEINRICH SIEGEL. Mint-warden at Detmold, 
1711; Mint-mascer at Eisenach, 1716. 

H. S. Fide JOHANN HEINRICH SIEGEL. Mint-master at Harzgerode, 
1744-54; also I. H. S. 

H. S. r/V/<j HEINRICH SIEGEL. Mint-master at Sondershausen, 1763- 
1764; Harzgerode, 1 767-1 796; also H. G. A.S. 

H.S. Fide HEINRICH SCHWARZE. Mint-master at Dortmund, 1752- 

L. FoURBR. — Bitgrefbical Notices of Mtdallisis . — V. >9 

— 290 — 

H.S. or H.ST. Vide JOHANN HEINRICH STRAUB. Medallist at 
Munich, 1761-1782. 

H.S. r/^g HANS SCHLUTER. Mint-master at Harzgerode, 1795- 

H. S. K. Vide HANS SCHIERVEN KNOPH. Mint-master at Copenha- 
gen, 1761-1783; later Director of the Mint and Councillor of 
State; died in 1788. 

H. S. K. Vide HANS SCHIERVEN KNOPH. Mint-master at Hamburg, 

H. St. F/We JOHANN HEINRICH STRAUB. Medallist at Munich, 1761- 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

I.S. Vide JAKOB STAMPFER. 1505-1579. Medallist and Mint- 
engraver at Zurich. 

. I.S. Vide JACOB SCHMIDT. Mint-master at Hamburg, 1572-1593. 

I.S. Vide JOHANN SCHMIDT. Mint-master at Frankfort-on-M., 
1625-1637; also H.S. 

I.S Vide JOHANN SCHNEIDER, surnamed Weissmantel. Mint- 
master at Erfurt, 1624- 163 5. 

I.S. Vide ikC^QB SCHWIEGELT. Mint-master at Gliickstadt, 1644- 
1660; as JACOB SCHWEIGER. Mint-master at Emden, 1648-1650. 

I. S. r/^^ JOHANN SARTORIUS. Mint-master at Darmstadt, 1654- 

I.S. Vide JOHANN STICHMANN. Mint-engraver at Copenhagen, 
1650; Mint-master there, 1 662-1 663. 

I. S. Vide JACOPO SPAGNOLI. Papal Mint-master at Ferrara, 1654- 

I. S. Vide JOHANN SCHULTZE. Ducal Saxe-Lauenburg Mint-master, 

I.S. Vide JACOB SCHRODER. Mint- warden at Stade, 1660 ; Mint- 
master, 1 680-1 687. 

I. S. Vide JAN SMELTZING. Native of Nymwegen, Medallist at 
Leyden, 1684; died in 1703. 

I.S. F/^d JOHANN SCHULTZ. Medallist at Berlin, 1681-1697. 

I.S. FiWf! JOHANN SELTER. Medallist at Mannheim, 1708-1716. 

— 291 — 

I. S. Fide JOSEPH SCHWENDIMANN, 1741-1786. Swiss Medallist at 
Rome from 1772. 

I. S. Fide JUSTUS CARL SCHRODER. Mint-master at Warsaw, 
1768-1772 ; also I.e. S. 

I. S. Fidel. S. F. SCHAUFEL. Medallist at Munich, 1768-1812; also 
I I.S. 

I. S. Fide JOSEPH SCHAFER. Medallist at Mannheim, 1770. 

I.S. Fide GIUSEPPE SILIPRANDI. Medallist at Parma, 1784-1787. 

I.S. Fide JOHANN STOCKMANN. Mint-master at Warsaw, 1810- 

I.S. Fide JOHANN SEBALD. Medallist in the service of the Drent- 

wett Die-sinking Establishment at Augsburg, about 1880. 

I. S. CH. Fide JOSEPH SCHAUFEL. Medallist at Munich, 1 768-181 2. 

LS.F. Fide JOSEPH SALWIRCH, 1761-1819. Mint-engraver at 
Milan, 1796, and Director of the Mint from 1808 to 1819. 

I.S. G. Fide JOHANN SAMUEL GOTZINGER, 1734-1791. Mint- 
engraver and Medallist at Ansbach, from about 1760. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cil. 

I.S. These initials occur as those of the Engraver of a medal ot 
George IV., 1823, commemorating the House of Hanover; Obv. 
Laureate bust of George IV. to right; 1^. regi optimo potentis- 
siMO. Victory supporting the shield of Hanover. 

K. S. Engraver's signature on an oval badge of Gustavus Adol- 
phus of Sweden, with ^. Lion ram- 
pant, beneath which K. S. and at the end of the legend the date 

K.S. Fide KARL STUBENRAUCH. Medallist at Darmstadt, circ. 
1 83 9- 1 848, and later at St. Louis, U.S.A. 

L. S. Fide LORENZO SALOMON. Mint-administrator at Cattaro, 

L. S. Fide LELIO SCAJOLI. Mint-master at Parma, 1580-1604. 

L. S. Fide LORENZ SCHNEIDER. Medallist at Coblentz, 1616-1624. 

L.S. Fide LORENZ SCHILLING. Medallist at Frankfort-on-M., circ. 

L.S. Fide LUDOVICO SELVATICO. Mint-master at Modena, 16 12- 
161 3 ; Pesaro, 1621 ; and Parma, 1629. 

— 292 — 

L. S. or L. S. F. Fide LUDOVICO SERIES. Tuscan Medallist, circ. 

L. S. Fide LEONHARD STOCKMAR. Mint-engraver, and later Mint- 
master at Eisenach, 1735-1835; also I.L.ST. 

L. S. L. Fide L. S. LAUER. Counter-maker at Nuremberg, 1791. 

M. S. Fide MICHAEL SCHALENBERGER. Mint-engraver at Nurem- 
berg, 1 601-1608. 

M. S. F/We; MATTHIAS STEIN. Mint-master at Coblenz, 1627-1652. 

M. S. Fide MATTHAUS SCHAFFER. Two Medallists of that name 
worked at Nuremberg; the Elder circ. 1580, and the Younger, circ. 

M.S. Fide MkXmiLIkH SOLDANI, 1658-t 1748. Medallist at Flo- 
rence; also M. S. F. or M. SOLD. 

M.S. Fide MARTIN SMELTZING. Medallist at Leyden, 1 690-1712; 
also M. S. F. 

M.S. F/^^ MARCO SORANZO. Mint-master at Venice, 1765-1766. 

M.S.V. Fide MARIA SAINT-URBAIN. Medallist at Nancy, 1735- 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

M. S. These initials • M • S • occur on a series of medals or 
Nuremberg origin. Erman suggests that the artist was of Nurem- 

Gabriel Niitzd, 1567. 

— 293 — 

berg, and working, circ. 1556-1570. His style bears similarity with 
that of the Medallist J. D. Most of his medals show facing Portraits. 

The following medallic works by M. S. are enumerated in Erman : 
1551. Albert Romer; — 1556. Stephan Brechtl Senior, Counter 
manufacturer of Nuremberg; — 1561. Martin Pfinzing; — 1566. 
Martin Pfinzing; — Sebastian Welser; — 1567. Joachim Pomer, 
of Nuremberg: — 1569. George Frederick, Markgraf of Bran- 
denburg-Anspach (different sizes); — 1569. Gabriel Nutzel {illus- 
trated); — Caspar Zinner; — Sebald Haller; — 1570. Georg Irn- 
singer; — Undated. Stephan Brechtl Junior, etc. 

Bibliography. — Erman, Deutsche Med.u'lJeure, Berlin, 1884. 

H. S. A number of German medals of the third quarter of the 
sixteenth century bear this signature, which Imhof has ascribed to 

N. S. Fide NICOLAUS STUMPFELT. Mint-warden at Joachimsthal, 
1 5 67-1 600. 

N. S. or NS. Vide NICOLAUS SCHWABE. Mint-master at Copenhag- 
en, 1602-1628. 

N. S.F.N (Nurnberg) S. (SCHOLZ). Mint-warden, and F. 
(FORSTER) Mint-master, 17 60- 17 64. 

N. S. R. N (Nurnberg) S. (SCHOLZ). Mint-warden, and R. 
(RIEDNER) Mint-master, 1764-1774. 

0. S. Vide OTTO SCHDLTZ. Mint-engraver at Berlin, and Medallist, 
from about 1885. His signature 0. S. occurs on the 1892 'Double 
Shaft ' Pond of President Kruger of the Transvaal, struck at 

P. S. Vide PAUL SCHMIDT. Ducal Mint-master at Saalfeld, 1513- 

P. S. Vide PAOLO SCARPO. Mint-master at Parma, 15 96- 1629. 

P. S. Vide PAOLO SELVATICO. Mint-master at Ferrara, Modena 
and Parma, 7 1606. 

P. S. F/V/d PETER SCHRADER. Mint-master at Konigssee 1621, 
Cothen 1622, Magdeburg 1627-1645, and conjointly at Halle. 

P. S. Vide?. SEEL. Medallist at Salzburg, 1670-1683. 

P. S. Vide PHILIPP STEINMETZ. Mint-master at Arolsen, 1705- 

— 294 — 

P. SANQ. Fide PAOLO SANQUIRICIO, 1565-t 1630. Medallist at 
Parma and Rome. 

R. S. Fide RUDOLPH STADELMANN. Medallist at Darmstadt, 1817- 

R. S- Initials of an Engraver, which occur on a New year's 
medal of Kremnitz, 163 1. 

T. S. Fide TERENZ SCHMIDT. Mint-master at Cassel, 1621-1634. 

T. S. orfs. Fide SAMUEL TIMPE. Mint-master at Rostock, 1636- 

T. S. Fide THEODOR STOCKMAR. Medallist and Engraver, Mint- 
warden at Gotha, 1779-1805 ; Mint-master at Diisseldorf, 1805- 

T. S. r/^<? THOMAS SIMON. Medallist and Mint-engraver at Lon- 
don, 1646-1665. 

T. ST. F. Fide THEODOR STOCKMAR. Medallist and Mint-engraver 
at Gotha, 1779-1805. 

V. S. Fide VETTORE SALOMONE. Mint-administrator at Venice, 

V. S. Fide VEIT SCHREMPP. Mint-engraver at Stuttgart, 1744; 
Mint-warden there, 174 6- 1748. 

V. S. Fide VON SCHWINGERSCHUH. Mint-master at Prague, 1755- 
1780; also E. V. S. 

V. S. Fide WILHELM SVENDSEN. Mint-master at Copenhagen, 
1835-1852; also W. S. 

V. S. K. Fid£ VON SCHWINGERSCHUH (Mint-master) and KENDLER 
(Warden) at Prague, 1774- 1780. Also E. V. S. and I. K. 

W. S. Fide WILLIAM SHARRINGTON. Mint-master at Bristol under 
Henry VIII, 15 09- 15 47. 

W. S. Fid€ WENZEL SEIDAN. Medallist at Vienna, 1848, later at 
Prague, 1869. 

W. S. FideVfLlGkUJi SCHAFFER, 1689-t 1758. MedaUist and Mint- 
engraver at Mayence and Heidelljerg, 17 16-1744; Mint- warden at 
Mannheim, 1744- 175 8. He was the father of Anton Schiiffer. 

W.S. Fide WILHELM SVENDSEN. Mint-master at Copenhagen, 

— 295 — 

Z. S. Fide ZACCARIA SALOMONE. Mint-director at Cattaro, 1569- 

Z. S. Vide ZACCARIA SORANZO. Mint-director at Qittaro, 1612- 
Bibliography. — Schlickeyjen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

S. A. Vide SAMUEL AMMON. Medallist and Mint-engraver at Dant- 
zig, circ. 16 14-162 1. 

SA {Spajt.). This signature occurs on a Proclamation medal of 
Charles IV., 1789, for San Lucar de Barrameda {Ratmn 13 142). 
Possibly the abbreviated signature of Sagau, q. v. 

SACHOT, OCTAVE (French). Contemporar}' Sculptor and Medallist, 
born at Montigny (Seine-et-Marne) ; pupil of Petit. By him are a 
number of Portrait-medallions in bronze: 1861. M. A. D***; — 
M. E. D***; — 1866. Portrait of a Child.; — 1867. Portrait of a 
Lady; — 1869. Portrait of a Lidy; — i860. M. E. P***, mining 
engineer; — 1873. C. Carev, engraver; — 1874. A Greek woman oi 
MeteHna; - 1876. M"- X*** ; — 1878. M"^ A. de la T*** ; — 1885. 
Portrait of a Lady, &c. 

SACHS, HEINRICH and ISAAK (Germ.). Contractors of the Mint ot 
Glogau, 1622. 

SACKH, A. (Hung.). Medallist at Kremnitz and Mint-engraver 
there, until about 161 5. He is the author of a medal on the Election 
of the Archduke Ferdinand (Emperor Ferdinand IL) as the 
successor of the Emperor Matthias in Hungary, 1617. This medal, 
which is signed : A. S. is reproduced in Katalog der Miinxen- und 
Medaillen-Stempel-Sammlung des K.K. Hauptmun^amies in fVien, I, 
PI. XVI, 3. ASackh worked also under Ferdinand IL, and cut dies 
for the Hungarian coinage issued at Kremnitz. 

To him is ascribed a gold medal of Mathias IL, 1601, comme- 
morative of the Taking of Gran: obv. Matthias, d.g.archid.avst. 
ET G . svpR . EXERC . BEL . IN . Hvx . INFER . Dvx * Der reiteudc Erzherzog, 
darunter ms. Im Abschnitt *militemvs* | - 1601-. Rs. Ansicht 
der Festung, davor Zeltlager u. Batterie mit funf Kanonen. Im 
Abschnitt strig.c.\pan. 1595 ] -sep.z-. Mont. 685. Wellh. 6987. 
Szech. T. 26.8. Mm. 49. Gr. 67. 

SACKH, MICHAEL (Hung.). Mint-engraver at Kremnitz, appointed 
on 3. June 1601 Chiet-engraver, in consideration of his " renown- 
ed abilit}'", and in office until 161 5. He also executed dies for 
medals, which are signed : M. S, : Reception of Gran from the 
Turks, in 1601, by the Archduke Mathias, military commander of 
Hungary ; — Religious medals (Betpfennmge), ' with bust of 

— 296 — 

Christ; — 5, 2 and i Ducat pieces for Hungary, witli standing 
figure of the emperor Matthias II, and ^L. Madonna and Child, 
1 614 (numerous varieties of the Ducat) ; — Hungarian Coronation 
of Matthias II., 1608 ; Crowned bust to left ; I^. Arms of Hungan,- 
within circleof shields, etc. 

Bibliography. — Oesterreicher, Regesten, &c. — Katahg der Mun:^e7i, &c. 

SACRIST AIN (French). Engraver of the third quarter of the 
nineteenth century, whose full signature appears on a variety of 
the medal granted by Napoleon III. to the French troops and their 
Mexican allies who fought in 1862-1S63 against the forces of the 
Republic of Mexico at Cumbres, Cerro-Borrego, San-Lorenzo, 
Puebla and Mexico. It is reproduced in Betts, Mexican Imperial 
Coinage, PI. vii, 6. 

SAGAU, r. (Span.). Medallist of the early part of the nineteenth 
century. By him are three signed Portrait-medals of the Duke of 
Wellington, with title of Duque de Ciudad Rodrigo, commemorat- 
ing the Battle of Vittoria, 181 3 ; ^L. trivnfo de vitoria. Victory 
on a column inscribed ano de 1813, etc.; and Victor}' in a battle- 
field to left stepping over a Napoleonic standard ; the third medal, 
of which there is only one specimen known, occurs in Mr. P. Bram- 
sen's collection ; obv. arthvko welleslei dvci civitatensi. Bust to 
left; ^L. In the field, under laurel-wreath : caesis . fvsis . et . a . 
LVSiTANiA etc. (Br. 1237). Beside these Sagau is the author of 
a medal commemorating the Proclamation at Cadiz of the Politi- 
cal constitution of the Spanish Monarchy, 18 12; Laur bust of 
Ferdinand VII. ; I^. Two figures holding open book, etc. ; diam. : 
57 mill. ; also : Cadiz declared a free Port, 1820, etc. 

The medals signed SA or S may be by this Engraver : Proclama- 
tion medals of Seville Academy and University, 1789 ; others of 
San Lucar de Barrameda, Ecya, Malaga, etc., same date. 

SAGE, AUGUSTUS B. (Amer.) . Published of a medal of D-" Winslow 
Lewis, Boston. 

In 1857 he was contributing a series of papers to the New- York 
" Sunday Despatch " entitled *' Gleanings on Coins ". These 
papers were signed " Gus ". 

In 1859 he was at 24 Division St. N., Y., where he established a 
circulating library and dealt in coins, medals, autographs and 

In the latter part of i860 he issued a series of 12 tokens which 
he named the " Historical Series ".They appeared in copper, brass, 
and white-metal and depicted historical buildings, &c. 

About the same time appeared his " Numismatic Galler)' " 
consisting of nine tokens, each of which bore the portrait of a 
prominent American collector. 

— 297 — 

The series consisted of the foilcwing : 

1. Charles J. Bushnell. (Fide Am. J. ofN., vol. I, p. 85.) 

2. Henry Bogert. (This I think has been described in The 
Numismatist y some years ago.) 

3. Jeremiah Colburn. (His obituary appeared in xh&A.J. ofN.) 

4. J. R. Chilton. A druggist. (Dr. Storer has written of him in 
his series.) 

5. Winslow Lewis, M. D. (also described by Dr. Storer.) 

6. Frank Gaudon. (Fide Am. J. of. N. vol. II, 9.) 

7. William H. Chesley ( — — vol. I, 85.) 

8. Horatio N. Rust. 

9. Robert J. Dodge. 

SAGE, JOSEPH {Brit.'). Provost of the moneyers, London, under 
George III., circ. 1792; later, appointed Maker and Stamper of the 
money weights, 1798. 

SAGET, ANDRt C. J. (French). Contemporary Sculptor and Medal- 
list ; pupil of the late Alphee Dubois. At the Salon of 1890 he 
exhibited two Portrait-medallions of ladies, one of them being that 
of M"^ Gabrielle Saget. 

SAGGIO (Ital.). Die-sinker of Bologna, by whom I have seen a 
Pattern 5 Lire piece of Pope Leo XIII., 1878, fully signed. 

SAGREDO, ZUANO PIETRO (Ital.). Mint-administrator at Venice, 
1605. His initials Z P S appear on the coins issued under his super- 

SAIELEUR or (SCELLEUR), JEAN LE (French). Seal-engraver of 
Tournay in the joint service of the Royal House of France, the 
Counts of Hainault, and Flanders, second quarter of the fourteenth 
century. His name frequently occurs on contemporary accounts in 
conjunction with those of Jean Lathomi, and Jean de Tournay. 

Bibliography. — Lecoy de la Marche, Les Sceanx, 1889. 

SAILER, DANIEL (Germ.). Medallist and Coin-engraver at Augs- 
burg, nVr. 1620-1628, whose productions are usually signed D. S. 
His best known medallic work is the broad " Regimentsthaler " of 
Ravensburg, 1624, with a view of the city on the obv. (Madai 
5089). Only 187 specimens of this Thaler were struck; — Augs- 
burg ** Ratsherrenmedaille ", 1626; — Undated Medal, Solomon 
receiving the Queen of Sheba ; — Ulm Regimentsthaler and Half 
Thaler, '1628, &c. 

Bibliography. — Kull, op. cit. — Mitlheilungen der hayerisdxn numismatiscJjen 
GeselUchaft, 1900. — Binder, op. cit. — Helbing, 1903, Cat., IV, no 14537. 

SAILER, WILHELM (Germ.). Seal-engraver at Augsburg, arc. 1567- 

— 298 — 

1568. By him are two seals of the Duchess Renata, wife of 
William V. of Bavaria, 1568. 

SAINT-ANDRfi, M-"* YVONNE HZ (French). Contemporary Modeller, 
born at Marseille ; pupil of Varenne. I have seen a Portrait-medal- 
lion in silver of M. Felix Stenfort, which was exhibited by her at 
the Paris Salon in 1893. 

SAINT DUNSTAN (924-988). Archbishop of Canterbury, and 
Patron of English goldsmiths and metal-workers ; educated by Irish 
scholars at Glastonbury Abbey, and noted for his frequent incursions 
into the domain of politics. He practised the arts of metal-working, 
painting, and transcription. 

Mint-engraver at London in the earlier part of the reign of 
Henry III, circ. 1225. In a document of 1220, he is styled " Repa- 
rator Cuneorum ". Ruding, under the date 1621, states : " A 
considerable coinage being about to be executed in the sixth year of 
Henry III., the following persons were sworn in the court of 
exchequer, on the morrow of Ash- Wednesday : Ilger, and three 
others, as custodes monetae of the city of London, Adam Blund, 
and seven others custodes cuneorum ; Michael de St. Helen, repa- 
rator cuneorum ; and Robert de Grettone, and Geffrey de Frowe, 
assayers. On the same day eight dies for round halfpennies and 
farthings, and, in a short time afterwards, eight more for pennies, 
and eight for halfpennies, and the same number for farthings, over 
and above the eight first mentioned, were delivered to the same 
persons ". 

This artist was born in Dublin, Ireland, March i, 1848. His father, 
Bernard Paul Ernest, was a native of France, from the vicinity 
of the town of Saint-Gaudens, among the spurs of the Pyrenees. 

U. S. A. 5 Dollar piece, 1907. 

His mother, whose maiden name was Mary Guinness, was a 
native of Dublin. They settled in America while Augustus was an 
infant, and after remaining three months in Boston established 

— 299 — 

themselves in New York. He attended school until he was thirteen, 
when in 1861 he went to work with a cameo-cutter named Avet, 
said to be the first stone cameo-cutter in the United States and 
served a three-years apprenticeship, "a time of miserable slavery", 
as he himself says, at the end of v^^hich time he found employment 
with a shell-cameo-cutter named Le Breton, with whom he 
remained for three years. During all the time that he was working 
at the wheel he studied drawing at night. The first four years he 
went to the Cooper Union ; the last two were spent in the life 
classes of the National Academy of Design. 

At the age of twenty he was already a master ot low relief. He 
then went abroad and was at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris, 1867- 
70. He married in Boston, 1877, Augusta F. Homer. He was in 
Rome, 1870-2, producing there, in 1871, his first figure. Among 
his works are *' Diana " (on the tower of Madison Square Garden, 
New York), and numerous well-known statues in the larger cities 
of the Union ; among the best known of these is the monument 
in Boston to Colonel Shaw and his regiment of coloured troops, 
executed in bronze. Some of his most charming work was done in 
low relief, in the form of medallions of his friends and fellow- 
artists, and occasionally of prominent men, for public memorials. 

U. S. A. 20 Dollar piece, 1907. 

He was a corresponding member of the Institute of France ; 
officer of the Legion of Honour; received the medal of honour, Paris, 
1900, and a special medal of honour at Buffalo, 1901. 

" Augustus Saint Gaudens, a sculptor whose art follows but 
ennobles nature, confers fame and lasting remembrance, and does 
not count the mortal years it takes to mould immortal forms. " 
Thus spoke President Eliot at the commencement of Harvard Uni- 
versity in June 1897, when conferring upon the sculptor the 
degree of Master of Arts ; and the years that have gone have not 
brought a worthier or more fitting tribute, one which now may 
well serve as an epitaph. He died at Cornish, N. H., Aug. 3, 1908, 
after an illness extending over several years. Greatest ofall American 

— ^00 — 

sculptors and surpassed by few if any other sculptor in the world, 
his life story is a source of pride to every one of us. For he was 
an American through and through, and his work had America 
stamped indelibly upon it ". (^American Journal of Numismatics^ 

While the reputation of this great artist will mainly rest upon 
his ability and success as a sculptor the numismatist will remember 
that there was another side to his genius and believes that his 
small medallions with portraits will some day later even rank 
higher, also his plaques and busts. Such are his low-relief portraits of 
R, L. Stevenson, the author; President Woolsey ot Yale, Mr. and 
Mrs. Richard Watson Gilder, Schuyler van Rensselaer, and Mrs. C. 
C. Beaman ; his busts of Bishop Phillips Brooks of Boston and 
William M. Evans. Unfortunately he has done little for the 
medallic art, though the Columbus medal, the Franklin and the 
Washington are in part his design. Among his most noted 
medallic works are the Plaquette and Medal of the Chicago Exhibi- 
tion, 1894. I" ^^'^ ^^ Decoration, 1900, II, 40 is a reproduction of 
his medal entitled : " Menage Dean ", and a Portrait-medal of 
Dr. Asa Gray, Cambridge, Mass. is described in A. J. N. 1745. 

St. Gaudens' work of sculpture is considerable and famous. His 
monuments of Lincoln and Sherman are considerd as the finest 
pieces of sculpture in the American continent. At the time of his 
death he was just about exhibiting his statue of Parnell, which is 
said to be his masterpiece. 

The latest U. S. A., gold currency, of which the 20 and 10 
Dollar pieces are from St. Gaudens' models, have created a stir in 
the coin world, for their originality in conception and artistic work- 
manship. The first 20 Dollar pieces struck were on high relief, but 
were withdrawn from circulation, and the current coins, the low- 
relief pieces, have the same thickness as the old pieces, i. e. 
two millimeters But a few thousand of the high relief pieces were 
struck and intended for collectors and for souvenirs. These high 
reliefs were struck on a medal press, and each piece was struck 
ten times and annealed between each impression. 

The dies of both pieces were cut at about the same time. There 
are several minor points of difference between the two pieces, the 
date, the Capitol at Washington, the legs on the eagle, the sun 
rays on the Rev, &c. 

The high relief pieces represent very closely Saint Gaudens' 
original design while the low relief ones show various modifica- 

The high relief pieces will be rare, two days after they were out 
they brought a substantial premium, and to-day they bring from 
€ 6 to € 8. These have been extensively traded on the Curb 

— 301 — 

exchanges ot the various cities, but are now gradually getting into 
collector's hands. The high relief piece is 3 mm. thick, all the 
pieces weigh the same, 516 grains. The high reliefs are alloyed with 
silver, while the low reliefs have the regular alloy of copper. 

"It was during the winter of 1905 that plans for the new coins 
originated ; the occasion was a dinner taken with President 
Roosevelt, during which the splendid execution and high relief of 
the old Greek coins were discussed. Eeach held a deep admiration 
for these pieces, and the President, in his characteristic way, decided 
that the mint should produce a " modern version" of the coins if 
Saint-Gaudens would furnish the designs. 

The sculptor's original idea for the gold pieces was of a full- 
length winged figure of Liberty mounting a rock, bearing on her 
left arm a shield upon which was inscribed in two lines, liberty — 
JUSTICE, and with her right holding aloft a lighted torch. This 
was later abandoned, and it was decided to use for the ten-dollar 
piece a head in profile, and a standing eagle for the reverse; for the 
twenty-dollar piece, a full-length figure of Liberty, without wings, 
holding the lighted torch, and an olive branch supplanting the 
shield : the reverse to bear the flying eagle. 

Many alterations were made during the following year and a half, 
before Saint-Gaudens was satisfied with the results. The profile on 
the ten-dollar piece was from a second study head made for the 
Victory of the Sherman group, but which was later rejected in favour 
of the original study. This beautiful head was first modeled with 
an olive wreath, but at the President's urgent request a feather 
head-dress was substituted, certainly at a distinct loss. His son, 
Homer Saint-Gaudens, is authority for the statement that, contrary 
to the opinion held by many persons that the obverse bears the 
" Mary Cunningham" head, the so-called features of the Irish girl 
appear only on the full-length Liberty of the twenty-dollar coin, 
tne figure of which was posed for by a Swede. Saint-G mdens stu- 
diously avoided, in all his ideal sculpture, any hint of personality, 
and the designs for the gold coinage were no exception. As an 
example of the infinite care which he devoted to his work it may 
be noted that as many as seventy models were created for the 
standing eagle on the reverse". 

(B. H. Saxton, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, The Numismatist, 
June 1909). 

See further particulars in Vol. H, p. 218. 

SAINT-GENOIS, SIMON DE (Belg.). Mint-master at Ghent, in 
conjunction with Jean Desprez, 1422. 

SAINT-GERMAIN, MICHEL DE (French). Maitre general des mon- 
naies du roi, xiV^ si^de. 

— 3^2 — 

Contemporar}^ Sculptor, born at Nantes ; pupil of M"'' Leon Ber- 
taux. Author of a number of fine Portrait-medallions, amongst 
which I would notice: 1878. M"<= de V***; — 1885. M""^ Uon 
Bertie; — M''-^ J. J***. 

SAINT-JEAN, GASTON DE (Frencli). Mint-master general for Beam 
at Morlaas, 1497. Vide Blanchet, Histoire niimisniatiqm du Beam, 
p. 27. 

SAINT-LANNE, LOUIS (French). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist, born at Mont-de-Marsan ; pupil of Falguiere. At the 
Salon of 1890 he exhibited a Portrait-medallion in bronze. 

SAINT-LOUP, R£MY (French). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist, by whom is a silver medal, intended as a Prize for Avi- 
culture. It w^as exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1898. 

SAINT-PRIEST, JEHAN DE (French). Sculptor of Lyons, who in 
conjunction with Nicolas Leclerc (q. v.) prepared the models for 
the medal issued in 1500 to commemorate the visit of Louis XIL 
and Anne of Brittany to Lyons, and for which the dies were cut 
by Jean and Colin Lepere. St. Priest is styled, in contemporary 
documents, " maitre tailleur d'images. " 

He made in 1500 '*La taille et fagon des portraictz et molles 
pour la medaille de Louis XII et Anne de Bretagne", cast by Jean 
and Colin Lepere, and, continues Rondot : *' Ces artistes n'avaient 

f>as appris de Candida comment corriger le realisme des effigies et 
eur donner quelque noblesse. Leur medaille, malgre le reliet 
excessif des figures, tient cependant avec quelque honneur sa place 
parmi nos anciens monuments. " 

Bibliography. — }A&zQxo\\t,Medailleursfrafi(ais, 1902. — N. Rondot, Af^'Ja//- 
leurs lyoniiais, p. 16. 

SAINT-MARCEAUX, CHARLES REN£ DE (French). A famous Con- 
temporary Sculptor, born at Rheims in 1845; pupil of Joufi"roy, 
and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He began exhibiting at the Salon 
in 1868, Jeunesse de Dante. In 1872, he obtained a medal of the 
Second Class. Among his finest and best known works of Sculp- 
ture are : 1874, Enfant, terra cotta bust; — 1875. Forgeron flo- 
rentin; — M"' Blanche Barette; — 1879. G^nie gardant le secret 
de la famille (now in the Luxembourg Museum); — 1880. Arle- 
quin ; — 1882. Bust ofRenan; — 1886. Danseuse arabe ; — 1887. 
Mousse de Champagne, etc. After 1889, the artist only exhibited 
at the Salon of the Society nationale : 1892. Femme couchee ; — 
1893. Premiere communiante, statue in marble; — 1894. La 
Faute, marble; — 1896. Le Devoir, statue for the tomb of Tirard 

Medal of Louis XII. and Anne of Brittany, 1500, by Jehan de Saint-Priest. 

— 304 — 

in Pere Lachaise cemetery; — 1897. Funeral monument ot 
Alexandre Dumas fils, in Montmartre cemetery; — 1898. Vers 
rinconnu, group in plaster; — 1902-1903. Gate Decorations; — 
Grand Deuil, etc.; — 1909. Monument of the' Union postale univer- 
selle at Berne, etc. 

De Saint-Marceaux has also executed Reliefs, some of which 
were cast in bronze, which have a medallic character. "Ses 
ceuvres", says a reviewer, "sont toutes d'une extreme conscience 
et du plus delicat raffinement. " Among his best portraits are those 
of Meissonnier, and Dagnan-Bouveret. 

The artist was entrusted in 1907 with the execution of a Pla- 
quette for the " Societe francaise des Amis de la Medaille ''. 

M. de Saint-Marceaux possesses a fine collection of artistic 
Greek coins, and I have had the privilege of his personal acquaint- 
ance for many years. 

Bibliography. — Andre Beaunier, Saint-Marceaux, Art et Decoration, 1903, 
53. — Vapereau, Dictionnaire, Sec. — Nouveau Larousse lUustre {where his portrait 
is given). — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cil. 

SAINT-PfiRE, JEAN DE (French). Mint-master at Angers before 
25. October 1369. 

SAINT-QUENTIN, ADAM DE (Belg.). Goldsmith and Seal-engraver 
to Louis de Male, Count of Flanders. His name occurs in the Bruges 
mint accounts of 1350-13 51. Vide A. Pinchart, Biographies &c. 
Revue de la numismatique beige, 1851, p. 303. 

SAINT-DRBAIN, CLAUDE AUGUSTIN TiZ{French). Son of Ferdinand 
de Saint-Urbain and Elisabeth Dominique Montenois, his wife; 
was born at Rome on 19. February 1703. He learned the art of 
medal-engraving with his father, and first settled at Nancy, where 
for some years he occupied the post of Engraver to the Mint, 1725- 
1737, and executed numerous medals and jetons, in conjunction 
with his father. In 1737 he settled at Vienna, where hedied in 1761, 
at the age of 58. He held in the Austrian capital the title of 
"Directeur", and *' Graveur en chef des Medailles. " 

To this artist we owe the medal of large size which begins the 
Medallic Series of Dukes and Duchesses of Lorraine, and also the 
portrait of his father (medal illustrated under Ferdinand de St. 

At the Mint, Claude de St. Urbain assisted his fiuher in the 
execution of dies for the coinage, and he also engraved a number 
of Jetons for the city of Nancy. 

The following coins and medals are given as works by this artist ; 
the dies are preserved in the Vienna Mint Museum : Leopold, 
Lorraine Teston, 1727 ; — Masson (12 Sous), 1727 ; — Francis IIL, 
Lorraine, iR. Demi-Frangois d'argent, 1734; — Teston, 1734; — 

- 30) - 

30 Denlers, 1734; — ^. Liard, 1734; — JR.. Demi-Francois, 
Teston, Half Teston, 1736; — AT. Fran(;ois double, Francois and 
Demi-Francois, 1736; — JB<. Medal of Stanislaus I. Leczynski, 
Duke of Lorraine and Bar, 1737-1766; — Historical Medal with 
the arms of the Dukes of Lorraine (signed : AVGVSTINVS. S.VRBAIN); 
— Medallic series of Dukes and Duchesses of Lorraine (in collabo- 
ration with Ferdinand de St. Urbain); — Medallic Series of the 
Popes of Avignon (also in collaboration with his father); — 
Philip V. of Anjou, King of Spain ; — Elizabeth Caroline, Countess 
Palatine, mother of the Duke of Orleans; — Philip, Duke ot 
Orleans, Regent of France, 1715-1723 (sev. var.), undated, and 
171 5, 1716, 1717, 1720; — Marriage of Louis L, son of Philip V. 
of Spain, with Marie Louise of Orleans, 1721 ; — Christian IIL of 
Pfalz-Zweibriicken (2 var.). All these were the joint work of both 
father and son . 

Fiala, in Katalog der Mun:(- und Medaillen-Stempel Sammlung des 
K. K. Hanptmi'in^amtcs in Wien, IV, p. 1390 quotes in extenso a 
commission given to the artist at Vienna, under date 18. August 
1738, and in which he is styled : August in Sunt urbani Medaglier 
bey IJjre kimigl. Hoheit von Lothringen und Gross-Her:(og :;ti Toscana 

Bibliography . — Vide under Ferdinand de St. Urbain. 

SAINT-URBAIN, FERDINAND DE (French). One of the best known 
Medallists of the end of the seventeenth and first four decades of the 
eighteenth century; was born at Nancy on 30. June 1658, as the 
son of Claude Augustin Urbain, Goldsmith and Engraver, and 
Anne Lenoir. He studied drawing and painting, without apparent 
success at first. On the invasion of Lorraine by the foreign armies, 
he left his native country and for a time resided with an uncle at 
Munich. He then travelled through Germany and Italy, and began 
to practise tiie art of die-engraving, in which, although without 
a teacher, he made rapid progress, and soon obtained official recog- 

In 1673 lie ^^'^s appointed Mint-engraver at Bologna, and ten 
years later went to Rome, where Innocent XL placed him at the 
head of the Papal coinage with the title of Chief-engraver and 
Architect. After a stay of over thirty years in Italy, he returned to 
Nancy, became attache to the Mint therein 1704, in succession to 
Hardy, with a stipend of 1500 livres, and was appointed Engraver 
on I. January 1707. In 1703 he prepared the plans for the construc- 
tion ot the primatical church of Nancy. He married at Rome Elisa- 
beth Dominique Mantenois, by whom he had two daughters, and 
he died on 10. January 1738. After his return to his native place 
St. Urbain is said to have executed over 120 medals, which include 

L. FoRREK. — Biographical Notices of Medallists. — V. lo 

— ^o6 — 

a series of the Dukes and Duchesses of Lorraine, and an unfinished 
one of the Popes. These medals are usually signed : S. V. 

Portrait- medal of St. Urbain, by his son. 

As a Coin-engraver, 

St. Urbain's activity began at Bologna, 
where between 1673 and 1683 he executed most of the coin-dies, 
comprizing the series issued under the Mint-master Giovanni Carlo 
Gualcheri. In 1696, he was again appointed for a term of three 


1-1 > 

■■--5 '/ 




Obv, of Innocent XII. Scudo, by St. Urbain. 

years as Mint-engraver at Bologna, but was replaced in December 
1697 by ii French die-sinker, Thomas Bajard. Malaguzzi Valeri gives 
a list of the coins issued at Bologna during that period. 

— 307 — 

From 1683 to 1703 the artist worked almost exclusively for 
Popes Clement X., Innocent XL, Alexander VIII., Innocent XII., 
and Clement XL, some of whose coins bear his signature : F.D.S.V., 
or S. v., and also S. VRBA. OP., S. VR., FEED. DES. V., etc. Among 
these I have noticed : Innocent XII., N. Doppia of An, VI; 
1^. Noah's ark ; yK.Scudi of An. V. ; The Pope presiding at a Con- 
sistorium ; An VI (obv. only; /7/«5/rfl/eJ), and others, of Anni V 
and VI, with I^. pacem loq.vetvr gentibvs, signed : FERD. DE S. V. ; 
An VIIL, signed on obv. S. VRBA OP. and ^L. S.V.OP. St. Peter 
blessing the people; Mezzi Scudi of years V (2), VI (3), 
VII (3), IX (2;, etc. Clement XL, N. Doppia, 1700 (2 var.. both 
showing the closed Porta Santa; one illuslrated');M.. Scudo, 1700, 

iV. Doppia of Clement XI., 1700. 

of same type ; Bolognese Double Giulio, undated ; signed : S. V., etc. 
A number of other coins by St. Urbain are described by Beaupre 
(pp. 167-172) and Mory d'Elvange. 

St. Urbain engraved most of the dies for the coinage of Duke 
Leopold of Lorraine, but only signed one, the Leopold d'argent of 
17 10. Mory d'Elvange states that all the coins struck at Nancy 
between 1703 and 1736 were engraved from designs or under the 
direction of St. Urbain. Among the most noteworthy are the 
Grands Leopolds of 1704 and 1705, the Testons of 1704, of two 
different dies, 1703, 1709 and 171 1, Half Testons, 1706, Half 
Leopold d'argent, 1727, and subsidiary coins; also gold Leopolds of 
1710, 1716-1719, 1722, 172^-1725; silver Ecus and subdivisions 
of I7i6-i722,etc. The d'Aubonnes (coins issued by Regard d'Au- 
bonne, to whom Duke Leopold conceded the right of coinage in 
1724) of the years 1724 and 1725 are of very fine work. The Ducat 
d'or of Francis III., 1736, and Ecu d'argent of the same year are 
usually attributed to Augustin St. Urbain, who may have executed 
them after his father's drawings. 

The list of medallic works by Ferdinand de St. Urbain I have 
been able to reconstitute fairly fully, from Lepage's indications. 

From a memoir just published by D"" Eug. Demole in Revue 

— 3o8 — 

Suisse de Numismatiqne, t. XVI, 19 lo, entitled: *' Les jetons repre- 
sentant les Metamorphoses d'Ovide sont-ils I'oeuvre de Jerome 
Roussel, de Jean Dassier ou de Ferdinand de Si. Urbain? " it 
results "that Jerome Roussel is the author of this series of 
50 jetons, which he caused to be struck at Geneva. The dies 
remained in that city, and may have been acquired by Jean Dassier. 
In 1717 and 1720 Barthelemy Favre and Jean Dassier formed an 

Leopold d'argent, 17 10. 

association in which Dassier was employed as Engraver. The latter 
cut three fresh dies, one of which he dedicated to the Duke of 
Orleans (it is signed : I. DASSIER F.), these to take the place of the 
three dedication pieces by Jerome Roussel. It is extremely probable 
that Favre and Dassier used the three fresh dies with the forty- 
seven dies with subjects of Roussel. In 1729 Barthelemy Favre, who 
was then residing in Paris, had the dies sent to him, and soon after 
Saint-Urbain became the owner. The latter Medallist obtained per- 
mission from the Duke of Lorraine to use them, but D' Demole 
has come to the conclusion that so far nothing proves that he ever 
had any struck. 

I shall however summarily describe them : 

List of Jetons. A series of 60 pieces, illustrating the Metamorph 
oses of Ovid : Lib. I. i. The Chaos; — 2. The Creation of man ; 

— 3. The Golden Age; — 4. The Seasons; — 5. The Silver Age ; 

— 6. The Bronze Age; — 7. The Iron Age; — 8. The Giants; — 
9. The Council of the Gods; — 10. Lycaon changed into a wolf; 

— ir. The Flood; — 12. Deucalion and Pyrrha re-peopling the 
land; — 13. Defeat of the serpent Python; — 14. Daphne trans- 
formed into a laurel; — 15. Daphne changed into a cow; — 
16. Daphne on the borders of Inaca; — 17. The Slumber of Argus; 

— 18. Syrinx metamorphosed into a reed; — 19. The Peacock 
adorned with the eyes of Argus; — 20. The Peacock worshipped 

— 309 — 

under the name oflsis; — 21. The dispute between Epaphus and 
Phaeton; — 22. The oath of Cleimenes. — Lib. II. i. The Palace 
of the Sun ; — 2. Phaeton driving the Sun's chariot ; — 3 . Phaeton's 
Fall; — 4. Phaeton's tomb; — 5. Jupiter transformed into Diana; 

— 6. Diana banishing Calisto ; — 7. Calisto changed into a bear; 

— 8. Calisto and Areas as stars; — 9. Juno's complaint; — 10. 
Refuge refused to new stars ; — 11. Protection granted to Nycti- 
mines; — 12. Erichthonius ; — 13. Coronis metamorphosed into a 
crow; — 14. The Raven's plumage changed from white to black; 

— 15. Oc3Toe changed into a mare; — i6.Battus changed into a 
touch-stone; — 17. Mercury in love with Herse ; — 18. Pallas 
visiting Envy; — 19. Aglaura transformed into a stone; — 
20. Jupiter changed into a bull. — Lib. Ill, i. Cadmus in Boeotia; 

— 2. Cadmus avenges the death of his soldiers; — 3. Soldiers born 
from the dragon's teeth ; — 4. Cadmus builds Thebes; — 5. Actaeon 
changed into a stag; — 6. Actaeon torn by his dogs; — 7. Juno 
as an old woman. — 8. Semele consumed by the darts of Jupiter; 

— 9. Bacchus fed by the nymphs of Nyse; — 10. Tiresias changes 
his sex twice; — 11. Judgment of Tiresias; — 12. Narcissus; 

— 13. Bacchus brought before Panthaeus; — 14. Sailors changed 
into dolphins (M. Bordeaux owns a variety of this); — 15. Pan- 
thaeus torn by his mother and aunts. To these 57 jetons illus- 
trating subjects from the three first books of Ovid's Metamorphoses 
we must add two which are by Dassier : Semiramis building the 
walls of Babylon ; — Pyramus and Thisbe ; — and a Dedicatory piece 
to Philip, Duke of Orleans, making a total of 60 jetons forming 
a complete purse. 

Beside these there is an unfinished die of 'Semele consumed by 
the darts of Jupiter'. The Paris Mint possesses a series of 18 unfin- 
ished dies with subjects from Qvid's Metamorphoses, probably by 

Cf. also Les jetons de Jen representant des siijets tires des Metamor- 
phoses d' Ovide que Ferdinand de Saint-Urbain jut autorise, en ij)iy a 
[aire f rapper a la monnaie de Nancy, sont-ils de hi ou sont-ils de Jirdme 
Roussel ? 

List of Medals, i. Francis HI. of Lorraine, 1729; '^L. alter et 
IDEM Phoenix; — 2. Leopold I.; ]^. The Royal family; — 
3. Another; ^. Hercules (commemorating the building of roads 
through the forests of Hay) ; — 4. Another; ^. Peace altar; — 

5. Another; I^. Female driving biga preceded by Mercury; — 

6. Another; ^. providentia principis Traveller, and Abundance; 
ex. : vlemvnit.e; — 7. H.R.H. Madame;^, decori gentes 
TANS virtutem 1729. The Dowager Duchess enthroned giving in- 
structions to Lorraine during the absence of her son; — 8. Charles V. 
of Lorraine; ex. paknonia vindicata ; — 9. Rinaldo I., Duke of 

— 310 — 

Modena; I^. A vessel nearing the shore; — lo. PhiHp V., King of 
Spain; ^. Neptune; — ii. The Dowager Duchess of Orleans; 
^i. FECUNDiTAS coNSERVATRix GALLiAE; — 12. Abbe Jean Paul 
Bignon; — 13. John Freind, physician, 1728; — 14. Pope 
Clement XII., with vxo different reverses ; (a) Christ upsetting the 
tables of the money-changers in the temple; (b) Minerva; — 15. 
Clement XL; ^L. lucet in vultu ejus Divine Wisdom; — 16. 
Another; ^. APT ATA s.ecula verbo del Establishment of a Merid- 
ian in the Terms of Diocletian; — 17. Another; ^L. Science, 
Religion and Justice ; — Series of Dukes and Duchesses of Lorraine : 
18. Hugues, founder of the dynasty; — 19. Eberhard; — 20. Adal- 
bert; — 21. Albert; — 22. Gerard; — 23. Gerard of Alsace, first 
Duke of Lorraine; ^. Hadruide of Namur; — 24, Thiery; 
^. Gertrude of Flanders; — 25. Simon I. ; ^L. Adelaide de Quer- 
fort; — 26. Mathieu I. ; ^. Bertha of Sweden; — 27. Simon II. ; 
'^. Ida of Vienna; — 28. Ferry I.; ^. Ludomilla of Poland; — 
29. Ferry II. ; ^L. Agnes of Bar; — 30. Thiebault I. ; 1^. Gertrude 
of Asbourg; — 31. Mathieu II. ; ^. Catherine of Limbourg; — 
32. Ferry III.; ^L. Marguerite of Navarre; — 33. Thiebault II.; 
^L. Isabelle of Rumigni; — 34. Ferry IV. ; ^L. Isabelle of Austria ; 

— 35. Raoul; ^. Marie of Blois; — 36. Jean I.; ^L. Sophie of 
Wiirttemberg; — 37. Charles II. ; ^. Marguerite of Bavaria; — 
38. Rene I. of Anjou; ^. Isabelle of Lorraine; — 39. Jean II. of 
Anjou ; ^L. Marie of Bourbon; — 40. Nicolas of Anjou; — 
41. Ferry I., Count of Vaudemont; ^L. Marguerite de Joinville; — 

43. Antoine, Count of Vaudemont; I^. Marie d'Harcourt; — 

44. Ferry II., Count of Vaudemont, father of Rene II. ; B6. lolande 
of Anjou; — 45. Ren6 II.; ^L. Philippe of Guelders; — 
46. Anthoine; ^L. Rene de Bourbon; — 47. Francois I.; 

— I^. Christiana of Denmark; — 48. Charles III. ; I^. Claude of 
France; — 49. Henry II.; ^L. Marguerite of Gonzaga; — 50. 
Francois II. ; I^. Christienne of Salm; — 51. Charles IV. 
^.Nicole of Lorraine; — 52. Nicolas Francois ; I^. Claude of 
Lorraine; — 53. Charles V.; I^. Eleonora Maria of Austria ; — 

54. Leopold I. ; ^L. Madame Elizabeth Charlotte of Orleans; — 

55. Title medal of the series; ^. mvtvis fvlgent honoribvs. Arms 
of all the Dukes of Lorraine ; — Medallic Series of the Regency of the 
Duke of Orleans : 56. Louis XV.; I^. The Duke of Orleans ; — 
57. The Duke of Orleans; ^. Accession to the regency of the 
Kingdom of France ; — 58. Another; ^. alluding to the protec- 
tion granted by the Duke of Orleans to Arts; — 59. Another; 
^. Establishment of a Chamber of Justice; — 60. Another; 
^. Suppression of Dimes; ex. tribvto decim.e remisso; — 
61. Another; ^. Royal Academies; — 62. Another; ^. Mar- 
riage of Mademoiselle de Montpensier with Louis I., King of Spain; 

— 311 

ex : lUNXiT MUTUO FOEDERE GENTES ; — Seventeen medals of the pro- 
jected Medallic Series oj Popes (in commission for the cardinals 
Albergati and Ottoboni); — 63. St. Peter; — 64. Bonifacius VIII. ; 
65. Benedictus XL; — 66. Clement V.; — 67. John XXI. ; — 

John Freind, 1728. 

68. Benedictus XII. ; — 69. Clement VI. ; — 70. Innocent VI. ; — 
71. Urbanus V.; — 72. Gregory XI; — 73. Urbanus VI.; —74- 
Bonifacius IX. ; — 75. Innocent VII. ; — 76. Gregory XII. ; — 77. 
Alexander V. ; — 78. John XXII. ; — 79. Clement XI. ; I^. ipsvm 

— 312 — 

avdite; — 80. Another; j^. havrietis in gavdio ; — 81. John 
William, Elector Palatine; — 82. Cardinal Henry Norris (2 var.); 
— 83, Giorgio Baglivi, physician, Rome, 1707; — 84. Jacques 
Callot, 1635; — 85. Isaac Newton; — 86. Jacques de S"" Marie, 
Cardinal Sant'Angelo, Italian cardinal and Jean Philippe, prieur of 
St. Etienne, 1701 ; — 87. Giovanni Domenico Cassini, 1695 (Res- 
toration of the Meridian of San Petronio); — 88. Cromwell and 
Masaniello; — 89. Cardinal Gossadin ; — 90. Marcello Malpighi, 
Rome, 1693 ; — 91. Count Alois Ferdinand Marsigli, 1731; — 
92, Odescalchi ; 1^. Reclining female unrolling plans; — 93. Ano- 
ther; ^. Castle, 1699; — 94. Rinaldo, Duke of Modena; — 95. 
D"" Giov. Hieronymus Sbaraba, professor of anatomy at Bologna; — 
96. Marriage of Louis I., son of Philip V. with Marie Louise of 
Orleans, 172 1 ; — 97. Christian III., von Pfalz-Zweibriicken 
(2 var.); — 98. Ferdinand Marchese Lonati, captain of the Swiss 
Guard at the Vatican; — 99. Marquis de Lenoncourt; — 100. 
Minerva sacra; — 100. Pregnancy of the Duchess of Orleans; — 
D'' John Freind, Oxford, etc. 

List of Jetons. Charles V; — Prince Leopold Clement, 17 14; 

Francis III., Duke of Lorraine. 

— Prince Francois Etienne, 17 14; — Elizabeth Charlotte, Duchess 
of Lorraine, 1715; — Another, of 1737 (this may be, and prob- 
ably is, by Claude Augustin de Saint-Urbain); — Jetons of the 
city of Nancy, 1708, 1723, 1729, and 1733 (4 varieties) ; — Others 
(10 other varieties, described by Beaupre, pp. 146-157); — Jeton 
with the arms of Bassompierre and Beauvau ; — Arms of Custine 
and Nettancourt; — Arms of Du Chatelet; — Arms of Lenon- 

— 3n — 

court ; — Arms of Lunati-Visconti; — Arms of Richard ; — Arms 
of the Duke of Zweibrucken ; — Arms of the Due and Duchesse de 
Deux-Ponts, 1734; — Arms ot the town of Bar, 1736; — Arms 
of Poirot, 1736; — Arms of Corberne, 1730; — Rudolph of 
Habsburg and Anne von Hohenberg. 

Beside the above works, Beaupre mentions a number of models 
in wax by the artist, some of which were evidently made for 
medals ; also seals, and copper engravings. 

St. Urbain was a member of most of the Italian Academies and 
of many other European ones, and he had been decorated by Clem- 
ent XII. with the Order of Christ. 

Hedlinger (Fide Vol. II, 356) worked for some time under 
St. -Urbain at Nancy, 1716. 

A street at Nancy is named after the artist. 

Mory d'Elvange, in commenting on St. Urbain's medallic work 
says : "Un correct recherche dans le dessin, une precision flatteuse 
dans I'ex^cution, une fertility, une vari6t6 charmante dans les 
details, une expression pathetique dans les caracteres. Le ton de 
vie. Tame dans les figures, la legeret^, I'^legance dans les draperies, 
la nettet^ dans le burin, cette aisance, ce fini gracieux, qui seduisent 
I'oeil avide de I'amateur. Tels sont les caracteres distinctifs de la plus 
grande partie des tetes, mais surtout des revers des m6daiUes de 

Bibliography. — Henri Lepage, Ferdinand de St.-Urbain, suivi di'un catalogue 
descriptif de ses oiivrages, f>ar M. Beaupre. — Ibid., Notes et Documents sur les Gra- 
veurs de Monnaies et Medailles et la fabrication des monnaies des Dues de Lorraine, 
Nancy, 1875. — F. Malaguzzi Valeri, La Zecca di Bologna, 1898. — Cinagli, L< 
Monetede' Papi, Roma, 1848. — Vornehmste Lebensnmstdnde des wegen seiner Kunst itn 
Graviren Inchberiihmten Fitters Ferdinand de Saint-Urbiin nebsl einem voUstdndigen 
Ver'^eichniss seiner Medaillen, herausgegeben von F. E. (^Exter), Numberg, 1770. — 
Bolzenthal, op. cit. — M. de Mory d'Elvange, Essai historique sur les prog res de la 
gravure en me'diiilles che:^ les artistes lorrains, suivi d'un catalogue de tous les ouvrages 
de Ferdinand de St. Urbain, connus en Lorraine, Nancy, 1783. — Don Calraet, 
Biblioth'eque lorraine, col. 103 5-1040. — Liste des Coins de Medailles gravces par 
Ferdinand de St. Urbain, tant a Rome qu'en Lorraine. Sa Majeste Imperiale Fran- 
cois III a achete tous ces coins, qui sont a present a Vienne. — Ammon, op. cit. — 
Katalog der MUn^en- und Medaillen-StempeUSammlung des K. K. Hauptmiin^amtes 
in Wien, 1906. — Nagler, Allgemeines KUnstler Lexikon. — Medallic Illustrations, 
&c. — Rondot et De La Tour, op. cit. — Domanig, op. cit. — Ammon, Sanimlung 
berUhniter Medailleurs, 1778. 

SAINT-URBAIN, MARIE ANNE DE (French). Daughter of Ferdinand 
de St.-Urbain, and brother of Claude Augustin, was born at Nancy 
on 3. January 171 1. She became also a Medallist of note, and follow- 
ed, in the company of her brother, Duke Francis III. of Lorraine 
to Vienna, where she died at an advanced age. She married Charles 
Benoit Vaultrin, king's councillor in the bailliwick of Chateau- 

— 314 — 

From a pamphlet entitled : " Recueil des ouvrages graves en 
coins de medailles et modeles en cire par M"'^ Vaultrin, nee de 
Saint-Urbain,pensionnaire de feu Sa Majeste Imperiale Francois I.", 
I extract the following list of this lady-artist's works, which range 
between 1742 and 1780, and are usually signed M. S. V. : Medal of 
Stanislaus I., King of Poland, struck on the Inauguration of a statue 
erected to Louis XV. on the Place royalt at Nancy, 1755 (struck in 
gold, silver, and bronze, at Nancy); — Francis I. and Maria The- 
resia, 1758; — Princess Anne Charlotte of Lorraine, 1742 ; — Car- 
dinal de Choiseul, primate of Lorraine; — Marie-Elizabeth of 
Parma, first consort of the Emperor Joseph 1, 1762 ; — The Military' 
Academy at Wiener-Neustadt ; — Maria Theresia, 1780. 

Marie Anne de St.-Urbain was especially noted as a Modeller in 
wax. By her are the folio wings wax medallions intended as reverses 
for medals commemorating the King of Poland's fifteen endow- 
ments : Mission royale, 1742 ; — Freres de Saint-Jean-de-Dieu, 
1750; — Freres des ecoles chretiennes; — Fondation des pauvres 
orphelins de I'un et I'autre sexe a I'hopital Saint-Julien de Nancy ; 
— Fondation pour les pauvres honteux; — Etablissement des 
Cadets-gentilshommes ; — Pensionnaires aux dames du Saint- 
Sacrement de Nancy; — Etablissement des magasins de ble; — 
Bourse des marchands ; — Fondation pour les incendies ; — Eta- 
blissement de I'Architccture ; — Construction de la place 
d'AUiance de Nancy ; — Etablissement de la Bibliotheque publique 
et des prix de I'Acad^mie; — Etablissement de I'Academie royale, 
1750; — Fondation de la Chambre royale des consultations. These 
wax medallions were presented by a son of M*"* Vaultrin, in 1777, 
to M""^ Adelaide de France, grand-daughter of King Stanislaus of 

Bibliography. — As before. 

SAINT-VIDAL, DE {French). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
by whom I have only seen a medalet, which was exhibited at the 
Salon in 1899, and which commemorates the Inauguration of the 
railway line Moscow- Jaroslav-Arkangel ; obv. St. Michael ; ^L. Rus- 
sian legend (27 mill.). 

SAINT-YON, ANDR£ DE (FrencJi). Moneyer, and later Lieutenant 
of Moneyers to the Paris Mint, 1561. 

SAINTE-CROIX, J. MARIE DE (French). Director of the Mint at Per- 
pignan, from AnVto 1828. Distinctive-mark : a bunch of grapes. 

STE. H. (Dutch). The artist's signature S^e h. occurs on the 
following medals, described by D"^ H. Dompierre de Chaufepie's 

— 315 — 

*' Catalogus derNederlandsche enopNederlandbetrekkinghebbende 
Gedenkpenningen " : 1558. Portrait-plaque of George Van Egmond, 
bishop of Utrecht (Fiaw Loon I, p. 47); — Cornehs A. Myerop 
(^Van Mieris, III, p. 126); — i559- Lucas Munich, abbot of St. 
Bavo at Ghent (Van Loon I, p. 54); — Hans van den Brocck, 
burgher of Antwerp (^Van Loon I, p. 353); — Cecilia Vccseler 
(Revue beige, 1850, PI. vi, 3); — Peter Panhuis (Rev. beige, 1870, 
PI. XI, 6) ; — 1560. Anthoine de Blocklant, of Utrecht (Rn\ beige, 
1870, PI. XII, 514); — 1561. Thomas Therlaen (Rev. beige, 1870, 
PI. XIII, 515); — Thomas de Montrichier (Dirks Repert. I, 404). 

All these medals are by Stephen Van Holland (q. v.). 

Cfr. D"^ J. Simonis, Histoire de la medaille en Belgique. 

SAINTON, C. P. (French). Son of Prof. Sainton, the well-known 
violinist ; a Sculptor, pupil of Prof. Legros. By him is a Portrait- 
medallion (1882) of his father, who is a Professor at the Royal 
Academy of Music, London. The Medallion was cast in bronze by 
the famous Paris Caster, A. Liard. 

SAINTOT (French). Die-sinker of the first half of the nineteenth 
centur}' (j 1843), who resided at Paris. He was a notorious Forger 
(it is said, for amusement only) of Roman denarii, comprising 
amongst them : Didius Julianus; — Pescennius Niger; — Cara- 
calla and Plautilla, etc. The heads are artistically executed, but the 
reverses are poor; the edges are uneven and cut like the old coins, 
i. e. slit open in the ancient manner. 

Bibliography. — A. Durand, Dictionnatre des Graveurs en Medailles et Moniiaies 
(in M.P.C. Stroehlins library). — Numismatic Chronicle, 1843, VI, SS- 

SAIZOFF, IWAN (Russ.). Mint-master at St. Petersburg, 1780- 
1783. His issues are signed M. 3. 

SALA (Span.). A Catalan Medallist, Engraver, and Enameller of 
the second half of the nineteenth century, who resided at Madrid, 
and after 1882 at Barcelona. I have come across his signature on the 
following medals : Marriage of King Alfonso XII. with Maria Chris- 
tina, Archduchess of Austria, 1879 (SALA, MADRID); — National 
Horticultural Society, 1880 ; — Birth of the Princess of the Asturias, 
1880; — Centenary of Calderon de la Barca, 1881 (2 var. ; one 
issued by the Royal Historical Society) ; — Inauguration of the 
Railway from Villanueva to Barcelona, 29. December 1881, etc. 

SALAS (also ALfiS, ALEIS, or SALEIS), RAODLET (French). Mint- 
engraver at Limoges, circ. 1423- f 1424. 

SALBURG VON VOHBURG (Ausir.). Mint-master at Landshut, 

- V6 - 

SALE (Brit.). Contemporary Die-sinker, residing at Birmingham. 
His signature occurs on a Medal of Merit to Birmingham veterans 
for services in the South African War, 1902. This medal bears on the 
obv. the busts of King Edward VII. and Queen Alexandra. 

SALt, MATHIEU (French). Coin-engraver, by whom are dies for 
obsidional currency struck at St. Quentin by order of the Duke of 
Longueville during the War against the League, 1589. The coins, 
amongst which are Quarter Ecus, were struck by the goldsmith, 
Pierre Cotte. They bear the motto : pro christo,htrege, and were 
made from plate, and in the Hotel of the Governors. 

Bibliography. — Rondot, op. cit. — E. Faivre, op. cit. — C. Dcrome, Niimis- 
matique dii Verniandois, 1894. — Maillet, op. cit. 


Mint-master at Lii beck, 1341. 

SALEMBEN, PETRUS (Germ.). Mint-master at Liibeck, 1365. 

SALERNO (Ital.). Sculptor and Medallist of the second half of the 
seventeenth century and early part of the eighteenth, whose chiet 
production is a Portrait-medal of Livia Odescalchi, an XIX (signed : 

SALfiS, ANDR£ PIERRE (French). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist, born at Perpignan ; pupil of Dumont, and Dubois. 
Amongst his medallic productions I have noticed : 1900. Virgin 
(oval badge, 22 mill.); — Virgin with lily (18 mill.); — 1905. 
Portrait-medallion; — 1908. History. M, Plaquette ; — Botticelli 
Virgin ; — The Kiss ; — Joan of Arc ; — Automobile, etc. 

SALI£RES, SYLVAIN (French). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist, born at Auch (Gers) ; pupil of Falguiere, and Marqueste, 
by whom are various Prize Medals. At the Salon of 1898 he exhibited 
a medal, Chiens de berger (36 mill.), which is reproduced on 
PI. XXXII of Marx, Midailleurs francais contemporains . At the Salon 
of 1898 he also exhibited a Portrait-medallion of M"^ Bcchet. 

SALLUSTIUS. Vide P. ZALLUSTI. Italian Gem-engraver of the latter 
end of the eighteenth century, by whom is a fine intaglio repre- 
senting a bull passant. 

SALMON, MICHELET (French). Painter to Jean de France, Duke of 
Berry, who is supposed to have been the author also of a gold 
Jewel, circular, with an image of the Madonna and Child on either 

— 31/ — 

side, executed circ. 141 6. Rondot adds that painters of that period 
were very often equally expert in modelling and sculpture. 

Bibliography. — D. Mater, Eludes sur la numismatique du Berry, Gaz. num. 
fr., 1905. 

SALMSON, ANTON (SivecL). Sculptor and Medallist of the second 
part of the nineteenth century, and possibly a relative of the artists 
Jean Baptiste and Jean Jules Salmson, who both resided at Paris. 
By him are Medals of the Royal Agricultural Exhibition at Upsala, 
187 1 (signed: ANTON SALMSON); — Westmanland Agricultural 
Society Prize Medal ; — Swedish Participation in the Exhibition at 
Bogota of the Republic of Columbia, 1874 (signed in full), etc. 

BiBLioGR.^PHY. — Hildebrand, op cit. 

SALMSON, JEAN BA?TISTE (French). Gem-engraver, and Medallist, 
born at Stockholm in 1807, but became naturalized French, and 
died in Paris in 1866. He was a pupil of Bosio, and obtained a medal 
of the third class in 1855, and one of the second class in 1859. 

Chavignerie et Auvray give the following list of his productions 
as exhibited at the Paris Salon : 1855. Fi^^ engraved gems : Napo- 
leon III., Brazilian carnelian ; — The Enipress Eugenie, German 
onyx ; — Portrait of M"'^ la baronne de M*** ; — Head of Syracuse, 


>£t^^ - 

Enlargement of the Jeton by Guillaume Martin of Francis and Mary. 

emerald cameo; — Negro's head, bust in onyx; — 1859. Eight 
intagli : Portrait of M"'= N***, agate onyx ; — Head of Syracuse, 
Brazilian agate-onyx ; — Portrait of H, M. the King of Spain, 
engraved on a Siberian amethyst ; — Portrait of M"^ B*** ; — Por- 
trait of M"^ P***, Brazilian onyx ; — Portrait of H. M. Queen Isa- 
bella II. of Spain, engraved on an oriental hyacinth; — The River 

- 3i8 - 

of life, Brazilian onyx; — Portrait of H. M. the King of Spain, 
engraved on an emerald. 

The artist worked also for Durand and contributed to his Medallic 
Gallery of famous Men a Portrait-medal of Gustavus L, King of 
Sweden (Paris, 1826; signed: SALMSON. F.; 2 var.), and amongst 
his other medals are : Joseph Fr. Oscar, Crown Prince of Sweden, 
as Chancellor of Upsala University, 18 18 (struck in 1822); — 
Gudmund Goran, statesman, 175 1-1818 (medal published by the 
Historical and Antiquarian Society of Stockholm, 1821); — Greve, 
statesman, 1823 ; — Reproduction of the Marriage medal of 
Francis II. and Mary Queen of Scots, 1832 ; after an original executed 
between 1696 and 1789, from Martin's Marriage jeton of 1558 
(illustrated); — J. O. Bergman, Upsala (Durand Series, 1826), etc. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. — HilJebrand, op. cit. — P. 
Bordeaux, Les jelons de Marie Stuart, etc. 

SALMSON, JEAN JULES (French), Son of Jean Baptiste S., and 
born at Paris in 1822, died at Coupvray (Seine-et-Marne) in 1902. 
He is known chiefly as a Sculptor, and studied under Rancy, Dumont, 
and A. Toussaint. In 1867 he was created a Knight of the Legion 
of Honour. 

For many years he was Director of the School of Industrial Arts 
at Geneva. 

At the Salon of 1869 this artist exhibited six Portrait-medallions, 
and a medal in bronze of the Societe libre d'emulation du commerce 
et de I'industrie at Rouen. He also designed the following medals : 
Portrait of Horace Benedict de Saussure, 1887; engraved by J. 
Trotin ; — 3*= Grand Concours Musical at Geneva, 1890; engraved 
by Ch, Richard. 

Amongst his best known works of sculpture are : 1870. Phryne 
bffore the Areopagus; — Lais and Demosthenes; — 1876. 
Henry IV., statue intended for the Town Hall of La Rochelle ; — 
Haendel ; — La Devidease (Luxembourg Museum); — La Gloire 
(Louvre) ; — Jugement de Paris, etc. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

SALNEUVE (French). Maker of coin-presses, etc., residing at Paris 
in the early part of the nineteenth century. He invented a special 
process for striking coins in a plain collar. Two Dutch patterns of 
Louis Napoleon, 1808, struck as trial pieces of the presses made in 
Paris for the Mint at Utrecht bear in the field of the obv. piece 


SALNEUVE. They are reproduced on PL VII and VIII (n°' 51 and 52) 
of Nahuys, Histolre nnmismatique du Royaume de Hollande, 1858. 

SALOMONE, LORENZO (ItaL). Superintendent of the Mint at 
Cattaro, 15 42- 15 44. His initials L. S. occur on the coins. 

— 319 — 

SALOMONE, VETTORE (Ilal.). Superintendent of the Mint at 
Venice, 1538. His initials V. S. occur on the coins. 

SALOMONE, ZACCARIA (ItaL). Superintendent of the Mint at 
Cattaro, 1569-1570, His initials Z. S. occur on the coins. 

SALOP, WILLIAM OF (Brit.). Keeper of the dies and Mint- warden 
at Calais appointed under Edward III., 6 February 1348. At this 
time, says Serrure, silver currency was already being struck at Calais, 
in imitation of English types. 

Bibliography. — R. Serrure, Dictionnaire numistnalique dii Nord de la France. 

SALPION. The signature, or owner's name, lAAPION occurs on 
a brilliant golden sard, in the T. W. Greene Collection. It represents 
a male and female figures engaged in conversation. This gem was 
exhibited at the Burlington Fine Arts Club Exhibition of Greek 
Art, 1904, and described in the Catalogue as **a hellenistic gem, 
apparently contemporaneous ". 

SALWART, SAMUEL VON FALKENBERG (Bohein.). Mint-master at 
Prague, appointed in the early part of 1609, but in office for only 
just over a year, being succeeded on 10. May 16 ro by Benedikt 
Huebmer von Sonnleithen. His privy-mark was an open eagle's 
wing, which occurs on Ducats, Thalers, and Quarter Thalers of 
Rudolph II., 1 6 10. There is a Counter with his arms on obv. 
(Doneb. 3727). 

SALVESTRO DELL'AVACCHIA (ItaL). A Florentine Goldsmith 
(1449-^-1527), who chiefly worked at Rome for Pope Leo X. 
Vasari tells us that this artist excelled in all details of his work. 

Milanesi has suggested the attribution to this goldsmith of Por- 
trait-medals, signed S. D. A., of Cardinal Sclafenati (diam. : 
58 mill.), and Filippo Sclafenati (diam.: 54). FideS.H.A. intra. 

Bolzenthal mentions a Master Salvestro, who was residing at 
Rome, circ. 1530, and very clever in mosaic work. The medallist 
Pietro Paolo Galeotti is said to have learned this branch of art under 
him, and possibly also received instruction in medal-engraving 
from him. 

Bibliography. — Heiss, Les MedailUurs de la Renaissance, VIII, 2. — Arniand, 
op. cit. — Bolzenthal, op. cit., p. 116. — Blanchet, Manuel &c., II, 374. 

SALVIUS, ANTON {Ital.). This signature occurs on a cornelian in 
the Berlin Museum, representing Neptune with his trident in the 
left hand. This gem was copied by Tassie, and is described in 
Raspe's Catalogue, n° 2548. 

— 3-0 — 


{Swed.'). Coin-engraver, and Medallist, born at Langen-Argen in 
Sweden, 1759; entered the Milanese Mint as apprentice on 29. 
April 1782, became Third Engraver on 14. March 1789, First 
Engraver on 30. March 1801, and Chief-Engraver on 4. June 1808. 
From 1798, he worked there in collaboration with Luigi Manfre- 
dini, and from 1808 to 1819, another of his fellow Engravers was 
Gerolamo Vassallo. According to official documents, Salwirck was 
only appointed Chief-engraver on 17. July 1819, after the death of 
Vassalo. He died himself in the following year, 11. December 1820, 
at the age of sixty-one. 

This artist displayed uncommon talent, and his coin-, and medal- 
dies certainly rank among the best of the period. 

Unfortunately most of Salvirck's coin-dies are unsigned, and in 
the absence of official records, it is impossible to draw up a full list 
of his productions. I shall therefore Hmit myself to his best known 
and chief works : Venetian 10 Lire piece, 1797 ; — Scudo of 6 Lire, 
1800, of the Cisalpine Republic (signed: SALVIRCH, illustrated) ; 
— Trenta Soldi, anno IX. (unsigned); — Patterns for coins of the 


Scudo of the Cisalpine Republic, 1800. 

Italian Republic (1802-1805), none signed (described in Gnecchi, 
Le Monete di Milam, pp. 203-207); — Milanese coins of 
Napoleon I., undated Patterns; — Reverses of Patterns for 1806 
and 1807, 20 and 10 Lire gold, 5, 2, i Lire and 15, 10 and 5 Soldi 
silver, all bearing the monogram SG in the field ; the obverses for 
all these are by Luigi Manfredini, whose signature LM in mono- 
gram occurs to the right of the date under Napoleon's head. The 
actual currency, 1808-1814, was struck from these 1807 types, and 
we may therefore conclude that all the reverse dies for Napoleon's 
Italian coinage were engraved by Salwirck (issued at the mints of 

^ 321 -^ 

Milan, Bologna, and Venice) ; — Francis II. of Austria, Venetian 
Zecchino (dies preserved at the Vienna Mint); — Seals of the Ital- 
ian Republic. 

Among Salwirck's medals I may mention: 1796. Bonaparte 
crossing over the P6, Adda, and Mincio, 30. May 1796 (signed: 
I.S.F. ; the dies of this medal were engraved direct into the steel 
by the artist) ; — I797- Reverse of the Medal commemorating the 
Fete of the Confederation of the Cisalpine Republic, 9. July 1797; 
obv. all' italico. Bust of General Bonaparte, by Vassallo ; 
^L. l'insubria libera. The French Republic, accompanied by 
Peace placing the cap of Liberty on the figure of Insubria, which 
is led by a Genius, etc. ; — French medal for the Police 
commissaries of Milan (Hennin, pi. 83, n° 831); — Verona to 
G. M. Brune, French general, an IX(i8oi); — Fall of Venice, 
18. March 1797 ; obv. presa del palazzo di broletto. The 
storming of the Palace of Broletto ; ^L. epoca della liberta bres- 
ciana, etc. QHist. met. de NapoL, 381), etc. 

Bibliography. — E. and F. Gnecchi, Le MoneU di Milano, 1884. — Bolzenthal, 
op. cit. — Hennin, Histoire de la numismalique de la Revolution fratifaise, 1826. — 
Nagler, Monogrammisten, V, 1050. — Katalog der K. K. MUtt^en- mid Medaillen- 
Stempel-Sammluiig, 1906. — Italia nei cento anni,Si.c. — Millin, Histoire metallique 
de Napoleon. — Bramsen, Medaillier Napoleon Ic Grand, 1904- 1907. 

SAMBON, CAV. JULES (French). Fine Art Dealer, Archeologist and 
Numismatist, formerly residing in Milan, now in Paris. He edited 
some medals, amongst which I have noted one commemorating 
the Inauguration of a Monument to Garibaldi, at Vercelli, i . June 
1890. It was executed at Milan by the Engraver Donzelli, and bears 
on obv. the publisher's name : G. SAMBON ED. 

Cav. Jules Sambon's famous " Theatrical Collection " was 
purchased en bloc by the Italian government for 600.000 Francs in 
May 1 9 1 1 . 

SAMBSTAG, GEORG (Germ.). Mint-master at Kulmbach, Bavaria, 

SAMPAIO, ELEUTRIO RIBEIRO {Brazil.). Engraver at the Mint ot 
Rio-de-Janeiro, circ. 1861. His initials E.R.S. occur on the ^. of 
a Prize Medal of that date, the obv. of which was cut by Luster. 

SAMSON, JOHANN ULRICH (Swiss). Line-engraver and Medallist 
of the second half of the eighteenth century, born in 1729, died in 
1796. He began as a Line-engraver, but later on studied medal- 
engraving at Geneva, inspiring himself from the works of Dassier 
and Hedlinger. To improve himself in the art, he undertook a journey 
to Italy, and on his return settled in business as a Die-sinker at 
Basle. Hedlinger favoured him with his advice and is said to have 
been favourably impressed by his achievements, especially by Sam- 
son's self portrait-medal. In 1 78 1 Samson was City-councillor at Basle. 

L. FoRRER. — Biographicai Solicts of MedalUjIs. — V. ai 

— 5:52 — 

Among this artist's works we find : Undated Scholastic Prize Medal 
of Basle (1779), signed S; — Portrait-medals of Johannes Ber- 
nouiUi, the famous mathematician of Basle, i7io--|- 1790, 1767 
(2 var. ; signed : SAMSON) ; — Johann Jakob Spreng, of Basle, poet 
and scholar, i699--j- 1768, 1767; — Johann Rudolf Wettstein, a 
Basle statesman, and Swiss plenipotentiar)- at the Conference which 
led to the Peace of Westphalia 1648, 1770 (signed : SAMSON. 
1 770) J — The artist's self Portrait (mentioned by Bolzenthal); — 
J. A. Justiniani, praefect of Bergamo, 1782, etc. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Tobler-Meyer, Catalogue of tlx Wun- 
derly-von Mural t collecHon. 

SAMPSON H. G. (Amer.). A dealer in coins and medals, for many 
years located at the corner of Broadway and Fulton streets N.Y. 
Cit}\ In 1876 he issued a large token (in copper, brass, and white- 
metal) with head of Washington on one side and his business 
address &c. on reverse. 

(See former reference of the ''Numismatist " (about 1899) where 
Dr. Wright has described his tokens as no. 933 in his series ot 
American Store and Business Cards. 

SAMUEL (Austr.y Founder, and Die cutter, who worked for the 
Mint at Budweis, circ. 1589- 1595. He is styled " Samuel the gold- 
smith " on a document of 1595. Various payments are recorded 
against him for casting gold medals. 

SAMUEL (Gc/'w.) Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist residing 
at Munich, who exhibited at the ' Salon de la Medaille ', Brussels, 
1 9 10, a bronze medalUon, cast, with portrait of HansBraun, 1909. 

SAMUEL, CHARLES (Belg.). Contemporary' Sculptor, residing at 
Brussels, where he was born on 29. December 1862. He is a pupil ot 
the Academy of that city, under Simonis, Jacquet, and Charles Van 
der Stappen. He also worked under the medallist Charles Wiener. 
He has been awarded a Silver medal at Paris, 1889, Gold medals 
at the Exhibitions of Antwerp, 1894, Dresden, 1897, Brussels, 
1897, Paris, 1900, Munich, 1901, and Saint-Louis, 1904. He is a 
Knight of the Order of Leopold, and of the Crown of Congo. 

This artist's medallic productions are few so far, but they are 
characterised, says M. de Witte, by the distinguished and sober 
style which is so well-adapted to the medal. Among these are : 
Commemorative Plaquette of the Inauguration of the Hotel de Ville 
of St Gilles, 1904; — Twentieth Anniversary of the Foundation of 
the Independent Congo State; — Seventy-fifth Anniversary of 
Belgian Independence, 1830-1905; diam.: 70 mill, (only a few 
specimens of this medal were struck and distributed by King 
Leopold himself); — Portrait of M. Aug. Vergote ; — Exhibition 
of Culinary Arts ; — Portrait-plaquette of M. Charles Dietrich ; — 

Medcil of the ' Chambre sy ndicale de 1' Automobile ', of Belgium , 1 908 ; 

— Medal of the "Couvent des sup.*, cons.', du 33^^ degre du rite 
Scoss in am.'.et ace.*."; — Portrait plaquette ofCh.Graux, 1908; 

— Portrait-medal of Comte Goblet d'Alviella, 1908; — Memorial 
Plaquette of Baron F. A. Gevaert {Studio XXXIX, 140). 

At the International Salon de la Medaille at the Palais du Cin- 
quantenaire, Brussels, 19 10, this artist had some of his best works 
on exhibition. He also exhibited several medals at the New York 
International Medallic Exhibition, March 1910 : Lepold II. ; — F. A. 
Gevaert; — Comte Goblet d'Alviella; — Retour du Prince Albert 
du Congo; — Charles Graux; — Commune de S' Gilles ; — Ving- 
tieme Anniversaire de I'Etat Independant du Congo; — Societe 
medicale de Monaco ; — Paul ; — Gaby, etc. 

M. Samuel is a pupil of tiie French school. Some of his pro- 
ductions are in charming taste. 

Bibliography. — Alphonse dc Witte, La mdaille en hklgiqiu an XIX^ sikk, 
Bruxellcs, 1905. — Rn'tie Mge de ntimismatiqiu, 1905. — La Gazelle numismatique 
Duprir-, &c. 

SANARD, M"' HENRIETTE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born 
at Landcrneau; pupil of P. Berthet. At the Salon of 1889 she 
exhibited a fine Portrait-medallion of a Lady. 

SAND POLTEN, HERMANN VON (Atistr.). Mint-master at Vienna, 
circ. 1320. 

SANDELLES, JEHAN DE {French'). Mint- warden at Limoges, 1487. 

SANDER, JdRG(G<?rm.). Goldsmith, and Mint-warden at Landshut, 

SANDER, JOHANN MICHAEL {Germ.). Counter-Manufacturer at 
Nuremberg, r//r. 16 10. 

SANDOZ-SANDOZ {Swiss). Watch-case Engraver of La Chaux-de- 
Fonds, first half of the nineteenth century. He executed the first 
medal of the newly constituted Rifle club " Les Armes-Reunies ", 
1 82 1, for which he was paid 17 livres 9 sols. 

Bibliography. — A. Michaud, Lisle des tnedailles et jetons concernant la Qmux- 
de-Fonds jusqu'en it^i, avet tine notice sur les socie'tes delir v les Armes-Reunies » et 
« les Amis de la Carabine », Revue Suisse de numismatique, XII, 1901. 

SANDREUTER, HANS {Swiss). Painter, born at Basle in 1850, died 
at Riehen in 1901. He excelled as a landscape painter. Among his 
chief productions, I may just mention: — The Valley of Bavona; — 
The Outskirts of Basle ; — The Fountain of Jouvence ; — II Deca- 
merone. At the Paris Salon, 1901, he exhibited : — The Rhine at 
Basle, and The Rhine at Schaffhausen. 

This artist designed the Portrait-medal of the famous painter, 
Arnold Boecklin of Basle, 1897 (struck by Huguenin frereS; Le 

— 3^4 — 

SANGALLO, FRANCESCO DA (Ital.). Sculptor, Architect, and 
Medallist (1494-1576), son of Giuliano Giamberti da Sangallo, a 
famous Architect and Sculptor, and founder of the dynasty of 
artists of his name. Francesco was born on i. March 1494, and 
spent the first ten years of his life at Florence. His father being 
appointed in 1504 Architect to the Vatican and St. Peter's by his 
old friend and protector, the Cardinal delle Rovere, who had 

Self Portrait of Francesco da San Gallo. 

ascended the pontifical throne under the name of Julius II., 1503. 
The family definitely settled at Rome in 1506. 

In that same year young Francesco accompanied his father and 
Michel Angelo to view the remains of the famous antique group of 
the Laocoon, which had just been discovered in the ruins of the 
Thermae of Titus, and we learn that he drew the group to the 
satisfaction of his father. Like all the young artists of that time, 
Francesco studied painting, and became a pupil of Piero di Cosimo, 
whose portrait he is said to have painted. Andrea del Sarto, his 
intimate friend, greatly encouraged him to follow his inclination. 

— 325 — 

but the artist soon turned to sculpture, in which art he was instruct- 
ed by Andrea Contucci del Monte Sansovino, better known as 
Andrea Sansovino. 

" The sculptures of Francesco ", remarks von Fabriczy, ** show 
nothing of the reserved conception, of the refined feeling of those of 
his father, who in the tombs of the Sassetti in S. Trinita 
has bequeathed to us two marble medallions of the giver of the 
commission, which in delicacy of execution might compete with 

Portrait of Helena Marsupini, the artist's wile. 

medals ". This artist is the author of the statue of Bonafedo, bishop 
of Cortona ; of a group of the Virgin and Child with St. Anne at 
Or San Michele ; and of the monuments of the bishop Angelo Marzi 
and Piero II. de' Medici at Monte Cassino. One of his best works 
is the statue of Paul Jove, bishop of Nocera, in the cloister of San- 
Lorenzo. In 1530 he was employed on the fortifications of Florence. 
The medals which are signed by him and the others which are 
ascribed to him offer quite distinct characteristics from those of his 
predecessors and contemporaries. " He is faithful", again remarks 

Portrait-medal of Paolo Giovio. 

"^Nfc^^t'.y m 

Giovanni de' Medici deile Bandenere. 

— 328 — 

Alessandro and Gjsimo I. de' Medici. 

— 329 — 

Lorenzo II. de' Medici, Duke of Urbino. 

Pope Leo X. 

— 330 — 

the author above-named, " to the same downright naturaHstic 
manner, which thinks by violently obtruding itself to impose upon 
the beholder ". 

Francesco da Sangallo died at Florence on 17. February 1576. 
His wife Elena di Cristofano Marsupini, whose portrait-medallion 
he made in 155 1, gave him no heir, but he left a natural son, 
Clement, who died in 1586. 

The following medals bear the artist's signature : i. Paolo Giovio 
(1483-11552), 1552, signed : FRANC. SANGALLIVS FACIEB ; diam : 
95 mill, (illustrated) ; — 2. Giovanni de' Medici delle Bandenere 
(1498-i 1526), 1522, signed : FRANC. SANGALLIVS FACIE. ; diam. : 
93 mill, (illustrated); — 3. Alessandro and Cosimo I. de' Medici, 
1570, unsigned ; diam. : 90 mill, (^illustrated) ; — 4. Giangiacomo 
de' Medici, Marquis of Marignano, 1555 ; signed on obv. : FRANC. 
SANGALLIVS FACIEBAT ; ^. SENis receptis. Wolf tied to a palm- 
tree within a wreath ; diam. : 91 mill.: — 5. Francesco da San- 
gallo ; ^. DVRABO. Dog seated in front of a Term within a wreath 
of flowers and fruit; diam. : 72 mill. ; — 6. Another; I^. opvs 
MDLi. The Santa Croce Tower at Florence within a wreath; diam. : 
72 mill. ; — 7. Francesco da Sangallo and his wife, Helena Marsu- 
pini, 1551 ; diam. 97 mill, (illustrated). This medal has the same 
obv. as n° 5, with the legend : Francesco da sangallo scvltore 
ET architetto fioren. with the addition of facieb. on the trunca- 
tion of the bust. '* This medal ", says von Fabriczy, " gives a 
characteristic example of the artist's strong relief and of the anything 
but attractive conception peculiar to him — alone among all 
Florentine medallists " ; — 8. Francesco da Sangallo ; obv. as n° 7; 
^L. FACIEBAT — A. MDXxxxx. The Towcr of Santa-Croce at 
Florence; diarr». : 97 mill. 

To the artibi most writers are agreed to ascribe two further 
medals ; although I do not think they have much in common with 
his authenticated works : — Lorenzo II. de'Medici ; obv. Bust to 1. ; 
1^. LAVRENTiVb.MEDiCES. VRBiNi . ETC. Dvx within two laurel- 
branches ; diam. : 80 mill. (obv. illustrated); — and Pope Leo X. 
(Giovanni de'Medici), 15 13-15 21 ; obv. Bust to 1. ; ^L. de gloria. 
ET.HONORE.coRONASTi.EV. Pontifical arms of the Medici; diam: 
78 mill. (obv. illusiraied). This medal is comparatively speaking 
the best of this Pope, whose portrait must not be omitted from the 
Italian celebrities in the medallic Temple of Fame. For it was this 
Epicurean on the Chair of Peter who evoked at his court the Golden 
Age for poets, literati, lute-players, and buffoons". (Italian Medals, 
p. 143). See Armand's notes on these two medals, t. Ill, p. 62. 

Beside these medals, Gustave Clausse (Les San Gallo, t. Ill) adds 
another of Niccolo Martelli, a Florentine poet, 1544 (in the Bargello, 

— 331 — 

FACIE. The portrait is reproduced on p. 228 of the above work. 
The medal is uniface, and measures 94 mill, in diameter. Supino 
also describes this piece, and a Portrait-medallion, uniface, of a 
Lady, 119 mill., cast in bronze, and gilt ; and D' Bode ascribes to 
the same artist a Portrait-medallion of Pope Clement MI. (Simon 
Collection). Of the medallist, the learned German savant says : 
" Sehr leicht kenntlich ist Francesco da San Gallo, dessen derbe, 
klobige Portrats in hohem Relief einer gewissen Kraft und Lebens- 
wahrheit nicht entbehren ". 

Supino in // McdagUcre Mediceo, p. 104, calls Francesco " un 
artista mnnierato, come lo dimostrano le sue stesse medaglie trattate 
in alto rilievo cosi esagerato da far loro perdere il carattere proprio 
a tal genere di produzioni ". 

Among the later medallists Francesco da Sangallo was almost 
alone in carrying on into the mid-sixteenth century the research 
for characteristic form w hich distinguished the work of the Quat- 
trocento. The contrast between Sangallo's work and that of Ben- 
venuto Cellini shows how rapid was the decline of the art after the 
first quarter of the Cinquecento. How little the characteristic has 
to do with likeness in the modern photographic sense may be seen 
by looking at the medals of Pastorino, almost the only Italian 
medallist who would be likely to have a fashionable success to-day. 
His are indeed speaking likenesses, but they are remarkable rather 
for their pretty superficiality than for any serious interpretation of 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit . — Artnand, Les Me'dailleurs ilalims, &c. 

— A. Heiss, Les Medailleiirs de la Renaissance ; Florence et les Florentins, VIII, 90. 

— C. von Fabriczy, Italian Medals, Engl, edition, 1904. — D"" W. Bode, Zur 
neuesten Forschung atif dem Gebiete der italienischen Medailhnhmde , Zeitschrift fur 
bildende Kunst, November 1903, p. 41. — Gustave Clausse, Les San Gallo, 
architectes, peintres, sculpteurs, medailleiirs, t. Ill , Paris, 1902. — Vasari, o/>. cit., 
II, 489. — Supino, op. cit. — C. F. Keary, A Guide to tlx Exhibition oj Italian 
Medals in the British Museum, 1895. — Ammon, op. cit. — Friedlander, 
Schiiumun:^en, &c. 

SANGERS, GERTRUDE {Belg.). Widow of Florent Florissone ; 
acted as Mint-master at Antwerp, from 13. January 158010 
26. January 1581, and again from 16. December 1585 to 
30. August 1587. 

SANQUIRICO, PAOLO (Ital.). Architect, Modeller in wax, and 
Medallist of the latter part of the sixteenth century and first three 
decades of the seventeenth. He was born at Parma in 1565 and died 
at Rome in 1630. He was a pupil of CamilloMariani. His services 
were rewarded with a situation at the Papal court. Bolzenthal tells 
us that the medallic art was only a secondary employment with 
him, to which he appeared a stranger long before his death. His 

— 332 — 

likenesses in coloured wax are deserving of notice, and some of his 
medals, especially those bearing the portrait of Paul V. are drawn 
to the life. 

In the British Museum Collection are two Portrait-medals of 
Paul v., by this artist; the one, dated 1608, signed : P. SANQVIRIC. 
has a representation of St. Peter's on the ^. ; and the other, of 
1609, signed : SANQVIRICVS shows a Fort (of Ferrara) on the j^. 
There is another, of the same Pope, dated 161 3. 

This Medallist's signature occurs under various forms : P. SANQ. ; 


A French medal by Giovanni Paolo has been erroneously ascribed 
to this artist or also to Paolo Selvatico (Armand, III^ p. 140). 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Lochner, Munihehstiguugen, &c. — 
Keary, Guide to the Italian Medals, Sec. 

SANSON, JUSTIN CHRYSOSTOME (French). Contemporar)- Sculptor, 
born at Nemours, pupil of Jouffroy, and Lequien. By him are 
several Portrait-medallions in bronze, amongst which I have noted : 
1870. D' Goupil des Pallieres; — 1887. M. Sanson; — 1888. 
M. J. D*** ; — 1904. — M. Testard ; — Paul Baudouin, etc. 

SANSON (French). This signature occurs on a Portrait-medal of 
D"" Jules Le Baron. 

SANSOVINO, JACOPO (//«/.). Architect and Sculptor, 1486-15 70; 
pupil of Andrea Contucci. His parental name was Tatti. By him 
are numerous works in bronze, one of the first being a cast from 
the group of the Laocoon. The most important are all in Venice. 

D' Bode describes the following Relieviand Plaquettes by him, or 
in his style : The Ascension ; 44 X 37 (illustrated) ; — Virgin and 
Child (several varieties) ; — Amor ; — Virgin suckling Child (9, 3 X 
7, 6); — Seated Madonna (2 var. ; 8, i x 6, 3 ; and 10, 3x7, 
6) ; — Madonna, half-length figure (circular : 7, 3 ; Molinier, 
Plaquettes, n° 753); — Madonna in Clouds (9, 8 X 7, 5 ; Mol. 
755); — Virgin and Child with St. John (circular : 14, 6) ; — Ano- 
ther ; 5, 8 X 6, 2 ; — Another; 14, 8 X 10, 5 (Mol. 430); — 

— Madonna of Loreto; 13, 5 X 10, 3; — Virgin and Child with 
St. John; 13, 2X8, 6 (Mol. 431); — The Women lamenting over 
the body of Christ; 13, 2 X 8, 6; the composition is borrowed 
from a drawing by Michel Angelo (Mol. 756); — Coronation of 
Mary; 18, i X 12, 5 (Mol. 509); — Angel; 11, 2 X 5, 2 
(Mol. 732); — Angel with trumpet ; 11, 5 X 5, 5. 

In the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington, a bronze 
Plaque, in high relief, representing a full-length figure of Judith hold- 
ing the head of Holoiernes, has been attributed, without definite 
authority, to Jacopo Sansovino (Fortnum, op. cit., p. 64, 7431). 

— 333 — 

The Ascension. (High ReHef by Jacopo Sansovino.) 

- 334 — 

D"" Bode describes also among Sansovino's works : Statuette of 
Weeping Cupid ; — Group, youth on dolphin's back (inkstand) ; — 
Allegory on the writing of History (inkstand). 

*' The elaborately sculptured door of the sacristy at S* Mark's, 
and other six relievos, overladen with subject, in the choir; also 
the statuettes of the Four Evangelists on the balustrade of the choir 
are by this artist. Further, a St. John on a font in the Chapel of 
St. Peter at the Frari ; the bronze figure of St. Thomas of Ravenna 
over the door of San Giuliano; the figures of Pallas, Apollo, Mer- 
cury, and Peace formerly in a Loggia at the foot ot the Venetian 
Campanile, are all by him *'. 

Bibliography. — Bode, Italienische Bron\en , 1904. — Fortnum, Broti:(es in the 
South Kensington Museum, 1876, p. ex. 

SANTA-CROCE, GIROLAMO (Jtal). Sculptor and Goldsmith, who 
resided at Naples; born in 1498, died in 1533. ^y ^"^^"^ ^^ a Portrait- 
medal of the Neapolitan poet Jacopo Sannazaro, of which there are 
two varieties of reverses : obv. activs.syncervs. Laureate bust to 1. ; 
I^ (fif) No legend. The Virgin, Joseph and angels worshipping the 
Child Jesus (after Sannazaro's poem); {b\ No legend. Half nude 
male figure (Sannazaro?) crowned by a female, in the presence of 
two other personages, in front of a temple ; diam . 3 5 mill. 

The attribution of this medal to Santacroce results from a letter 
addressed in 1524 by the Neapolitan historian Summonzio to 
Marcantonio Michieli, and published by E. Cicogna. 

Bibliography. — Armand, op. cit., Ill, 55. — I.B. Supine, op. cit., p. 264. — 
Df Eug. Merzbacher, Kunst-Medaillen-Katalog, 1900, 

SANTA-CROCE, PILIPPO surnamed PIPPO (ItaL). Gem-engraver of 
the sixteenth century, who was practising his art not only on gems, 
but also on cherry- and plum-stones, on which he engraved 
figures which were almost imperceptible to the naked eye. He 
was at first only a shepherd who amused himself in carving rustic 
toys, when Count Filippino Doria, having met him in the duchy 
of Urbino, took him to Rome, and then to Genoa, where hence- 
forward Pippo, freed from the cares of need, was enabled to 
develop the talents with which nature had endowed him. His 
numerous children, the PIPPI, followed their father's career, and 
became likewise Engravers of mark towards the end of the sixteenth 
century, applying themselves especially, as was then the fashion, 
to copying antiques (Babelon, Pierres gravies, p. 257). 

Bibliography. — Mariette, op. cit. — Babelon, op. cit. 

SANTARELLI, GIOVANNI ANTONIO {Ital). Gem-engraver, Mod- 
eller in wax, and Medallist, born in 1769 in the Abruzzi, died at 
Florence in 1826, where he spent the greater part of his life, and 
was for many years Professor at the Academy. 

— ^35 - 

This artist owed his success to his extraordinary natural abiUties. 
His cut gems are of exceptional beauty, and his Portraits and Bas- 
reliefs in wax belong to the finest and most delicate productions of 
the art. 

Santarelli worked for some time at the Milanese Mint, and 
from there was sent to Parma as Engraver to the Mint of that city. 
By him are said to be the dies for the coinage of Felix and Eliza 
for Lucca and Piombino (1805-1814) and Marie Louise for Parma, 
181 5 (after Manfredini's models), but the accuracy of this statement 
I cannot substantiate. 

Among the numerous medallic productions of the Engraver I have 
seen descriptions of the following : Eliza Bonaparte, named Grand 

Eliza Bonaparte and Felix I. 
Princes of Lucca and Piombino . 

Duchess of Tuscany, 1809; obv. Bust of Felix, Prince ot Lucca; 
^L. Bust of Eliza, with the additional title of gran . duchessa di 
Tosc. ; — Michel Angelo, 181 2; Prize Medal of the Academy of 
Fine Arts of Florence ; — Eliza and Felix, Princess of Lucca and 
Piombino ; Prize Medal of the Academy of Lucca ; (obv. illuslrated) ; 
— Marie Louise, Grand Duchess of Parma ; obv. executed after 
Manfredini's Scudo, which had found special favour in high 
quarters ; various types of reverses, mostly engraved by his pupils, 
as that on the building of the Taro bridge ; — Portrait-medal of 
C. Salicetti (Bon. Artium Patronus), signed A. S. F., and dedicated 
from Genoa to Vassalo, 1805. 

The artist's signature occurs usually as SANTARELLI F., or A. S. F 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Naglcr, Monogrammisteii, I, 1311. — 
Jos. C. Adam, Die Meister der so^enannten " Sclrwar^eti Medaillen ", Mitth. des 
Clubs, 1902, p. J2. — Babelon, Pierres grave'es. — Edwards, Tlie Napoleon Medals, 
1837. ~ Bramsen, op. cit. 

- 336 - 

SANTI, ALESSANDRO {Ital.). Contemporary Sculptor and Engrav- 
er, residing at Venice. In 1904 he was commissioned to execute a 
Commemorative medalet of the sixth centenary of the birth of 
Francesco Petrarca, with the bust of the great poet on the obv. 

Francesco Petrarca. 

Bibliography. — L. Rizzoli, Onoranie Padovano a Francesco Petrarca nel sesto 
untenario della sita nascita-Medaglietta commevwraliva (j^-20 Giugno 1^04), Rasse- 
gna numismatica, 1904, p. 150. 

SANTINE, ETIENNE {French). Mint-engraver at Cambrai, 1586- 
87. He was entrusted with the engraving of dies for the copper 
coinage of 4 and 6 Deniers. 

SANTINI, ALESSANDRO (//fl/.). A Florentine Gem-engraver of the 
middle years of the eighteenth century, whose works are not worthy 
of special mention, although they were held in high esteem by 
his contemporaries. 

SANTINI. DOMENICO (7/^/.). A Florentine Goldsmith, and Sculp- 
tor of the sixteenth century, who may be the author ot a Portrait- 
medal of Prospero Visconti (f 1592), signed D. S. ; I^. sola. 
LUMiNA.soLis. Phoenix in its nest, and landscape ; diam. : 58 mill. 
Vide. Armand, III, 136, and Heiss VIII, 2, 80. 

SANTOS, SIMAO ANTONIO DOS {For tug.). Coin-engraver, born in 
1779, died in 1829. He was a pupil of Jose Gaspard, and Francisco 
Xavier de Figueiredo. He entered the Lisbon Mint as Assistant- 
engraver in 1799, and held this appointment until his death. To 
him we may probably ascribe many of the dies for the coinage of 
John VI. (1792-1826). 

BiBUOGRAPHY. — A. C. Teixcira de Aragao, Describfoo geral e historica das 
Moedas cunhadasem nome dos Rets, RegenUse Governadores de Portugal, 1874, p. 8j . 

SANTOS, SIMAO FRANCISCO DOS (Portug.). Gem- and Coin- 
engraver, born at Lisbon in 1759. He was first apprenticed to a 
Gem-engraver, and then travelled abroad for six years. Later, he 
learned modelling under Joaquim Machado de Castro, 1787, and 
die-cutting under Jose Gaspard, Chief-engraver at the Lisbon Mint. 
On 29. January 1795, he received an appointment at the Mint, 
became Third Engraver on 28. September 1797, and on the death 

— 337 — 

of Gaspard, in August 1821, First Engraver, a post which he 
retained until 1829, at the end of which year he probably died. 
Bibliography. — Aragao, op. cit. 

SANTOS, GUILHERME AUGUSTO DOS (Portug.). Contemporary 
Sculptor and Medallist born at Oporto, and residing there. He 
studied at Paris and was a pupil of Falguiere. I saw at the Paris 
Salon, 1892, a Portrait-medallion by him. He works for the Lisbon 

SANTRUCEK, V. (Bohcm.). Sculptor, Medallist, and Professor ot 
Engraving at the Prague School of gold workers, born at Tynec on 
the Elbe, 14. May 1866. He was a pupil of the Prague Industrial 
School and School for gold workers, 1882- 1886, and studied also 
under Prof. J. Tautenhayn, and at the Academy of Decorative Arts 
in Vienna, 1889-1892, and from 1893 ^o 1897 he worked under 
Prof. J. Myslbek at Prague. 

Amongst his medals are : Foundation of the Bohemian Kaiser 
Franz Josef Academy ol Sciences, Literature and Arts, 1890 
(designed by Max Pirner; signed : V. SANTRUCEK) ; — Josef 
Georg Kolar, poet and actor, 1896 ; — Burgomaster Jan Podlipny, 
1897 y — Czecho-Slav Ethnographic Exhibition at Prague, 1895; 

— Royal Vineyards, St. Adalbert's Jubilee Medal, 1897; — 
Medallion of the Primate's Chair of the Royal Capital of Prague ; 

— Jubilee Medal of the Minister Dr. Ritter von Randa; — Medal 
of Prince Bishop Leo Count Skrbensky von Hfiste ; — Plaquette of 
Georg Prince Lobkowitz, Landmarshal of Bohemia; — Friedrich 
Sometana, composer, 1824- 1884, etc. 

Bibliography. — Katalog der k. k. Mmi~uttd Medaillen-Stempel-Sammlung, IV. 

SANZ, TORIBIO (Chil.). Contemporary' Sculptor and Medallist, 
born at Lima. At the Paris Universal Exhibition, 1900, he showed 
a Silver Plaque in repousse work, representing the Coronation coach 
of Charles X at Versailles. 

SANZEL, f£lix (Frendi). Sculptor of the nineteenth century, 
born at Paris on 25. January, 1829; pupil of Fromanger, and 

By him are numerous Portrait-medallions ; the following were 
exhibited at the Paris Salon : 1849. M. N***; — 1850. M"= M. 
M*** ; — M. H. F***; — 1853. M. F. C***. His name occurs among 
the exhibitors at the Salon as late as 1879. 

SAPORTA, LOUIS DE (French). Mint-master at Toulouse, circ. 
1 580-1 590. (Fide P. Bordeaux, Les Ateliers tnonitaires de Toulouse et 
de Pamiers, Rev. num., 1904, pp. 222-265.) 

L b'oRRSR. — Biographical Nolices of Medallists .— V . *a 

- 338 - 

SARAU, PIERRE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at Toii- 
loase ; pupil of Laporte. At the Salon of 1892 he exhibited a Por- 
trait-medallion of M-"^ H***. 

SARAZIN, JEAN DE (French). Mint-engraver at Valenciennes, circ. 

SARAZIN, PHILIPPART (French). Brother of the last, and also Mint- 
engraver at Valenciennes, circ. 1422. 

SARDENT, M'i« MARIE DE (French). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist, born at Paris; pupil of M' de Vasselot, Franceschi, and 
M"^ Michel. She has exhibited various Portrait-medallions at the 
Paris Salon in the 'eighties of last century. 

SARDES, DANIEL (Swiss). Mint-master at Geneva, in conjunction 
with Ami D^neria, 1 641-1643. Their initials DS or SD, or mono- 
gram ID and E), or ]5) ^nd © divided by the crown of the spread- 
eagle, with or without dots, appear on the currency. I have lately 
seen a Quadruple of 164 1 with S @ D and a thaler 1642 with S a. 

SAROLDI, ENRICO (llal.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
about whom I have not been able to obtain further information. 
The following medals by him were exhibited by Sig. Stefano 
Johnson of Milan at the New York International Medallic 
Exhibition, March 1910 : — II primo peccato; — Cav. Carlo 
Guffanti ; — Ministero di Agricoltura, Industria e Commercio ; 
Esposizione Internazionale Milano, 1906; — Ministero dell' 
Istruzione ; — Inaugurazione del Sempione; — Giovanni Silvestri; 
— Al Barone Comm. Mario Treves dei Bonfili ; — Aspice I'eccel- 
lentissima casa dei duchi Gaetani di Sermoneta ; — Esposizione 
Internazionale d'Arte della Citta di Venezia. 

SARONNI, EDOARDO (ItaL). Contemporary Sculptor, residing at 
Milan, by whom I have seen a Memorial medal of Giuseppe Verdi, 

SARRACHI (ItaL). The brothers Sarrachi acquired reputation for 
their intaglios, cups, and gondolas in crystal, mounted in gold. 
They worked principally for the Emperor Maximilian II and duke 
Albert III. of Bavaria. 

Bibliography. — E. Babelon, La Gravure en pierres fines, p. 257. 

SARRAMAYOU, CARVALHO (Portug.). Gem-engraver, Medallist, 
and Sculptor of the early part of the nineteenth century. I have 
seen a medal by him dated 1814. 

SARRAULTE, ARNAULT (French). Mint-engraver at Bayonne, circ . 

— 339 — 

SART (Ilal. ?). A gem, described by Raspe, showing a Bolognese 
dog, is signed -apT tr.z'.h. The above-named critic calls the artist 
"a poor scratcher". 

SART, FRANCIS DU {Genu.'). According to Bolzenthal, a native of 
Hennegau, who distinguished himself in England as a Sculptor 
under Charles I., and II., and who is said to have executed medals, 
but I have been unable to trace any to him. Vide Bolzenthal, op. cit., 
p. 205. 

SARTI, A (Ital.). Sculptor and Medallist of the first half of the 
eighteenth century, by whom is a well-known Portrait-medal of 
Pietro Andrea Andreini. 

SARTORIUS. JOHANN (Germ.). Mint-master at Mayence and 
Darmstadt, 1654-87, also at Holzappel, 1676. His initials I.S appear 
on the currency of Ludwig VI. of Hesse-Darmstadt (1661-78), 
Adolf of Nassau-Dillenburg (1658-76), (Gulden of 1676 struck at 
Holzappel). He also was responsible for some of the issues of the 
Hohenzollern Rulers. 

SARVAAS, DU MARGHIES (Dutch). Director of the Mint at Utrecht, 
1813-1814. His privy-mark on the coins is a Mast. 

SATRIUS, or SATRIENUS, L. The signature L. SATRI occurs on a 
gem, described by Raspe (Tassie Gems, n° 5686), and representing 
youthful Hercules wrestling with the Nemean Hon. 

SATTELBERGER, CHRISTOPH (Austr.). Die-sinker of the seven- 
teenth century, by whom there is a Raitpfennig, undated; Christ. 

SALTBERGER . E . F . Z . O . PFENNIG MAISTER. HelmCted arms ; 1^. MARIA * 

HORMANiN * SEiN * HAVSFRAW ** Helmctcd arms. (Neumann 29017). 

SATTLER, HANS (Germ.). Mint-master at Nuremberg, 1622, and 
Vienna, 1629. Amnion states that he was responsible for the copper 
coinage at Nuremberg. As early as 1594 he is mentioned as a Line- 
engraver, but he never cut dies for coins. 

SATTLER, VEIT (Germ.). Mint-warden at Kempten (Bavaria), 
circ. 1540. 

SATURNINUS (Rom.). Gem-engraver of the early part of the first 
centur}' of our era. His signature CATOPN6INOY occurs on a sar- 
donyx Portrait-cameo, in the Berlin Museum, representing a female 
bust (possibly that of Antonia, wife of Drusus). The inscription is 
incuse, in verj' tiny rounded letters which offer every guarantee ot 
authenticity. The portrait is exceedingly well executed, and, says 
Furtwangler, its author is to be classed among the best artists of his 

The Berlin Museum gem was originally in Caroline Murat's 

— 340 — 

collection, and later in the Seguin. Stephani allows the work to be 
excellent, but thinks the drapery has been probably retouched. 
King mentions another gem bearing the same inscription : The 

Portrait-cameo of Antonia (?) 

Dioscuri (in the Thorwaldsen Museum), but adds that this inscrip- 
tion has nothing to do with the artist. 

Bibliography. — Babelon, op. cit. — King, Antique Gems, and Handbook, etc. 
— Furtwangler, Ueber die Gevinien mil Kiinstleiinschriften, Jahrbuch des K. d. 
Archaol. Inst., 1888. 

SATYREIUS {Greek). Gem-engraver of the first half of the third 
century B.C. He worked for Ptolemy II. of Egypt (B.C. 285-247) 
and is one of the few glyptists of ancient times whose names have 
been recorded by contemporary writers (King, Antique Gems and 
Rings, 1872, p. 407). 

SAUERBREY, JAKOB (Germ.). Mint-engraver at Berlin, circ. 1688- 
1702; father of J. B. Sauerbrey, 

SAUERBREY, lOBST FRIEDRICH (Germ.). xMint-master at Berlin, 
1703-1718. His initials IPS occur on the currency of Frederick 
William I., A/^ Coronation Ducats of Konigsberg (engraved by Ch. 
F. Liiders 1713), and others of BerUn 1713-1718, also Berlin JR, 
Thalers of 17 17 and 17 18, Gulden 17 13-18, Half Gulden 171 3, 
1715-16. From 1701 to 1713 Sauerbrey filled the post of Warden 
of the Mint. 

Bibliography. — Friedrich Freiherr von Schrotter, Das Preussische Miin:(wesen 
in 18. Jahrhundert, 1902. — Bahrfeldt, Mfiui- und Medailleti-Sammlung in der 
Marienburg, 1901. — Ammon, op. cit. 

Breslau ; appointed Mint-master at Breslau by Queen Mary of Hun- 
gary in 1523 ; in 1525 he obtained control of the Schweidnitz Mint 
under King Louis of Bohemia, and retained this privilege under 
Ferdinand, 1528. On 18. April 1532 he received instructions to 
coin at Breslau Ducats, Groschen, Half Silesian Groschen and Half 
Weisspfenninge. In 1537 he was appointed Mint-master at Prague 

— 34^ — 

and remained in office until 1554. In 1538 he built a new Mint at 
Prague. His privy-mark was a lily (ain Lilgen) and occurs on Bohe- 
mian gold and silver currency of Ferdinand I {Vide ¥i!i\a,Sammlung 
Donebamr, n°' 1033-36). His Schweidnitz issues are signed with C 
and double lily. He died in 1554. 

Interesting information concerning Sauerman's activity at Prague 
is given by Kenner, Urkundliche Beitrdge lur Geschichte der Miinxen 
und MedaiUen, etc., and Numismatisch Zeitschrift, Wien, 1903, 
pp. 271-3. 

Bibliography. — C. Oesterreicher, Regesten, &c. — Fiala, op. cit. — Frie- 
densburg, Schksieus neitere Munxktinde. 

SAULO, GEORGES (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Angers, pupil of Cavelier. At the Paris Salon of 1886 and 1887 he 
exhibited a series of well-executed Portrait- medalHons, principally 
of ladies. 

SAULINI, T. (//«/.). Gem-engraver and Medallist of the middle 
years of the nineteenth century. The only medallic production I 
know by him is a copper electrotype uniface Portrait-medallion of 
George Townsend, D. D., Canon of Durham, 1850, signed : T. 
SAULINI P., in the British Museum. 

Messrs Spink had a parure of cameos by Saulini, with reproductions 
of ancient gems, classical subjects, etc. of exceptionally fine work. 

SAULLES, GEORGE WILLIAM DE (Vide Vol. I, N. E., pp. 563-4). 

SAUNDERS, GEORGE (Brit.). Mint-master at Calcutta, appointed 
in Januar)' 181 6 and in office until 1820. 

SAUNDERS, ROBERT (Brit.). Mint-master at Calcutta, appointed 
7'*' April 1826 and in office until 1836, when he was succeeded by 
Lt. Col. W. N. Forbes. He issued N Double Mohurs, Mohur, 
Ten, and Five Rupees, JR. |, and | Rupees, and 2 Annas of 
William IV., various dates. 

SAURIN, DONATIEN PIERRE (French). Contemporary Sculptor 
and Medallist, born at Nantes; pupil of Grootaers and Roubaud. 
Among the Portrait-medallions he has exhibited at the Paris Salon, 
I find the following mentioned : 1886. M"^ C. C***; — M"^ C. 
C***; — 1887. M-"' Pommier; — M. et M""' Mellereau; — 1889. 
M. B. Gendron; — 1890. M. B***; — 1891. M. Verdier; — 
M. H***; — 1893. M"" M*** et T***. 

SAUSSEREAU, JEAN (French). Mint-master at Angers, before 14. 

December 1398. 

SAUSSEREAU. JEHAN Junior (French). Mint-master at Angers, 
1398 — 15. April 1402. 

— 342 — 

SADSSURE, HENRY WILLIAM DE {Amer.). 1763-1839. Second 
Director of the Philadelphia Mint, 1795, and successor of David 
Rittenhcuse. He remained in office only a few months. Under him 
the Dollar of 1795 was issued, with the new head of Liberty, 
designed by Stuart, the famous portrait-painter {q. v. infra). Stuart 
facetiously remarked that Liberty on the other coins had run mad- 
referring to the dishevelled hair on the head of Liberty on the pre- 
vious coins — we will bind it up, and thus render her a steady 
matron (Snowden, Washingtoti Medals, p. 179). 

SAUVAGEAU, LOUIS {French). Sculptor of the second half of the 
nineteenth century, born at Paris ; pupil of Lequien and Toussaint. 
Beside many Bas-reliefs, he has executed a number of Portrait- 
medallions, one of which was exhibited at the Paris Salon, as early 
as 1863. 

SAUVAGfiRE, OLIVIER DE LA {French). Mint-master at Angers, 
appointed on 13. November 1395. 

SAUVAGfiRE, PIERRE DE LA (French). Mint-master at Angers, 
from a little before 1400 to 5. January 1401 . 

SAUVAIN, BALTHAZAR (French). Mint-master at Mont6limar, 
1546-7. Privy-mark, thistle in bloom. He issued currency in the 
name of Francois I. The Montelimar Mint was reestablished 17. 
February 1546. 

SAUVIGNAG, BERNARD (French). Mint-master at Montpellier and 
Perpignan under Louis XI. and Charles VIH. 

SPERANDIO ijifra. Sculptor, Medallist, Goldsmith, and Painter ot 
Mantua, born n;r. 1430, died between 1490 and 1505. 

SAVII, TOMMASO DI (Ital.). A bronze Plaquette, described by 
Molinier (Les Plaquettes, n° 356) and Bode (Italienische Bron^^en, 
n° 1252) is signed : THOMASODI- SAVII F. It represents the 
Madonna between two Saints, and is the work of a Venetian artist 
of the late Renaissance period, end of the sixteenth century. 
Bolzenthal names him CamiJlo de Savii. 

SAVINE, LfiOPOLD PIERRE ANTOINE (French). Contemporary 
Sculptor, born at Paris; pupil of Dumont, Thomas, and Injalbert. 
At the Paris Salon, 1883, he exhibited a Portrait-medallion of D"" 
Schilizzi ; in 1885, one of M"'^ Marie Schilizzi; and in 1889, a 
third ofM-= A. R***. 

SAVOIE, CLAUDE (French). Mint-master at Cornavin (Geneva) 
in 1525, then at Geneva, 5. December 1535 to 24. January 1539. 
He was Syndic of Geneva, 1532 and 1536, and later also Ambassador 

— 343 — 

at Berne . Complaints having been made against him and the coins 
he issued, Henri Goulaz was appointed his successor at the Mint 
in 1539. 

Bibliography. — Promis, Momte dei ReaJi di Savoia, t. I, p. 35. — E. Demole, 
Les Maitres, les Graveurs et les Efsayeurs de la Motinaie de Getieve (1555-1792), 

SAVOIE, FRANgOIS {French). Mint-master at Chamb^ry, 1524- 


SAVONA, MARTINO DA {IlaL). Vide MART. SA. OP. Vol. Ill, 
p. 586. 

SAVOYE, JEAN DE {Frenclj). Mint-engraver at Troyes, 1363-64, 

and again 1364-65 . 

SAVREUX, HENRI EDGtNE(Frm^/;). Contemporary Sculptor, born 
at Paris ; pupil of O. Savreux, L. Cogniet, S. Cornu, and Jouffroy. 
At the Paris Salon, 1869, he exhibited two Portrait-medallions, and 
in 1874, one ofM. J. Chamartin. 

SAWYER, EDWARD {Ainer.). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Chicago; pupil of C.R. Verlet; residing in Paris (1909). At the 
Paris Salon 1909, he exhibited a frame containing eleven medals in 
gilt metal. 

At the New York International Medallic Exhibition, March 19 10, 
he exhibited the following works: — Marie Christiani Sawyer; — 
Alfred H. Maurer; — Eugene Paul Ullman; — Captain Coffey ; — 
Old Jim; — Apache; — Theodore B. Osborne; — Chief Tja-yo- 
ni; — N-el-so-meh-yuma. 

SAX, M"- EMILIE (Froich). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Paris ; pupil of Millet de Mareilly, by whom I have seen a Portrait- 
medalHon at the Paris Salon, 1890. 

S. B. Fnf^ STENZEL HERMANN. Mint-master at Danzig, 1609- 

S. B. Vide SAMUEL BULL. Medallist to the London Royal Mint, 
in the early part of the eighteenth century, under Anne and 
George I. 

S. B. Vide STEPFANO BARBARO. Mint-inspector at Venice, 1753. 

S. B. Vide S. BRtJCKMANN. Mint-master at Thorn, 1764-1768. 

S. B. (Germ.). Initials of a German Medallist of the third quarter 
of the sixteenth centur}'. They occur on a Portrait-medal, dated 
1579, of Octavian Schrenckh, Bavarian counsellor (in the Berlin 
Museum) . Other medals, mentioned by Erman, although unsigned, 
are probably by the same artist, and display the same characteristics 
of treatment : 15 71. Jacob Frolich von Freydenfels (BerUn); — 

— 344 — 

1572. Nicks Michel von Olsnitz, chancellor (Berlin); — 1581. 
Hans Franz Neuhaus (model in honestone in the German Museum 
at Nuremberg) . 

Bibliography. — Erman, op. cit. 

S. C . Vide STANISLAUS CIKOWSKI . Treasurer to the Crown ot 
Poland at Krakau, 1590-96, and owner of the income of the Royal 
Mint at Bromberg, 15 94-1 601. 

S. C. Vide SEBASTIANO CONTARINI. Mint-director at Cattaro, 
S. C. Vide SIMON CONRAD. Mint-master at Steuerwald, 1690-93. 

S. C. Vide SCHABEL (Mint-master) and CLOTZ (Mint-warden) at 
Giinzburg, 1765- 1773. 

SCACCERA, GIOVAN ANTONIO, possibly a Medallist's name, and the 
author of medals signed S. M. (q. v. infra). Scaccera was a Mode- 

SCAILLIET, EMILE PHILIPPE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born at Paris; pupil of Lehmann, Jouffroy, and Moreau-Vauthier. 
He has been a constant exhibitor at the Paris Salon since 1882, 
and by him are numerous Portrait-medaUions : 1882. M. Dupont- 
Zypci; — M. E. L***; — 1883. M"^ Suzanne Scailliet; — 1884. 
M'l^ J. B***; — 1886. 3 Portraits; — 1888. 3 Portraits; — 1888. 
4 Portraits; — 1890. 2 Portraits; — 1891 . M""^ Scailliet; — 1893. 
M.J. Paulme; — M, E. Le Sache ; — M. E. Baudot; — 1804. 
M. V***; — 1896. M"' J. S***;— 1902, 2 Plaquettes, and Portrait- 
medallion of M. Julian Poinssot, etc. 

SCAZOLI, LELIO (//a/.). Mint-master at Parma, 1 580-1604. 

SCALABRINO, PIETRO (Jtal.). Mint-master at Modena under 
Ercole II. The Engraver Gianbattista del Porto worked under him. 

SCARLATINI, TOMMASO (Jtal.). A Florentine Sculptor of the 
second half of the fifteenth century, mentioned by Bolzenthal, as 
having possibly practised the art of the MedaUist, but none of whose 
works in that branch are known . 

SCARPO, PAOLO (//a/.). Mint-master at Parma, 1596-1629. 

SGETCHLET, J . (Brit.) . A number of Birmingham Masonic Tokens, 
1794, are signed : I. SGETCHLET FECIT. They are described by W. 
J. Davis, Warwickshire Token Coinage, p. 24, n°' 212-221. Scetchley 
was an R. A. 

SCH.. L. V. (Austr.}). This signature occurs on a Portrait-medal 
ot Charles, ICing of the Two-Sicilies, 1735 (Ramon Catalogue, IV, 

— 345 — 

SCHAAB STAMP and SEAL CO. A firm at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 
wiiich in recent years has issued an extensive series of tokens, 
metallic business cards &c. in both brass and aluminium. 

SCHAAK, J. VAN (Dutch). Medallist of the early part of the 
eighteenth century, by whom are amongst others : Memorial Medal 
oi John Frederick Helvetius ot The Hague, 1709; — Memorial 
Medal of Bombardus Sandijk, minister at The Hague, 1727, etc. 

SCHAAR. P. (Belg.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist of 
Brussels, born at Schaerbeek, 30. July 1872, whose works in the 
medallic art have so far proved fairly successful. I have seen by him 
a medal of the Club du Chien berger beige, 1902, and a series of 
models of dogs' heads, which are very well treated. At the Salon 
international de la medaille, Brussels 1910,?, Schaar exhibited the 
following medallic w^orks : Belgian Shepherd ; cast medallion in 
bronze; — St. Bernard; cast medallion in bronze; — Prof. Massin; 
medals in silver and bronze; — Barroi; cast medallion in bronze; 
— Saint-Hubert, cast medallion in bronze; — Shepherd of Malines, 
cast medallion in bronze. 

SCHAASBERG, A. (Germ.). Medallist of the second half of the 
eighteenth century, by whom is an Alliance medal of the Freema- 
sons Lodge of Strict Observance of Brunswick and the Grand Orient 
of the Netherlands, 1781. 

SCHAAK, J. VAN (Dutch). By this Engraver is an unsigned medal 
of Helvetius, The Hague, brought to my notice by D"^ H. R. Storer 
(A.J.N. 1563). Fide SCHAAK. 

SCHABBEL, HEINRICH {Germ.). Moneyer at Wismar, 1 599-1 600. 

SCHABEL (Mint-master) and CLOTZ (Mint-warden) at Giinzburg, 
1765-1773, on coins of Clemens Wenzel. 

SCHABEL (Germ.). Die-sinker and Engraver at Nuremberg, circa 

SCHABEL, ANTON (Austr.). Medallist and Chief-engraver at the 
Mint of Venice, born in 1725, pensioned off in 1805. He worked 
at first at Vienna, 175 5-1765 and in 1766 was deputed to engrave 
the dies for the Venetian Levant Thalers (Tallen) at Venice. In 
1803 his name occurs as Chief-engraver at Venice, when his annual 
salary amounted to 818 Florins. On his 50 years' Jubilee of service, 
4. October 1805, he received a pension equalling his yearly 

The Engraver's initials A. S. occur on a rare Conventionsthaler 
with the portrait of the Empress Maria Theresia, 1768, and also 
on other coins. The signature we find also on Portrait-medals of 
Cardinal Prospero Colonna, with Charitas on ^L, and Cardinal 

— 34^ — 

Giuseppe Garampio, with similar I^, and further : D"" A. Piero- 
pane, Venice, 1750; — The Plague at Venice, 1784; — Foundling 
Hospital, 1786, etc. 

Bibliography. — V. Padowan, Numntografia Vene:(iana, Venezia, 1877. — 
Katalog der Mun\- und Medaillen-Sammlung des K. K. Hauptmun:(amtes in Wien, 

IV, 1331. 

SCHA6EL, AUGUST (jGervi.). Contemporary Medallist, born at 
Schw.-Gmiind in May 1845, where he learned the art of die-sinking. 
In 1869 he entered the Nuremberg School of Art, and there worked 
under Prof, von Kreting as Sculptor and Medallist. He served in 
the Franco-German war with the troops of Wiirtemberg, 1870/71, 
and aftersvards returned to Nuremberg, when in 1874 he cut his 
first medal, that of Hans Sachs, on the inauguration of his monu- 
ment in that city. His further works are : Prize Medal 1875 of the 
King Louis foundation for the Nuremberg Industrial Museum 
(struck at the Munich mint); — Prize Medal of the Nuremberg 
Hop Show 1877; — Portrait-plaquette of Frederick II, the Great 
(issued in 1906) ; — Prince Bismarck (1907) ; — Louise, Queen of 
Prussia (1907) (2 var.); — Bliicher (1907); — Alexander von 
Humboldt (1907); — Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg 
(1908); — Gutenberg (1908); — Friedrich von Schiller (1908); 
— Goethe. 

These Plaquettes are all uniface and cast. 

In 1876 Schabel became Professor at the School of Engraving 
annexed to the Bavarian Industrial Museum at Nuremberg, but 
since 1888 has resided in Munich. 

The artist's signature occurs as SCHABEL ; — A. SCHABEL F. ; — A. 
SCHABEL M., etc. 

Bibliography. — A. Liebig, Die Medaillen und Plaketten des Medailleurs August 
Schabel, Berl. Miinzbl., 1908, 107, 

SCHABORN, HANS (Germ.). Die-sinker at the Mint of Breslau, 

SCHACCABAROZZO, D. BERNARDO (Ital.). Mint-master at Milan, 
18. November 1547 to 21. August 1563. 

SCHAD or SCHEID, PHILIPP (Germ.). Mint-warden at Mayence, 
circ. 1636. 

SCHADOW, GOTTFRIED (Germ.). Sculptor, born in Berlin, 1764; 
was trained in Rome under the best masters, returned to Berlin, 
and became Director of the Academy of Arts; laboured there for 62 
years, and produced works which placed him among the first rank 
of artists ; he had two sons, one 01 whom distinguished himself as 
a sculptor, and the other as a painter. He died in 1850. 

Riippell ascribes to Schadow a Portrait-medallion (cast) of Goethe 
(95 mill.), with a Pegasus on ^, and states that it was modelled 
in 1815. 

— 347 — 

SCHAFER, ADAM and FREDERICK (G^r;;/.). Contractors ofthe Mints 
of Neissen and Teschen, 1621. 

SCHAEFFER, ANTON {Germ.'). Medallist, Coin-engraver, Mint- 
master and Mint-councillor at Mannheim, «Vf. 1744-1799. He was 
born at Diisseldorf in 1722, and was a son of Wigand Schaeffer. 
On his father's death (1744) he obtained the appointment of Court- 
medallist to the Electors Palatine. He died at Mannheim in 1799. 

Among the coin-dies ascribed to him, some of which are 
signed A. S. I have noted : Rhine gold Ducat, 1778; iR Mannheim 
Conventions Thalers 1778-1795 ; HalfThalers 1779, 1781-4, 1786, 
1791-9S ; Zwanziger 1779-82, 1783, 1784, 1787, 1789-93 ; Zehner 
1778-82, 1785-91, 1794; Sechser 1780, 1782, 1784-85, 1788-89; 
Kreuzer 1783-84, 1786, 1793-95 (also impressions in gold); JE 
Zweier 1786; Pfenning 1786, 1793-95 ; Vicariate coins of Mannheim: 
Conventions Thalers 1790, 1792; HalfThalers 1790, 1792; 

1^,- ^ 

:>: ^' 

(_;. jntions Half Thaler, 1792. 

Zwanziger 1790, 1792; Zehner 1790, 1792; — Speyer, Memorial 
coinage of Franz Christoph, Freiherr von Hutten, 1770; Conven- 
tions Thaler, Gulden, etc., 1770, of August, Count von Limburg- 
Gehmen-Styrum, etc. ; — Palatinate-Sulzbach line ; Charles 
Theodore, Heidelberg Proclamation Gulden, 1746; — Wildberger 
Mining Thalers 1753, 1756, 1758, and Gulden 1748, 1758; and 
Conventions Thaler and Half Thaler, 1765 ; — Bretzenheim, Carl 
August, Conventions Thaler and Half Thaler, 1790; — 

Anton Schaffer was appointed Mint-engraver at Mannheim, i . 
July 1748; Mint-master, 16. May 1764, and Mint-councillor 
5. February 1766. 

The best known medals by this artist are : Portrait-medal of 
Charles Theodore, Elector Palatine, 1 748 ; ^. q.viescit • non • dormit. 
Lion, etc. ; — Another, dated 1781 ; — Prize-medal for Anatomy, 
of the Ingolstadt University; — Meeting ofthe Emperor Francis I, 
his son Joseph, and the Landgrave of Hesse, Louis VIII, at Walde, 
near Heussenstamm, 1764; — Inauguration ofthe Jesuit Church 
at Mannheim, 1760; — Series of Portrait-medals ofthe Electors Pala- 

— 348 - 

tine (30); these were begun by Wigand Schiiffer; — Hunting 
medal of Louis VIII. of Hesse, undated; — Memorial medal of 
Maximilian Joseph III., Elector Palatine, 1777; — Prize medal of 
the Munich School of Anatomy, 1779 ; — Medal of Merit of Charles 
Theodore, Elector Palatine, undated ; — Prize Medal of the Pala- 
tine Electoral German Society ; — Medal on the Sede Vacante of 
Speyer, 1770; — J^. Medal of Civil Merit of Charles Theodore, 
1792; — Institution of the Ladies' Order of St. Elizabeth, 1766, 
with bust of Elisabeth Auguste, Electress Palatine ; — Marriage 
medal of Prince Elector Palatine Charles Theodore with Princess 
Palatine Marie Elisabeth Augusta, 1766; — Marriage medal of King 
Frederick Augustus of Saxony with Princess Palatine Maria Amalia 
Augusta, 1768, etc. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Die Medaillen und Muifs^en des Gesamt- 
hanses Wittelsbach, 1901. — I. V. Kull, op. cit. — Domanig, Die Deutsche Medaille, 
1906. — Beierlein, op. cit. — Joseph u. Fellner, op. cit. — V. Heyden, Ehrenieichen, 

engraver at Weilburg, 1749-1754; then Mint-master and Engraver 
at Eisenach, in the service ot the Ducal court of Saxony, 175 5-1776. 
He was a son of Wiegand Schaffer and was born at Diisseldorf 
in 1725. According to some sources he first collaborated for some 
years with his two brothers Anton and Joseph at the Mannheim 

I have come across his signature S on the following coins : 
Thaler of Carl Peter Ulrich of Holstein, 1753; — Thaler, Halt 
Thaler, Gulden, etc. on the Accession of Ernst August Constantin, 
Duke of Saxe-Weimar, 1756; — Gulden, 1757, etc., and it is 
probable that most of the dies of coins issued at Eisenach during his 
period of activity were engraved by him, amongst them the fine 
series of coins of the Regent Anna Amalia, 1760-64, and the 
Administrator Frederick III. {Fide Ammon, p. 150, n° 423). 

There is a medal by this artist, with bust of Charles Augustus ot 
Nassau-Weilburg, undated, on the abrogation of the " Reichsfurst- 
enstand ". 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Ammon, op. cit. — I. V. Kull, op. cit. 
— Reimmann Sale Catalogue, etc. 

SCHAEFER, HANS (Austr.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
born at Sternberg in Moravia, 13. February 1875, and apprenticed 
for four years to the engraver Matthiius Marschall, father of the 
medallist Rudolf Marschall, at Vienna. He then entered the School 
of Art, in the division of Prof. Stephan Schwartz, and showed 
himself a very talented pupil. In 1902 he settled in business on his 
own account. 

— 3-19 — 

His first work oi note, executed in that same year, is a Prize 
Medal for Running, which received due recognition. 

The charm of Schaefer's medals and plaquettes lies in the realism 
with which he has depicted characteristic Viennese popular types . 
His style is original throughout, and he is very successful with 

Servus Spezi ! 

The following Medals and Plaquettes by Hans Schaefer are all 
exceedingly well executed : Memorial Portrait-medal of Pope 
Leo XIII, 1903 (issued by Christlbauer) ; — Portrait-plaquette of 
Wenzel Seidls, on his 40''' Anniversary as a public singer, 1904; 
— Plaquette "Servus Spezi ! ", a very successful work, representing 
a typical Viennese of the lower order (280 X 170 mill.), a good- 
natured but idle lounger greeting the spires of the Cathedral, St . 

— 350 — 

Stephan's (Spezi), with the Hght-heartedness and buoyancy of 
manner pecuHar to the ^'iennese ; — Portrait-plaquette ot Ferdinand 
Happak, 1903 (177 X 112 mill.); — Portrait-plaquette of Edmund 
Guschelbauer, on his 40*'' Anniversar\' as a public singer, 1903 ; 
— Viennese in the Spring, Plaquette ; — Portrait-plaquette of 
Elizabeth Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary 1904 (illus- 
trated) ; — Portrait-plaquette of Archduchess Maria Karolina and 

Elizabeth, Empress of Austria, 1904. 

Archduke Rainer, 1905 ; — Portrait-plaquette ofLudwig Martinelli, 
the distinguished Viennese actor, 1906 (illustrated) ; — Portrait- 
plaquettes of Miihlbacher ; — Emil Wipperich, 1904; — Julius 
Kink ; — Kaiser Franz Josef, 1905 ; — Jakob Thcmessl ; — Josef 
Adam, 1906 ; — Karl Andorfer ; — The Schwab group ; — Portrait- 
medal of Josef and Marianne Fischhof ; — Portrait-plaquettes of 
Rudolf Appel; — Adolf Mader; — New year's Plaquette with the 
portraits of Moritz, Karl and Theodore Faber (three generations, 

— 351 - 

father, son, and grandson), 1907 (illustrated); — Prize-Plaquette 
of the Herkomer Competition; — Medal of the German " Schul- 
verein", 1880-1905 ; — Moravian Industrial Museum, 1905; — 

/ >i 






New year's Plaquettc, 1907. 

Badge of the Moravian Industrial Museum, 1905; — Second Morav- 
ian Rifle Meeting at Maehrisch-Ostrau, 1906; with bust of the 
Archduke Rainer (illustrated) : — " Verlassen "', large cast medal ; 

— Gretl, study of a young Girl; — 50 years' Jubilee medal of the 
Stabilimento Technico Triestino, 1907; — P. Michael Hersan, priest 
to the Church of Maria Treu, Vienna, 1905; — 50 years' Jubilee 
of the tirm of Baiersdorf and Biach, of Budapest, 1907; — 50 years' 
Jubilee of Paul Gerin, printer, at Vienna, 1905 ; — German Histo- 



Rifle Meeting at Maehrisch-Ostrau, 1906. 

rical Congress at Vienna, 1906, with bust of Prof. Engelbert- 
Muhlbacher ; — Medal of the Historical Society of Protestantism in 
Austria, 1904, with busts conjoined of Francis Joseph I., Joseph II 
and Maximilian II, 1904 {illustrated); — Fisheries Exhibition at 

— 353 — 

Vienna, 1906, commemorating the 25''' Anniversary of tlie Vienna 
Society of Pisciculture; — New year's Plaquette, 1908, of Arthur 
Krupp (10 X 19 cm.); — Thomas Koschat, composer (3 5 mill.); 

— Jubilee of the Stabilimento Technico Triestino; — Launching 
of the first four Roumanian Danube gunboats, with portrait of 
King Carol I. on obv. ; a fine plaquette ; — Portrait-plaquette of 
Georg von Hiitterott's family ; — International Home for the 
Blind, erected under the patronage of Queen Elizabeth of Rou- 
mania ; — D' Alexander von Peez ; — Jubilee Medals of Francis 
Joseph I., 1 908 (various) ; ■ — The Triumph of Woman; plaquette; 

— Medal of the Vienna Schubertbund, 1909, etc. 

At the International Medallic Exhibition of the American 
Numismatic Society, 19 10, the following works by the artist were 

Francis Joseph I., Joseph II., and Maximilian II. 

exhibited : Vatra luminoiasa; — Schubertiade (large model); — 
D' Alex. Von Peez; — Familie Faber; — Kaiser Huldigung; — 
Kaiserin Elizabeth; — Paul Ritter von Schoeller; — Triumph des 
Weibes; — Schubertiade; — Familie Hiitterott; — Ferd. Briinner; 

— Franz Tewele; — Moritz Faber; — D' Richard Weiskirchner; 

— D"" Alexander Ridder von Nava; — S. M. I. Erzherzog Ferd. 
Max. ; — Gottfried Huttemann ; — Guschelbauer ; — Julius Ritter 
von Kink; — L. Gottsleben, etc. 

These medals and plaquettes and others (in all 29) the artist also 
exhibited at the Salon International de la Medaille, Brussels, 19 10. 

The strength of Hans SchafFer lies in depicting old Vienna 
types such as, alas, are only too fast disappearing. He succeeds in 

L. FoRRER. — Biografhical NolUts oj Medallisti, — V. i} 

— 354 ^ 

giving life-like portraits, which at the same time show a delicacy 
of manipulation and surety of delineation which prove that the 
artist possesses a true understanding of his subject. He is himself a 
typical Viennese, infected with their mirth and their sorrow, and 
it is thus that he is enabled to give expression to their character- 
istic temperament in his plastic work. 

Bibliography. — Mtltheilungen der oesterreichischen Gesellschaft Jiir Mun:^- utid 
Medaillenkunde in Wien, 1906. — The Studio, 1905-8. 

SCHAEFFER, JOSEPH (Germ.). Appointed Assistant Mint-master at 
Mannheim, 16. May 1764; died in 1766. He appears to have 
worked under his father Wiegand Schaffer as Engraver at the 
Mannheim mint, and I have seen it stated that he filled the post 
of Mint-master at Darmstadt, but I have not been able to verify the 
accuracy of this statement. 

SCHAEFFER, MATTES (Austr.). Seal-engraver of Eger; he applied 
on 2 1 . August 1 644 to the Nuremberg Council for an appointment at 
the Mint, which he obtained after some negotiations in the same year. 

Prince Elector Charles Theodore, 1743. 

SCHAFFER. WIEGAND (Germ.). Mint-engraver and Medallist at 
Mayence and Heidelberg 1716-1744; Mint-warden at Mannheim 
174 5-17 5 8. He w^as born at Copenhagen in 1687 and died at 
Mannheim in 1758. Bolzenthal reckons him amongst the best artists 
of his time. His coin-dies of the Palatinate certainly deserve recog- 
nition for their artistic merit. 

His signature (WS mon.; — W. SCHAIFER; — SCHAEFFER; — 
SCHiEFER; — SCHEFR) occurs, amongst others, on the following 
medals: Inauguration Fete of the Lodge zur Einigkeit, 1742; — 
Series of Portrait-medals of the Electors Palatine (30), continued 
by his son Anton ; — Charles Philip, Prince Elector of Pfalz- 
Neuburg, 1734 (signed: W. SCHiEFER) ; — Recovery from measles 
of Prince Elector Charles Theodore, 1743; — Frankfort Coron- 

— 355 — 

ation Medal of Francis I., 1745; — Medal on the Sede Vacante ot 
Mayence, 1743 (signed : S), etc. 

On a ir. Thaler of Charles PhiHp, struck at Mannheim, 1740, 
the artist's signature is SCHEFR. 

Mannheim One-and-a-half Thaler of the Elector Palatine Charles Philip, 1740. 

Wiegand Schaffer's three sons, Anton, Frederick, and Joseph 
distinguished themselves in the medallic art. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cH. — Domanig, Diedeutsche Medaille, 1905. 
— Mittheil. der Bayer. Num. Gesellschaft, XV, p. 41. — Exler I, 425 note. — 
Ammon, op. cit. — Flad, Beruhinte Medailleurs. — Madai, Thaler Cabinet. — 
Reiinmaiin Cat. — 

SCHAEFFLER, GEORG ANDRAE (Austr.). Mint-warden at Vienna, 
appointed 6. December 1644. 

SCHANDEL, J OE AHH (Atistr.). Mint-warden at Augsburg, 1631, 
and Munich, 1647-1669. 

SCHAERDINGER. STEPHAN (Austr.). Mint-master at Landshut, 

(Germ.). Medallist of the latter part of the eighteenth century and 
beginning of the nineteenth, circ. 1768-1804; died in 1812. He 
was born at Passau in 1733, and first worked as a belt-maker. 
Becoming acquainted with the medallist Schega, he owed to his 
patronage the appointment of Mint-engraver at Munich. He took 
a title of nobility, which was however not officially recognized. 

As a Modeller in wax, this artist was distinctly successful, and 
his medallic works display certain qualities, without rising to the 
merit of Schega's productions. 

Domanig (Die Deutsche Medaille, PI. 72, n° 652) reproduces the 
artist's self Portrait-medal ; obv. Bust to right; I^. hvic 
SVVMQ.VE LABOREM DEDiCAT.MDCCLXxx. Mapofa portion ofBavaria; 
4 I mill. ; and amongst other medals by this Engraver I may men- 
tion : John Sebastian Clais, director of the salt mines of Hall in 

- 356 - 

Suabia, 1782; 50 mill, {illnstraledy Clais became a burgher ot 
Winterthur in Switzerland, where the family still resides ; — Fro- 
benius Forster, abbot of St. Emmeran, on his 50 years' Priestly 
Jubilee, 1783; — Building of the Military Hospital at Munich, 
1778; — Portrait-medal of Maximilian Joseph, Elector of Bavaria, 
and his consort Marie Anne, 1775 ; — Accession of Charles 
Theodore, 1777; — First Prize for Eloquence, 1778; — Second 
Prize for Eloquence, 1778; — I., II., and III. Medical Prizes for 

Tohann Sebastian Clais, 1782. 

Help at Childbirth, 1778 ; — I. II. and III. Prizes for Midwives, 
1778; — School Prize Medals, 1780 (2 var.); — Institution of the 
Maltese Order Group in Bavaria, 1781 ; — Portrait-medallion of 
Charles Theodore, 1791 *, — Second Marriage of Charles Theodore, 
issued by the Neuburg-Palatinate, 1795; — Portrait-medallion of 
Charles Theodore, 1796 ; — Portrait-medal of Elizabeth Augusta 
and Charles Theodore, undated ; — Salt Works, Reichenhall, 1782; 

— Marriage medal of Princess Palatine Franziska Christine, 1776 ; 

— Marriage medal of Princess Palatine Marie Anne, 1779. 
Schaufel's signature occurs as: I. SCH.; —I. I. S. F.; — I. SCHEIFFEL 

F.; — I. S. F.; — lOS. SCHEYFEL F. ; — I. IVS. F. ; — lOS. SCH.; — 

FewofSchiiufel'scoins are signed. I have come across the following: 
Conventions Thaler of Charles Theodore, 1778 (signed : I. SCH.;, 
1779, 1781, 1782, 1783, 1784, 1786-1794. 

Bibliography. — Beierhin (64), III, Nr. XXXI. — Nuniisiinttic Circular, II, 
597. — Domanig, op. cit. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Reimmaiin Sale Catalogue, 
1892. — 

— 357 — 

SCHAFFER, MATHAUS {Germ.). Probably two Engravers of that 
name, Junior and Senior, were working at Nuremberg as Die-sinkers; 
the Elder, circ. 1629-165 5 (Ammon gives the date of his burial as 
1654), and the Younger, circ. 1680. Hauschild has ascribed erro- 
neously to the Elder Schiiffer the medals described by Erman under 
the Master M.S. {Vide Vol. IV, p. 184) and which all belong to the 
sixteenth century. The author of Die Medaillen und Mimien des 
Gesaiiithaiises Wittclsbach suggests the attribution to this artist of a 
Portrait-medal of Duke Ernest of Bavaria, undated (signed : M. S. F.) 
and in the Wundcrly Catalogue a Thaler of Alwig VII., count of 
Sulz, 1622 (signed: M.S.) is also tentatively ascribed to him. Kull 
however thinks that the Engraver M. S. of the Thalers and Double 
Thalers of Heidelberg, 1627, with bust of Maximilian I., was 
MATHIAS STEIN of Coblenz, the author of the '{ Thalerklippe and 
Half Thalers of Philipp Christoph von Sotern, archbishop of Treves, 
and Thalers of Frederick V. of Baden, etc. (J. V. Kull, Aus baye- 
rischen Archiven, Mitth. d. bayer. Num. Gesellschaft, 1900, p. 40, 
note i). 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Hauschild, Beytrag \ur imuren Mi'm^- 
iind Medaillen-Geschichte, Dresden, 1805. — Wills, Nurnbergisdx Mun:(behist.,F. iv, 

SCHAFFER, TOBIAS {Germ.). Joint-Administrator of the Mint of 
the Chapter of Sts. Peter and Paul am Wyschehrad, Bohemia, 1590- 

SCHALENBERGER, MICHAEL {Germ.X Appointed in June 1622 
Kippermiinzmeistcr at Nuremberg (one of the five officials who 
were again dismissed in July). He appears to have left the city, and 
on 1 1. November 1626 his workshop was sold. 

B:bliography. — I. V. Kull, op. cit. — Ammon, op. cit. 

SCHALER (or SCHALLER), MARQUARD {Germ.). Mint- warden at 

Augsburg, nVr. 1641-1650. 

SCHAMMER, WILLEM {Dutch). Assistant Mint-engraver at Utrecht 
and contemporary Medallist. Among his medallic productions I may 
mention : Visit of Queen Wilhelmina and Queen Emma to 
Amsterdam, 1891 (obv. by I. P. M. Menger) ; — Life-saving Medal ; 
50 mill. ; — Prize medal for Carrier-pigeons, 189 1 ; — 250''' Anni- 
versary of the Foundation of Utrecht University, 1886; — Prize 
medal of the Amsterdam Exhibition of Decorative Arts, 1881 ; — 
Medal of the University Students' Corps, 1 882 ; — Agricultural Show 
at Amsterdam, 1882; — Inauguration of a Monument at Utrecht 
to Jan van Nassau, 1883 ; — Rev. H. D. Guyot, Groningen, 1890; 
— D^ F. C. Donders, Utrecht, 188S, etc. 

- 358 - 

SCHAMPAN, HANS (Germ.). Mint-master at Stettin, 1 612-16 19. 
His initials H. S. or S., or monogram p{ occur on coins issued by 

SCHAPER, F. (Genn.). Contemporary Sculptor, residing at Berlin. 
His signature: F. SCHAPER SC. occurs on a commemorative medal 
of the Centenary of the Berlin Academy Art Exhibition, 1886. 

SCHAPIRA, J. (Austr.). A commemorative medal of the visit of 
the Emperor Francis Joseph I to Galicia in 1880 is thus signed 
{Mitth. des Klubs, &.C., 1892, p. 253, 156). 

SCHAPP (Dutch). An unsigned Portrait-medal of D*" Pieter 
Camper, Ley den, is ascribed to this Engraver by D"" H, R. Storer 
(^./.iV. 1539). 

SCHARFF, ANTON (Austr.). One of the most celebrated Medallists 
of modern times, son of the Vienna Mint-Medallist Michael Scharff, 
was born at Vienna on 10. June 1845. He was early instructed in 
drawing and modelling, and in i860 entered the Academy of deco- 
rative Arts. Two years later he was admitted as a pupil at the 
' Graveur-Akademie ' attached to the Vienna mint, and studied 
there under David Boehm. In 1866 he was appointed Assistant- 
engraver at the Mint, and Engraver in 1868. In 1881 he became 
Director of the ' Graveur-Akademie '. The distinction of Court- 
medallist was conferred upon him in 1887. He died on 6. July 1903 
at Briinn. 

Scharff was a Knight of the Order of the Iron Crown and of the 
Order of Francis Joseph ; Knight of the Bavarian Order of St. 
Michael; Knight of the Toscan Civil Merit Order; Commander 
of the Servian St. Sava Order ; Knight of the Order of the Star of 
Roumania. The Emperor of Austria further bestowed upon him the 
golden Cross of Merit with crown, and the Prince of Bulgaria 
awarded to him the Order of Merit of Bulgaria. The artist also took 
a number of prizes : the Karl Ludwig medal ; the Reichel Prize 
1890 ; the large gold medals at the Fine Arts Exhibitions of Munich 
and Berlin; the Grand Prix at the Paris Universal Exhibition in 
1900; gold medals at Dresden and Antwerp, etc. 

Scharff's medallic works are very numerous and have placed him 
at the head of the Austrian school of medallists. He was a fine 
draughtsman, modelled well, and depicted the familiar aspects of 
nature with remarkable delicacy of sentiment. Compared to the 
French school, his style is perhaps lacking in softness and over 
minute and delicate, which is the only criticism that one can offer. 
His portraits are vigorous; every figure has been studied from the 
life with a rare truthfulness and appreciation, the general type and 
the individual character being equally well represented. 

— 359 — 

The following list of Schartfs medallic works is given by Loehr: 
1867. Franz Gaul, medallist; 34 mill.; — Johann Hassenbauer 


Portrait-plaquette of Anton Scharff, by F. O. Pawlik. 

— }6o — 

Ritter von Schiller, Director of the Vienna Mint; 48 mill. ; — 1868. 
Franz Bauer, sculptor ; 40 mill, ; — A. Tirka, merchant ; 30 mill. ; 

— 1869. Duke Robert of Bourbon and Maria delle Grazi Pia, 
Marriage-medal dedicated by the city of Parma; 32 mill.; — Prince 
Michael Obrenowitch of Servia, copper subsidiary currency ; — 
King Milan of Servia, AI and JR. coinage; — Opening of the 
Rai way line from Alfold to Fiume (Hungar\'); 40 mill.; — 
50 lyears' Jubilee of the First Austrian Savings Bank (2 var. ; 64 
and 59 mill.); — 1870. Second Centenary of the Rifle Club of 
Reichenberg (Bohemia) ;obv. Bust of the Emperor, bv Tautcnhayn; 
29 mill.; — 1 87 1. Golden Wedding of Salomon and Therese 
Lippmann; 51 mill.; — 1873. D"" Salomon Mosenthal, poet; 
59 mill. ; — 25th Anniversary of Francis Joseph I.'s reign (2 var. ; 
one with ^. Qio, by Tautenhayn); 50 mill. ; — Gottfried Semper, 
architect; 45 mill. — Portrait-plaquette of same; 102 mill.; — 
Robert Warschauer, banker in Berlin ; 45 mill. ; — Universal 
Exhibition at Vienna (3 var.; 40, 35, and 29 mill.); — 1874. 
Peter Ritter von Tunner, director of the Mining Academy of Leoben ; 
50 mill.; - — 1875. Karl Freiherr von Rokitansky, pathologist; 
portrait-plaquette, 120 mill. ; — Jubilee of the Savings Bank and 
Inauguration of the Rudolfinum at Prague; 65 mill.; — 1876. 
Richard Wagner ; 36 mill. ; — Portrait-plaquette of same ; 120 mill. ; 

— Richard Wagner ; ^L. Three allegorical figures; 53 mill. ; — The 
same; I^. Inscription; 53 mill. ; — The same; ^L. Scene from 
Parsifal (2 var.; 37 and 29 mill.); — Viennese Society of Artists, 
with bust of Archduke Charles Louis; 54 mill.; — Portrait-pla- 
quette of Archduke Charles Louis; 120 mill.; — 1877. Martin 
Ritter von Cassian, director of the Danube Steamship Company; 
64 mill. ; — D"" Cajetan Felder, burgomaster of Vienna; 64 mill.; 

— 1878. Albert Camesina Ritter von San Vittore; cast Portrait- 
medallion, 95 mill.; — Portrait-plaquette of the same; 120 mill.; 

— Jeton of the same ; 22 mill.; — Inauguration of the Archduke 
Charles Monument at Gratz; 62 mill.; — Portrait-plaquette 
of the Archduke Charles; 122 mill.; — Karl Ritter von Littrow, 
astronomer ; 64 mill. ; — Anton Ritter von Schmerling, 
Austrian statesman ; uniface cast Portrait-medal ; 34 mill. ; 

— Franz Wagner, bookseller in Leipzig ; (2 var. ;44 and 46 mill.); 

— Viennese Nine Pin Club *' Biber " ; 42 mill. ; — Viennese 
Laundry Maid, a study; 126 mill, (illustrated); — Another, 
smaller, with loop and ring for suspension (1893); ^5 mill.; — 
1879. Prize-medal or the Munich Art Exhibitions; with portrait 
of King Louis II. of Bavaria; 40 mill.; — Portrait-plaquette of 
Louis IL, King of Bavaria; 120 mill. ; —Prize Medal ot the Munich 
Art Exhibition ; 50 mill. ; — Double Gulden on the Silver Wedding 
of T. M. the Emperor and Empress (obv. by Tautenhayn) ; — 

- 36i - 

M Toman of Nasreddin, Shah of Persia ; — Rifle Meeting at 
Salzburg on the occasion of the Silver wedding of the Imperial couple; 
39 and 38 mill. ; — D^ Anton Ritter von Scbmerling; 67 mill.; — 
Portrait-plaquette of the same; 140 mill.; — Dedication medal of 
the city of Stuhhveissenburg to Count Eugen Zichy ; 64 mill. ; — 
Portrait-plaquette of Count Eugen Zichy; 122 mill.; — Johann 
Josef Vitesic, bishop of Veglia, Jubilee medal ; 46 mill.; — Dedi- 



Viennese Laundry M.iid, 

cation Medal of the City of Vienna to the Emperor and Empress 
on their Silver Wedding ; obv. Conjoined busts, by Scharff ; ^L by 
J. Tautenhayn ; cast and chased by Stephan Schwartz ; 1 50 mill. ; — 
Struck medal of the same type; 50 mill.; — 1880. Richard Ritter von 
Dotzauer, president of the Prague Chamber of commerce ; 64 mill.; 
— The same ; portrait-plaquette; 122 mill.; — Josef Hilarius 
Eckhel, on the centenary of his death ; 35 mill. ; — Johann Giinther, 

— 3^2 — 

abbot of Raigern ; on the eighth Centenarj' of the Institution ; 
46 mill. ; — Josef Hyrtl, anatomist ; on his 70'''. Birthday ; 64 mill. ; 

— Portrait-plaquette of the same; 120 mill.; — Pohorschebek , 
Portrait-jeton; 30 mill.; — Portrait-plaquette of the same; i4omill.; 

— Freiherr von Rizzi, president of the senate of the High Court, 
of Justice ; Portrait-plaquette, 130 mill.; — Prize Medal of the 
Lower Austrian Industrial Exhibition at Vienna ; ^L by J. Schwerdt- 
ner; 60 mill.; — Prize medals of the First Austrian Federal 
Rifle Meeting (2 var. ; 36 mill.); — Inauguration of the Beethoven 
Monument at Vienna; 64 mill.; — 188 1. Prize medal of the 
Exhibition of Ladies' Industries at Budapest (with bust of the 
Duchess Louise of Coburg; 36 and 35 mill.; — Inventions, and 
Patents-Exhibition at Frankfort-on-M. ; 56 mill.; — Industrial 
Exhibition at Klagenfurt; 56 mill.; — Medal of the Carinthian 
Agricultural Society at Klagenfurt; 56 mill.; — 25*'" Anniversar}- 
of the Savings Bank at Krems ; 64 mill. ; — Golden Wedding of 
Adolf Ignaz and Julie Mautner v. Markhof; 37 mill.; — Prize 
medal of a Flower Show, with dedication to Nathaniel Freiherr 
von Rothschild; — Rifle Meeting at Salzburg in honour of the 
Betrothal of Crown Prince Rudolf with Princess Stephanie of 
Belgium; 39 mill.; — Marriage Medallion of the Crown Prince 
and Princess of Austria, dedicated by the city of Vienna ; 150 mill. ; 

— Struck medal on the same event; 51 mill. ; — 1882. Jural Dob- 
rila, archbishop of Trieste ; Jubilee medal; 50 mill.; — Anton 
Scharff", self portrait ; 32 mill. ; — J. Schreiber's nephews, 
25*'' Anniversars' of the Glas factory; 54 mill.; — Prize medal of 
the Lower Austrian Rifle Meeting at St. Polten ; 20 mill. (2 var. ; 
one dated 1891) ; — Lower Austrian Society for National history 
at Vienna; 61 mill.; — 1883. Hungarian Society of Engineers and 
Architects at Budapest; 65 mill.; — Hungarian Horse-breeding 
Society, Kinesem Prize-medal (2 var.; 53 and 45 mill.); — 
Magnus Faeiherr von Lagerberg, numismatist; 54 mill.; — Por- 
trait-plaquette of the same ; — Freiherr v. Reininghaus, manufac- 
turer ; Memorial jeton; 30 mill.; — Second German Numismatic 
Congress at Vienna; with portrait of Karl F. W. Erbstein ; 43 mill. ; 

— Inauguration of the Council Buildings ; I^ by A Neudeck ; 
72 mill. ; — Second Centenary of Vienna's Relief from the Turks ; 
obv. by Tautenhayn ; 72 mill. ; — Prize medal of the Rifle Meeting 
at Vienna commemorating the same event (2 var. ; 3 6 and 21 mill.); 

— Rudolf Alt, painter; Portrait-plaquette; 122 mill.; — Jakob 
Kuff'ner, manufacturer; Portrait-plaquette; 140 mill. ; — Emanuel 
Ritter von Proskowetz ; Portrait-plaquette ; 140 mill.; — 1884. 
Karl Adolf and Albertine Bachofen von Echt, silver wedding medal ; 
50 mill.; — Portrait-plaquette of the same; 130 mill.; — Prize 
Medal of the Berndorf Horticultural Society; 64 mill.; — Prize 

— 3^3 — 

medal ot the Styrian and Carinthian Alpine Club at Gratz; 56 mill, ; 

— D"" Fritz Lackner, uniface dedication medal ; 30 mill. ; — Portrait- 
plaquette of the same; 135 mill.; — Josef Lewinsky, dramatist, 
unilace Portrait-medal; 32 mill.; — Portrait-plaquette of the 
same; 120 mill. ; — Franz Pulszky, Hungarian historian ; 47 mill. ; 

— Portrait-plaquette of the same, 124 mill. ; — Alois Schonn, 
painter; Portrait-plaquette; 125 mill.; — Inauguration of a 
Church at Vaes ; Jeton; 26 mill.; — Camillo Walzel, dramatist; 
Portrait-plaquette; 126 mill.; — Vienna " Kunstlerhaus " ; 
41 mill. ; — Prize-medal of the Lower Austrian Chamber ot Com- 
merce and Industry (2 var. ; 65 and 56 mill.); — Thaler Jubilee; 
Numismatic Society of Vienna ; 36 mill.; — 1885. Hungarian 
Industrial Society; 54 mill.; — Adolf Count Podstatzky-Liechten- 
stein, on his 80''' Birthday; 49 mill; — Portrait-plaquette of the 
same ; 122 mill. ; — Hungarian National Exhibition at Budapest ; 
30 mill. ; — Another variety ; 38 mill. ; — Hungarian Arts Society 
at Budapest; 68 mill. ; — Amalie Haitzinger, Portrait-plaquette; 112 
and 120 mill. ; — Otto Hirschfeld, historian ; 46 mill. ; — Portrait- 
plaquette of the same; 122 mill.; — Second Austrian Federal Rifle 
Meeting at Innsbruck; 36 mill. ; — Second Austrian Federal Rifle 
Meeting; Gold Prize medal; 29 mill.; — Carinthian National 
Exhibition at Klagenfurt; 54 mill.; — Arthur Krupp, uniface 
Portrait-medal; 30 mill.; — Portrait-plaquette of the same; 
124 mill.; — Karl Laroche ; Portrait-plaquette; 120 mill.; — Jakob 
Neblinger; Portrait-plaquette; 130 mill.; — Rifle Meeting at 
Salzburg on the 80*'' Anniversary of Count Adolf Podstatzky- 
Liechtenstein ; 39 mill.; — Anton Schmerling; Portrait-medallion 
dedicated by the Insurance Company " Janus " to commemorate 
his 80''' Birthday; 170 mill.; — Hungarian State Prize Medal for 
Art; — Marie Werner; 34 mill.; — John Wilson West, numis- 
matist; 54 mill. ; — Vienna " Kunstlerhaus " ; 30 mill.; — 1886. 
Memorial medal of Karl Bachofen von Echt ; 50 mill. ; — Portrait- 
plaquette of the same; 130 mill. ; — Memorial-medallion of Clemens 
Maximilian Bachofen von Echt; 50 mill.; — Portrait-plaquette of 
the same; 130 mill. ; — SecondCentenary of the Relief of Ofen from 
the Turks; 72 and 7 3 mill.; — Hungaria and View of Budapest in 1686; 
140 mill.; — Nikolaus Dumba, Dedication medal, uniface; 30 mill.; 

— Portrait-plaquette of the same; 140 mill. ; — Hermann Giesel, 
architect; Portrait-plaquette; 134 mill.; — Tercentenary of the 
University of Gratz, with bust of Archduke Charles; 54 mill.; — 
Portrait-plaquette of the Archduke Charles; 130 mill. ; — Karl 
Kaiser, architect ; Portrait-plaquette ; 100 mill.; — Karl Klein, bishop 
of Limburg ; Jubilee medal ; 44 mill.; — Another, on his death, 
1898; — Portrait-plaquette of the same; 136 mill.; — Pauline, 
Princess Metternich-Sandor ; 50 mill. ; — Portrait-plaquette of the 

— 364 — 

same; 136 mill. ; — Third German Numismatic Congress, at 
Munich; with bust of Dr. Josef Bergmann; 43 and 42 mill.; — 
Andreas Neudeck, medallist; Portrait-plaquette ; 126 mill.; — 
Cardinal Simor, primate of Hungary, and archbishop of Gran ; 
Portrait-plaquette; 160 mill.; — Ignaz Spottl, painter, on his 
50''' Birthday, uniface cast; 64 mill.; — Andreas Streit, architect; 
Portrait-plaquette; 141 mill.; — Marie Trace; Portrait-plaquette; 

Queen Victoria Jubilee Medal, 1887 (obv.), 

120 mill; — Karoline and Franz Trau; Portrait-plaquette; 120 mill. ; 

— Vienna "Kiinstlerhaus" « Gschnasfest » ; Klippe, 40 X 40 mill. ; 

— Prize-medal of Lithography and Line-engraving; 46 mill.; — 
1887. Ballerine, a study ; plaquette, 126 mill.; — Stephan Delhaes, 
painter; Portrait-plaquette; 134 mill.; — Queen Victoria Jubilee 
medal ; 80 mill. ; — Obv. and ^ of List medals cast separately m 
form of plaquettes; 140 mill.; — Prize-medal of the Styrian Indus- 

- 365 - 

trial Society at Grn/. ; jo mill.; — Fricdrich Traugott-Kutzing, 
botanist; 40 and 50 mill.; — Portrait-plaquette of the same; 
120 mill.; — Fr. \y. Lorinser, doctor in medicine, cast medallion; 
96 mill.; — Cardinal Josef Mihalovic, archbishop of Agram; 

Jubilee Medal u( Frai.cii Joseph I., 1888. 

54 mill. ; — Portrait-plaquette of the same; 136 mill.; — Oswald 
Nischelwitzer; 35 mill. ; — Theodor Ritter von Oppolzer, astron- 
omer; 65 mill. ; — Memorial Jeton of the same; 35 mill. ; — Czar 

— 366 — 

Alexander III. of Russia ; the Russian fleet; 56 mil). ; — Portrait- 
plaquette of the same; 146 mill. ; — Grand Duke George of Russia; 
numismatic souvenir; 35 mill. ; — Friedrich Engelhard Schreiber, 
mining director at Joachimsthal ; 50 mill ; — Portrait-plaquette of 
the same ; 136 mill.; — Theodor von Sickel, historian; 58 and 
59 mill. ; also a cast plaquette of the same ; — 1888. Prince Regent 
Luitpold of Bavaria; Portrait-plaquette, 150 mill.; — Bulgarian 
Officers' Medal, with bust of Prince Ferdinand ; 22 mill.; — Bul- 
garian State Prize Medal for Arts and Sciences ; — Jos. Alex. Frei- 
herr von Helfert, historian; 50 mill.; — Portrait-plaquette of the 
same; 140 mill; — Prize medal of the Arts Exhibitions at Munich; 
2 var. ; 46 mill. ; also one of 1892 in gold ; — Portrait-plaquette of 
Prince Regent Luitpold of Bavaria ; 146 mill; — N. Mumm von 
Schwarzenstein, a Frankfort merchant ; 80 mill. ; — Friedrich Frei- 
herr von Schmidt, architect in Vienna; 58 mill.; — Portrait- 
plaquette of the same ; 1 50 mill. ; — Emil Seybel, uniface ; 26 mill. ; 

— Franz Smolka ; 64 mill ; — Portrait-plaquette of the same; — 
40''' Anniversary of Francis Joseph I.'s rei^n (^ by Tauten- 
hayn); 62 mill.; — Austrian Touring-Club of Vienna (^ by 
A. Neudeck) ; 36 mill. ; — Vienna ' Kimstlerhaus ' ; Prize medal ot 
the Jubilee Exhibition ; 36 mill.; — Another, in gold (20 Frcs); 
22 mill. ; — Medal issued by the Vienna Numismatic Society in 
honour of the Emperor's Jubilee (j^ by Rud. Neuberger) ; 43 X 43 
mill. ; — Inauguration of the Maria Theresia Monument; 64 mill. ; 

— Portrait-plaquette of the Empress Elizabeth ; 160 mill. ; — Vienna 
Numismatic Society ; Maria Theresia Exhibition ; medal in form of a 
Thaler; 41 mill.; — 1889. Wilhelm Freiherr von Bleichroder; 
Jeton, 19 mill. ; — Bulgarian Military medal, with bust of Prince 
Ferdinand ; 26 mill. ; — Portrait-plaquette of Prince Ferdinand of 
Bulgaria; 140 mill.; — Wilhelm Freiherr von Dewez, Austrian post- 
master-general; 58x58 mill. ; — Gottfried Keller, poet and philoso- 
pher; ^ Orpheus and lion; 70 mill.; — Obv. and 1^ of last 
medal issued as Plaquettes; 126 mill.; — Prize-medal of the Acad- 
emy of Music at Lemberg ; 56 mill. ; — Hermann Levy, musician 
of Munich; Portrait-plaquette, 117 X 65 mill.; — Felix Mottl, 
musician ; Portrait-plaquette, 117 X 65 mill. ; — King Charles and 
Queen Olga of Wurttemberg; 25 years' Jubilee of Reign; 65 mill.; 

— Portrait-plaquette of King Charles of Wurttemberg; 145 mill. ; 

— Unveiling of the Grillparzer Monument at Vienna; 56 mill. ; — 
Portrait-plaquettes of the same; 92 and 120 mill.; — 1890. Prize 
medal for Music (of Galicia); 56 mill. ; — Bohemian Horticultural 
Society medal ; 5 1 mill. ; — Erection of a Monument at Arad to the 
memory of the soldiers who fell in 1849; 56 mill.; — Alfred von 
Arneth, historian ; 58 mill. ; — Karl Adolf Bachofen von Echt ; oval 
cast medal; 65 X 51 mill. ; — Silver Wedding of Karl Adolf and 

- 367 - 

Albertine Bachofen von Echt ; a variety of the medal of 1884 '■> 
50 mill. ; — 50 years' Jubilee ot the Budapest Academy of Music; 
64 mill.; — Obv. and^ of last iss led as Plaquettes; 146 mill. ; — 
Marriage medal of Archduke Franz Salvator and Archduchess Marie 
Valerie ; 44 and 45 mill. ; — Portrait-plaquette with their conjoined 
busts; 150 mill.; — Eduard Forchheimer, numismatist; medal 
dedicated by his children on his 70*'' Birthday ; 42 mill. ; — Portrait- 
plaquette of the same; 142 mill.; — Penzing Gymnastic Club 
(^ by J. Schwerdtner) ; 5 1 mill. ; — Anton Ritter von Schmerling, 
25 years' Jubilee as Curator of the Theresianum; 66 mill.; — 
Otto Scybel, Portrait-plaquette; 120 mill.; — Ignaz Weifert, 
manufacturer of Pancsova; 56 mill. ; — Portrait-plaquette of the 
same ; 136 mill. ; — Vienna Society of Artists, " Gschnasfest " ; 
with bust of Eugen Felix, painter; 6$ X 51 mill.; — Fourth 
German Choral Festival at Vienna (^ by J. Schwerdtner); 60 and 
35 mill. ; — Another variety; (1^ by Schwerdtner) ; 5 1 mill. ; — 
1 89 1. Eduard Albert, surgeon; 56 and 62 mill.; — Portrait- 
plaquette of the same; 140 mill. ; — Christmas ' Klippe ' of Karl 
Adolf and Albertine Bachofen von Echt; 32 — 32 mill. ; — Hein- 
rich Cubasch, uniface ; 30 mill.; — Portrait-plaquette of the same ; 
132 mill. ; — Albert Grunow, directorofthe Berndorf Metal works; 
44 mill. ; — Portrait-plaquette of the same ; 132 mill.; — Austrian 
currency of the Krone unit ; — Portrait-plaquette of Emperor 
Francis Joseph I. ; 160 mill. ; — A. Portois and A. Fix; 30 X 30, 
and 32 X 32 mill.; — 25 years' Jubilee of King Carol of Rouma- 
nia's reign ; 64 mill . ; — Portrait-plaquette of the same ; 140 mill. ; 

— Ed. von Sigmundt ; Jubilee Rifle Meeting at Triest; 35 and 36 
mill. ; — Portrait-plaquette of Ed. v. Sigmundt; 120 mill.; — 
Walburga Spottl, numismatist in Vienna ; dedicated by her son on 
her 80''' Birthday ; 40 mill. ; — Portrait-plaquette of the same ; 136 
mill. ; — Vienna Artists' Society, " Gschnasfest " ; 57 and 69 mill.; 

— Unveiling of the Radetzky Monument at Vienna; 60 mill. ; — 
Obv.and ^ issued separately as Plaquettes; 165 mill, ; — Wilhelm 
Jahn, director of the Vienna Opera; Portrait-plaquette, 130 X 70 
mill. ; also as medallion, 130 mill.; — 1892. Prince Ferdinand 
of Bulgaria, gold and silver currency; — Unveiling ot the Alfred 
Krupp Monument at Essen; 42 mill. ; — Obv. and VjL issued as 
Plaquettes, 140 mill.; — F. A. Fluckiger, chemist at Bern; 46 mill.; 

— TheodorGomperz, historian ; 46 mill ; — Franz Ritter von Hauer, 
president of the Vienna Geographical Society ; 58 and 59 mill. ; - 
Therese Kuftner; Portrait-plaquette, 140 mill. ; — Adolf Mayer 
(Gedanensis), numismatist ; oval cast Portrait-medallion; 70 X 56 
mill.; — Portrait-plaquette of the same; 136 mill.; — Josef Mayr, 
jeweller at Vienna; 65 mill.; — Portrait-plaquette of the same; 
140 mill.; — Josef Werndl, Jubilee medal; 65 mill. ; — Obv.and 

— 368 — 

^L issued separately as Plaquettes; 140 mill ; — Vienna 'Kiinstler- 
haus ', *' Gross-Peking "; 45 mill.; — Prize medal of the 
y'"" Viennese Ornithological Show; 37 mill, ; — Portrait-plaquette 
of A. Bachofen v. Echt ; 136 mill.; — Jubilee Rifle Meeting at 
Wiener-Neustadt; 34 X 34 mill. ; — 1893. Karl Nepomuk and 
Wilhelmine Bachofen ; 62 mill. ; — Obv. and I^ issued separately as 
Plaquettes; 140 mill.; — August and Helene Bachofen v. Echt, 
Marriage medal; 44 X 35 mill. ; — Obv. and l^issued separately as 
Plaquettes; 120X 54 mill.; — Johannes Brahms, composer; 58 mill.; 

— Portrait-plaquette of the same; 136, and 151 mill.; — Golden 
Wedding of Morizand Louise Calberla of Dresden ; 38 X 42 mill. ; 

— Portrait-plaquette of the same ; 114 X 126 mill. ; — Anna von 
Ernst, on her Silver Wedding; 40 X 30 mill. ; — Portrait-plaquette 
of the same ; 1 30 X 54 mill. ; — Archduke Ferdinand of Tuscany ; 
Prize medal for Photography; 51 mill.; — Karl Kellermann, 
chaser ; Portrait-plaquette, 136 mill. ; — Medals with theEmperor's 
motto : viRiBVS vnitis ; 2 var. ; 40, and 32 mill. ; — 26 years' 
Jubilee of the Ottakring Fire Brigade; 33 X 33 mill. ; — Prize 
medal of the Reichenberg Chamber of Commerce and Industries; 
65 mill.; — Marriage medal of Crown Prince Ferdinand of 
Roumania with Princess Mary ; 60 mill. ; — Portrait-plaquette 



^ / \ \ 

5 Leba of Bulgaria, 1894. 

or Crown Prince Ferdinand; 150 mill.; — Military medal 
of King Alexander of Servia ; — Vienna ' Kunstlerhaus ', Prince 
Gschnas; 37 X 37 mill.; — Austro-German Alpine Club; 
34 mill. ; — Karl Radnitzky, medallist; 30 mill.; — Portrait- 
plaquette of the same; 125 mill. ; — 1894. Prince Ferdinand 
of Bulgaria ; gold and silver currency (5 Leba illustrated^ ; — 
Marriage medal of Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria ; 60 mill. ; — Birth 
of the Heir-apparent (2 sizes) ; — KarlRitter von Ernst; Dedication 
medal of the Vienna Numismatic Society; 39 X 30 : and 40 X30 
mill.; — Francis Joseph I., Jubilee of the 8''' Artillery Regiment 

— 369 — 

in Prague; 39 mill. ; — Oskar Klinger, manufacturer at Neustadl ; 
42 X 34 mill. ; — Portrait-plaquette of the same ; 130 X 56 mill. ; 

— Oskar Klinger and consort; Portrait-plaquette, 130X 56 mill.; 

— Johann Jakob and Stephan Kuffner; 25 X25 mill.; — Peter 
Rosegger, popular poet; 51 mill.; — Portrait-plaquette of the 
same ; 130 mill. ; — King Carol of Roumania, silver currency; — 
J. Michael Scharff, the artist's father; 30 and 3 i mill. ; — Portrait- 
plaquette of the same, 150 mill.; — Paul Seybel, Portrait-plaquette; 
126 mill.; — Johann Strauss, composer; Jubilee medal; 59 mill.; 

— Portrait-plaquette of the same ; 142 mill. ; — Dr. Jur. Max 
Strauss, Portrait-plaquette ; 130 mill. ; — Prize Medal of the Vien- 
nese Art Club ; 74 mill. ; — Jubilee Exhibition of the Viennese 
Ornithological Club; 37 mill,, and other varieties dated 1894 ^n*^ 
1897; — Portrait-medaUion of Virchhof; 95 mill.; — 1895. Adolf 
Count Podstatzky-Liechtenstein, on his 90*'' Birthday ; 49 mill. ; — 
Presentation-medal of Karl Adolf Bachofen von Echt to his friends; 
36 mill.; — Marriage of Adolf and Amalie Bachofen von Echt; 
44 X 35 mill-; — Obv. and ^L. issued separately as Portrait-pla- 
quettes, 136 X 60 mill. ; — Prize medal of the Technical School 
of Baden : 35 mill. ; — Prize medals of the Moravian Agricultural 
Society at Briinn ; 52 and 36 mill. ; — Hans von Biilow, composer; 
56 and 58 mill. ; — Portrait-plaquette of the same ; 126 mill. ; — 
Leopold Ritter von Dittel, on his 70'^ Birthday; 58 mill.; — 
Portrait-plaquette of the same; 130 mill. ; — Anton Dreher, 
manufacturer: 45X36 mill.; — Portrait-plaquette of the same; 
140 X 60 mill. ; — Silver Wedding of Anton and Kathe Dreher : 
65 mill.; — Conjoined busts, Portrait-plaquette of the same; 
145 mill. ; — Archduke Eu^en ; 41 mill. ; — Portrait-plaquette of 
the same; 145 mill.; — Theodor Kohn, archbishop of Olmiitz; 
56 mill. ; — Building of a Bridge on the Danube, with bust of 
King Carol of Roumania ; 70 mill. ; — Saxon State Prize for Arts ; 
56 mill.; — Franz Smolka; 64, and 65 mill.; — Moriz Weiss von 
Wellenstein, on his 70''' Birthday; 58 mill.; — Portrait-plaquette 
of the same, 130 mill. ; — Unveiling of the Mozart Monument at 
Vienna; 56 mill. ; — Obv. and ^L issued separately as Plaquettes, 
150 mill. ; — Archduke William, Memorial Jeton; 30 mill.; — 
1896. Arthur Krupp, hunting jeton; 30 mill. ; — Championship 
Prize medal of the Baden Racing Club; 60 mill. ; — Golden Wedding 
of Heinrich and Barbara Cubasch; 31 mill.; — Portrait-plaquette 
of Frau Cubasch, 126 mill.; — Drasche Ritter von Wartinberg, 
physician in ordinary to the Emperor, 58 mill.; — Prize medal of 
the Dresden Fine Arts Society ; 55 mill. ; — Franz Frimmel von 
Traisenau, of Frankfort, on his 80"' Birthday : Portrait-plaquette, 
1 17 X 90 mill. ; — Wilhelm Ritter von Hartel, historian ; 58 mill. ; 

— Portrait-plaquette of the same; 136 mill.; — Professor Riippel 

L. FoRRER. — Biographical Notices of Medallists. — V. H 

— 370 — 

at Frankfort-on-M. ; Prize medals, 55, and 56 mill.; — Vienna 
Society of Artists, 37X37 mill. ; — Josef Wiinsche, manufacturer, 
42X33 mill. ; — Portrait-plaquette of the same; 140 X 58 mill., 
— 1897. Samuel Avery; 64 mill. ; — Moritz Ritter von Borkenau, 
64, and 65 mill. ; — Portrait-plaquette of the same ; 126 X 64 mill.; 

■I 'I'iL/J:^. :/!?:! J^ 

Jubilee Medal of Francis Joseph I., 1898. 

— Count FoUioi de Crenneville; 75 mill. ; — Hann, director of 
the Central Meteorological Institute; 56, and 59 | mill.; — Marie 
Krupp; religious medal; 29 mill.; — D' and Mrs. Wilhelm 
Mautner Ritter von Mauistein ; Portrait-plaquette, i_)2 mill. ; — 

— 371 — 

Modling School Prize medal (2 var. ; 35, and 37 I, mill.) ; — Vin- 
cenz Miller, Ritter von and zu Aichholz; 50 mill.; — Portrait- 
plaquette of the same; 120X60 mill.; — Sophie Miller von 
Aichholz; Portrait-plaquette, 120X60 mill.; — Medal of honour 
in gold and enamel of the Munich Arts Exhibition; 50X 50 mill.; 

— King Alexander of Servia, silver currency ; — Portrait-plaquette 
of King Alexander of Servia; 1 50 mill. ; — Alexander Szilagy, Hbra- 
rian to the Budapest University (2 var. ; 58 mill.) ; — Portrait- 
plaquette of the same; 126 mill. ; — White, school teacher in New 
York; 64 and 65 mill.; — Viennese Artists' Society; 39 X 39 mill. ; 

— 1898. Royal Hungarian Academy of Sciences at Budapest; 

Goethe Memorial Medal (obv.) 

72 mil.; — Ferdinand Dehm and Franz Olbricht, Viennese 
architects ; 28 X 28 mill. ; — Obv. and i^ issued separately as 
Plaquettes ; 117 X 117 mill.; — Egger von Mollwald, director of 
the Theresianum; 48 mill.; — Portrait-plaquette of the same; 
117 mill. ; — Memorial medal of Albert Ritter von Erbstein, of 
Dresden ; 56 mill. ; — Count Kalman Hunyadi de Kethely, Imperial 
master of ceremonies (3 var.; 60, 50, and 32 mill.); — Francis 
Joseph I., Hunting medal; 37 X 37 mill.; — Another, on the 
Emperor's Visit to Berndorf; 26 mill. ; — Medal of Merit to State 
officials of 40 years' service; 35 mill,; — Jubilee Exhibition at 
Vienna, 1898; — Prize medal of the Board of Agriculture; 65 mill.; 
— Trials of the steamship Karl VI. at Pola; 56 mill. ; — Vienna 


Prof. Rudolf Virchow. 

— 373 — 

* Kiinstlerhaus ', Prize medal for Cycling; 23 mill. ; — Medal issued 
by the city of Vienna to commemorate the Emperor's 50 years' 
Jubilee; 60 mill. ; — Medal of the First Austrian Savings Bank, 
issued to commemorate the Emperor's Jubilee ; 58 mill.; — Vienna 
' Kiinstlerhaus', Jubilee Exhibition (2 van; 44X35, and 23 X 
17 mill.) ; — Jubilee Rifle Meeting at Vienna (5 var. ; 26 n>ill., and 
37 mill.); — Jubilee Medal issued by the Vienna Numismatic 
Society; 33 and 38 |mill.; — 1899. Hungarian Society of Architects 
and Engineers at Budapest; 56 mill.; — Anton Dreher, on his 
50''' Birthday; 27 mill.; — D' Raimund GrCibel, burgomaster of 
Vienna ; 50 and 5 1 mill. ; — Karl Ferdinand Mauthner von Markhof, 
Memorial medal; 48 X40 mill., and 44 X 36 mill.; — Unveiling 
of the Archduke Albrecht Monument ; 70 mill. ; — Visit of the 
Emperor to the Vienna Mint; 29 mill.;— Karl Wittgenstein, on 
his Silver Wedding; 68 mill.; — Gold medal as pendant to the 
Rector's chain of Lemberg University; — Johann Medinger; 45 
X 34 mill.; — D' Josephus Weinlechner; 58 mill.; — Anton 
Waldvogel and Theodor Flammcrle; 45 X 33 mill. ; — Szabo; 53 
mill. ; — Jubilee of the Linz Savings Bank ; 60 mill. ; — D''Ludwig 
Ritter von Gutmann; 43 X 45 mill. ; — Carl Rimbock, silver cast 
Plaquette ; 180 X 225 mill.; — Portrait-medal of the same; 
90X90 mill.; — Goethe; 170 mill.; — Theodor Theyer ; 
Portrait-plaquette, 47 X 35 mill. ; — Juliette von Proskowetz, cast 
medallion, 190 X 140 mill.; — Joh.Giinsefleifch vulgo Gutenberg; 
70 mill. ; — 1900. President Kriiger; 35 mill.; — Joh. Herbeck ; 
40 mill.; — Racing Club Plaquette; 72 X 50 mill.; — Josef 
Ritter von Storck, cast Portrait-medallion; 170 mill.; — Another; 
struck medal; 62 mill.; — George Washington; 70 mill.; — 
Carl Goldmark; 57 mill. ; — J. P. and Therese von Reininghaus; 
59 mill.; — H. E. Ignaz von Plener, cast Portrait-medallion; 
170 mill.; — H. E. Dumba; Portrait-medallion, cast; 165 X 
165 mill; — Another, struck medal; 55 mill.; — Altum; cast 
medallion for commemoration stone; 300 mill. ; — Commemorative 
Plaquette of a Visit to the Cissa Islands; 43 X 58 mill.; — 
Memorial medal of Wilhelm Perisch, 1899 ; 58 mill. ; — Medal of 
the city of Elberfeld; 60 mill. ; — Votive Tablet on the Opening 
of the Theatre at Berndorf; 700 X 600 mill.; — 1901. Josef 
Hlavka ; 62 mill. ; — Uniface cast Commemorative Plaquette 
of the Lower Austrian Governorship; 163 X T17 mill.; — 
New year's Plaquette, 1901 ; 132 X 176 mill.; — J. Asbenasi 
and wife, on their Silver Wedding; 44 X 45 mill.; — D' Ludwig 
von Gutmann; 13 X 19 mill.; — Baron and Baroness Samu 
Jositza, on their Silver Wedding; 42 X 54 mill. ; — Pendant : 
Female head ; I^ Primula; 39 mill. ; — D"" Eschenburg, of Lubeck; 
cast Portrait-plaquette; 114 X 195 mill.; — 1902. Memorial medal 

— 374 — 

of Raimund Wiesner; 57 mill.; — Commemorative Jeton of the 
Benefit Festival at Aussee, 16-18. August 1902; 23 X 30 mill.; 

— Memorial Jeton of Johannes Brahms; 23 mill.; — Professor 
Joseph Unger; 50 mill. ; — Professor Leo Reinisch ; 48 mill.; — 
Centenary of the Neuenkirchen Printing Works; 27 mill., &:c. 

Bibliography. — A. R. von Loehr, Wiener Medailleure, 1899, and Nachtrag, 
1902. — D'' Carl Domanig, Anton Scharff, k. u. k. Kamnier-Medailleur, Num. 
Zeits., 1895. — Blaschek, Anton Scharff ■\, 1903. — Mittheilungen des Clubs der 
Mun^- mid MedaUknfreunde in IVien, 1890-1904. — Die Moderne Medaille, 1900. 

— Paul Joseph u. Eduard Fellner. IDie Mi'in\en von Frankfurt-am-Main, 1896. — 
P. Joseph, Frankfurter Miinibliitler 1903. — D"" F. P. Weber, op. cit. — Revue 
beige de numisntatique, 1893, pp. 592, 393, 535. — Berliner Mun:^bliitter, 1903, 
p. 343. — Domanig, Die Deutsche Medaille, 1907. — Moyaux, Les Chemins de fer, 
190$- — Katalog der Mun:(- nnd Medaillen-Stcmpcl- Sammhing des K. K. Hatipt- 
nmniamtes, 1907. — D^ J. H. de Dompierre de Chaufepie, Medailles et Plaquettes 
modernes. — Roger Marx, Les Medailleurs modernes en France et a I'Et ranger. — 
Bulletin et Revue suisses de numisntatique. — Die Medailleu tend Miin:(en des Gesamnit- 
bauses Wittelsbach, Munich, 1901. — Monatsblatt der nuniisnialischen Gesellschaft 
in JVien, 1897. — Revue franfaise de numisntatique, 1903. — Monthly Numismatic 
Circular, 1058, 2418. — E. Fiala, Beschreibung der Sanimlung bohmischer Mihr^en 
nnd Medaillen des Max-Donebauer, 1888. — Menadier, Schaumiin^en des Hauses 
Hoheniollern , 1901. — Tobler-Mever, o/j. cit. 

SCHARFF, FERDINAND LEOPOLD (Aiislr.). Provisional Adminis- 
trator of the Prague mint in 1713 ; Mint-master from 1714 to IJ46. 
His issues are signed F. S. or Wu/. in monogram. Thus signed are: 
Prague currency in gold, silver and billon of Charles VI. (17 14 
1740) and Maria Theresia (1740-1746); also Ducats and Thalers 
of Francis Joseph, count of Schlick, 17 16. 

Bibliography. — E. Fiala, op. cit. — Mittheil. des Klubs, Sec, 1891, p. 173. 

SCHARFF, JOHANN MICHAEL (Austr.). Mint-engraver at Vienna, 
Medallist and Gem-engraver of merit; pupil of Luigi Pichler; and 
father of Anton Scharff. He was born at Hiitteldorf near Vienna 

Francis, Count Kinsky, 1840. 

— 375 - 

on II . November 1809, and died in Vienna on 22. May 1855. His 
family came originally from Germany, but his wife, nee Sedlak, 
was a Viennese, although the daughter of a Bohemian. 

Joh. M. Scharff was apprenticed at the Vienna Mint Engraving 
Academy, and as early as 28. June 1832, became a salaried assistant; 
8. April 1834 he obtained a special grant of 300 florins; 13. 
February 1836, a Prize of 225 florins ; 30. October 1840, another 
Prize of 100 Florins for a medal with bust of Archduke Franz Carl ; 
14. December 1840, a rise of 10 florins monthly. In 1842 the 
government sent him to Rome for two years to perfect himself in 
the art. On 31. January he was appointed provisionally Assistant- 
engraver at the Vienna mint, and on 7, March 1855, this appoint- 
ment was made permanent. 

Most of Scharff s productions concern Viennese events or nota- 
bilities : Field Marshal Alfred Prince Windischgriitz, 1854 ; — 

Childrens' Hospital at Vienna, 1847. 

Inauguration of the Raab Railway, 1841 ; — Franz Count Kinsky, 
18^6 (illustrated') ; — Battle of Temesvar, 1849 ; — Joseph Count 
Radetzky, 1850 (2 var.) ; — Julius Freiherr von Haynau ; — 
Johann Wiirth, Chief-engraver at the Vienna mint, 1845 (unique) ; 

— Inauguration of the Francis I. Monument at Gratz, 184 1 ; — 
Foundation of the Institute for the Blind at Vienna, with bust on 
obv. of Archduke Franz Karl; — Foundation of the Carmelite 
Hospital, Leopoldstadt, Vienna ; — Empress Maria Anna of Austria, 
Foundation of a Childrens' Hospital 1847 (^. illustrated); — 
Martin Luther, facing portrait (only known by a lead impression); 

— Frau Sedlack, wax Portrait ; — Zeichner, Mint-engraver at 
Vienna, wax Portrait. 

- 376 - 

J, M. Scharff exhibited regularly at the Vienna annual Art Exhi- 
bitions, from 1830-1841. In 1830. Wax Portrait; — Theseus, 
engraved in steel ; — 1832. Antique head, in wax ; — 1834. -^j^^ 
abducting Cassandra, steel matrix ; — 1536. Orpheus and Eury- 
dice ; — Hagar in the Wilderness ; — 1837. Rebecca at the well 
— 1 84 1. Memorial medal of Ferdinand I. ; — Opening of the Ins- 
titution for the Blind, &c. 

The last official work by this engraver was the Wedding Double 
Gulden of Francis Joseph I., 1854, the dies for which he did not 

Scharff was also a clever Gem-engraver. There is a fine Portrait- 
intaglio of Francis Joseph I. by him, which is preserved in the 
Vienna Imperial Museum, and Portrait-cameos of Ferdinand I. ; — 
Frau Sedlak ; — Count Radetzky, &c. 

There is a Portrait-medal of J. M. Scharff by his son Anton, 
executed in commission for the " Club der Miinz und Medaillen- 
freunde in Wien". 

Bibliography. — Josef C. Adam, All-Wiener Medailleure, Mittheil, der oest. 
Gesellschaft &c., 1907, 62. — D^ Carl Domanig. Anton Scharff, 1895. — Ibid., 
Die deutsche Medaille, 1907; — Katalog der Mun:(^en -und'Medaillen-Stempel- 
Sammlung des K. K. Hauptmun^atntes in Wien, 1906. — Johann Michael Scharff, 
Mitth. des Klubs, &c., 1893, p. 325. 

SCHATTAUER, GEORG (Gerin.). Mint-master at Oettingen, Neu- 
burg, 1 674-1 688. 

SCHATTAUER, JOHANN FRIEDRICH (Gm«.). Mint-master at Baben- 
hausen, i6j6-i6'j'j. 

SCHAUBACH, KONRAD {Germ.). Mint-master at Frankfort, Nord- 
lingen, 1423. 

SCHAUBEN. Vide NICOLAUS SCHWABE. Medallist of the latter end of 
the sixteenth century and beginning of the seventeenth, at Dresden, 
circ. 1586-1602, and Copenhagen, 1590-1599; Mint-master there, 
1602-1628, in which year he was pensioned off. In 1586 he was a 
pupil of Valentin Maler at Nuremberg. He signed: N. S. ; — NIC. 

SCHAUMBERGER, GOTTLIEB (Bohetn.). Mint-master at Prague, 
1747-175 5. He issued currency under Maria Theresia. 

SCHAUPP (Germ.). Mint-engraver at Biberach, 1730-1757. 


Munich on 8. February 1833, became Assayer to the Mint there in 
1858; appointed second Warden of the Mint in 1867, Mint-master 
in 1 87 1, Mint-master-general 1879, and in March 1883 Royal Mint- 
director; died on 29. November 1900 at Munich. 


— 377 — 

SCHEDEL, ERHARD (G^rw.). Mint-master at Nuremberg, 1586- 

general to the Counts of Schlick, 1631. 

SCHEDLICH, ANDREAS {Austr.). Mint-engraver at Joachimsthal, 
circ. 1 61 3. He was a member of a well-to-do family of Joachimsthal, 
and probably a son of Bartel Schedlich, who died in 1570. In 1593 
the Engraver was appointed a city-counsellor, and became Burgo- 
master at the beginning of the seventeenth century. His name 
occurs in the Joachimsthal Mint records in 16 13 as Die-cutter of a 
new issue of Thalers and Raitpfennigs. 

Bibliography. — Kaialog der Munien- und Medailleu-Stempel-Samvilung des 
K.K. Hixuptmiiniamtes in Wien, IV, 1332. 

SCHEEBORN. HANS {Germ.). Die-cutter at Breslau, 1656. 

SCHEELE, also SCHELE, ANDREAS (Grr///.). Goldsmith, later Mint- 
master at Hanover, 1666- 1674; then conjointly at Hanover and 
Eimbeck, 1668-1672; and from 1676 Warden to the Ducal mint ot 

SCHEERER, JAKOB (Germ.). Issuer ot Gulden (Guldenmiinzer) at 
Breslau, 1577. {l^ide Friedensburg, Neuere Milnigeschichte Schksieus.) 

SCHEFFEL. PETER (Genu.). Mint-master at Vorde, 1618-1620. 

SCHEFFER, ADAM (Austr.). Mint-contractor at Briinn, xvii''' cen- 

SCHEFFER, MATTES (Austr.). Seal-engraver of Eger ; was 
working at Nuremberg, 1644. Vide SCHAEFFER. 

SCHEGA, BARTHOLOMAEUS (Germ.). A younger brother of F. A. 
Schega, was living at Vienna in 1749 ; the celebrated medallist 
Anton Wideman was taught under him. 

SCHEGA, FRANZ ANDREAS (Germ.). Engraver and Medallist, born 

16. January 171 1 at Rudolphwerth (Neustadtel) in Krain, died 
blind at Munich in 1787. He filled the post of Mint-engraver and 
Medallist at Munich from 1738, and was appointed Medallist to the 
Court in 175 1, which office he held until 1774. 

Schega was self-taught and rose to uncommon ability in his pro- 
tession. He was apprenticed to an armourer. Hedlinger called him 
" the first Die-engraver in Europe ". 

He is the author of a series of Portrait-medals of Bavarian rulers: 
I. Otto III.; — 2. Ludwig V. ; — 3. Otto IV. ; — 4. Ludwig VI.; 
— 5. Ludwig IV.; — 6. Stephan II. ; — 7. Johann II.; — 
8. Ernst I.; — 9. Albert III.; — 10. Albert IV.; - 11. 
Wilhelm IV.; — 12. Albert V. ; — 13. Wilhelm V. ; — 14. Maxi- 
milian I.; — 15. Ferdinand Maria; — 16. Maximilian II.; — 

17. Charles VII. 

- 378 - 

His other best known medals are: Charles Albert, Elector, 1739; 

— His Election as Emperor at Frankfort-on-Main 1742 (9 var.); 

— Portrait-medallion of Charles VII. and Empress Maria Amelia, 
1 742 ; — Charles VII. and consort, 1 742 (^L. by I. M. Buckle) ; — 
Maria Anna Karolina, consort of Prince Ferdmand Maria, 1750 
(2 var. ; signed: SCHEGA F. and F. A. S.); — Clemenz Franz de 

Self Portrait of F. A. Schega. 

Paula, and consort, undated (illustrated) ; — Clemenz Franz 
received a member of the Arcadian Society, 1755 ; — His 
appointment as Grand Master of the Order of St. Michael, 1764 ; — 
Clemenz August elected Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, 1750; 

Clemenz Franz de Paula and consort. 

— Prince Johann Theodor, bishop of Freising, made a cardinal, 
1746 ; — Marriage medal of Prince Frederick Christian of Poland 
with Princess Maria Antonia of Bavaria, undated; — Marriage 
medal of Maximilian Joseph III., 1747 (3 var.); — Portrait- 
medallion of Maximilian Joseph HI., Elector of Bavaria, and con- 

— 379 — 

sort Maria Anna, undated (1759); — Portrait-medals of the same 
(JVitt. 2236-42; 7 var.); — Marriage medal of Maria Josepha, 
daugliter of Charles VII. with the Markgrave Ludwig Georg of 
Baden-Baden, 1755; — Marriage-medal (by proxy) of Josepha, 
daughter of Charles Albert, with the Roman King Joseph (later 
Emperor Joseph II.), 1765 (2 var.); — Self-portrait of the artist 
(obv, illustrated); — A''. Prize-medal, for horse-breeding, 1771 
(with bust of Maximilian Joseph III.); — Georg Friedrich Dittmer, 
1774 ; — Maximilian Emmanuel, count Terring, seigneur of 
Gronsveld, 1768 ; — Sigmund, count Haimhausen, 1760; — Prize 
medal 1773, for Agriculture; — Medal on the Building of the 
Military Hospital at Munich, 1775 ; — Francisca Christina, countess 
Palatine of the Rhine, on her Jubilee as Abbess of Thorn, 1767 ; — 
Memorial medal of Charles VII., 1745 ; — Maximilian Emanuel, 
count von Torring-Jettenbach, Lord of Gronsveld, 1768; — Mili- 
tary Hospital, Munich (1775); — Marriage medal of Ferdinand 
Maria with the Duchess Palatine Maria Anna Karolina, 1750, etc. 
Among Schega's coin-dies I may mention : Charles Albert, N. 
Ducat, 1737; — ^.Thaler, 1738, 1739; — i ^ Schauthaler, 1739; 

— Vicariatsthaler, 1740 (signed: F. S.A.); — Another, of Charles 
Albert and Charles Philip, count Palatine, 1740 (varieties); — Half 
Vicariatsthaler, 1740, and possibly also the Vicariats Sechser and 
Groschen of same date; — Schauthaler, and Half on the Marriage 
of Maximilian Joseph III. with Maria Anna of Saxe-Poland, 1747, 

Schega's signature occurs under the following forms: F.A. 
SCHEGA F. ; — SCHEGA F. ; — F. A. S. ; — FR. AND. SCHEGA ; — F. A. 

Bibliography. — Bolzemhal, opxit. — Die MedaiUen und Mfm^eii des Gesammt- 
hauses fViltehbach, 1901. — Ammon, op. cit. — I. V. Kull, op. cit. — Domanig, 
op. cit. — Reimmann Sale Catalogue, 1892. — D^ Habich, Mittheilungen der Bayer- 
ischen Numismatischen Geselhdxift . — J. P. Beierlein, Nachrichten fiber Fr. A. 
Schega, IX. Band des Oberbayer-Arch. — Domanig, Die Deiitsdx Medaille, 1907. 

— jos. Hamburger, Miinien- und Medaillen- SamtiiJung des Herrn Z> Antoine- 
Feill, Hamburg, 1908. — MedaiUes de Marie-Thcrese. — Calalogus der Nederlandsclx 
etc. Gedenkpennitigeii, 1906. — P. Joseph u. Ed. Fellner, Die Mfinien von Frankfurt- 
am-Main, 1896. 

SCHEIBELHOFER, VEIT (Bohem.). Mint-master at Krummau 
(Bohemia), 1651-1658. He signed \FS,VS. He coined money for 
Johann Christian and Johann Seifried, Princes of Eggenberg : Klippe 
Thalers, Thalers, Half, and Quarter Thalers. 

SCHEID, G. A. {Austr.). Die-sinker of Vienna. The initials G.A.S. 
occur on a Jubilee medal ofMeran in Tyrol as health-resort, 1886; 
also on a medal of the Swiss National Exhibition at Zurich, 1883. 

SCHEID, PHILIP? (Gm//.). Mint-warden atFrankfort-on-M., 1636. 

— 3^0 — 

SCHEL, D. I. {Brit.). According to Zani, an English Medallist, 
who worked at the end of the seventeenth century, 1 692-1 694. 
His only sio;ned medals are one of William 111. , commemorating 
the Battle of La Hogue; obv. Bust of William III. ; ^. Naval action 
{Med. Illus., II, o^; Fan Loon, IV, 102) and two others of Joseph 
Clemens, duke of Bavaria, as bishop of Liege, undated. These 
medals are variously signed : D.I. SCHEL;— D.I. S.F.: — D.I. SCHEL 

Bibliography. — Medallic Illtistratiotts, etc. — Catalogus der NederlatidscJx, etc. 
Gedenkpenningen . — D"" Habich, Mm^en undMedaillendes Gesawmthauses Wittelshich, 

SCHEMMEL, PAUL (Germ.). A native of Wurzburg, Mint-engraver 
at Augsburg, 1570. Although he was a clever Modeller in wax and 
Sculptor, his coin-dies do not show him to have been more than 
an ordinary mechanical workman in the medallic art. Fide 
Bolzenthal, p. 178. 

SCHENEBERG, LEONHARD (Stviss). Mint-engraver at Basle, 1565. 
He was entrusted with work for the mint at Miihlau near Hall in 

SCHENK, A. (Swiss). Medallist of the first quarter of the nineteenth 
centur)', by whom are several medals : Prize medal of the Society 
of Agriculture and Viticulture of Vevey (signed : SCHENK) ; 
47 mill. ; — Prize medal ot the Society of Public Utility of canton 
Vaud ; — Prize medal of the Academy of Berne (granted to Carl 
Fueter); — Scholastic medals of Vevey, Lucerne, Aarau, canton 
Aargau (3 var. ; signed: A. SCHENK P.) and Basle (after Samson's 
design); — Prize medal of Berne, undated (dedicated to I. F, 
Boehmer) ; — Prize Medal of the Bernese Society of Agriculture 
and Fine Arts, etc. 

H. Bovy's commemorative medal of the *' Fete des Vignerons" 
at Vevey, 1890, was executed after Schenk's model. 

Bibliography. — Ch. F. Trachsel, A. Sclxtik, Revue beige de numismatique, 
1894. — Revue Suisse de numismatique, 1892, p. 186. — Tobler-Meyer, op. cit. 

SCHENKEISEN, MARTIN (Germ.). Mint-master at Friedberg i. d. 

Wetterau, 1617. 

SCHEPP, GEORG LUDWIG (Germ.). Mint-engraver at Cassel, 1751- 
1764. Ammon states that his signature S occurs on Thalers of 
Hesse-Cassel of 1754, 1763, etc. Fide Madai Thaler Cabinet, 
n" 3744, 3747, 5293- 

SCHEPP, lOHANN CHRISTOPH (Germ.). Mint-engraver at Diez, 
Cassel, and Hanau, 1749- 1770. 

SCHEPP, JOHANN HEINRICH (Germ.). A native of Nassau-Diez; 

- 38i - 

Court-and Mint-engraver at Cassel, 1750- 1760, then Medallist at 
Frankfort-on-M., where he died in 1773. 

He is the author of tiie following medals: Second Jubilee of the 
Relief of Flushing, 1772; — Prize medal of the Amsterdam Agri- 
cultural Society, 1776 (signed: I.H. SCHEPPF.) ; — Medal of the 
"Oeconomischen Tak"; — Prize Medal of the Society Stndium 
Scientianim Genitrix, 1780 (signed : I: HEND.SCHEPP F.); — Military 
Reward for the action off the Doggerbank, 1781 ; — Loyalty of 
the towns of Harlingen, Stavoren and Workum to the Prince of 
Orange, 1783; — Memorial medal of the Court-minister J. Royer 
of the Hague, 1783 ; — Presentation medal of the Dutch East India 
Co. to the French Vice-Admiral P. A. de Suffren, 1784; — Prize- 
medal of William V., 1785; — Prince William V. and his two 
sons, 1786; — Princess Wilhelmina of Orange and her daughter, 

1 786 (signed : S) ; — Prince William V.'s installation as Stadholder, 

1787 ; — The Duke of Brunswick as Commander ot the Prussian 
army, 1787; — The Duke of Brunswick and his chief officers, 
1787; — The Stadholder's family, with busts of the Prince, 
Princess and their children, 1787; — Portrait-badge of William V. 
(sev. var., signed : S) ; — Prince William V. and consort (several 
varieties) ; — Restoration of Peace in the Netherlands on the con- 
clusion of the Act of Guarantee between the various provinces, 
1788; — Preservation of the unity and common weal in Guelders, 
1788; — Memorial medal of Petrus Camper, professor of anatomy 
and surgery, at Leyden, 1789; — Prize medal of the Agricultural 
Society of Amsterdam, founded in 1776, and extended in 1789; — 
Prize medal of the Society for the promotion of Surgery at 
Amsterdam, 1790; — Prize medal of the Society for the reclaiming 
of Drunkards, 1790; — Foiled Attempt by the Patriots against 
Soestdjik, 1787 ; medal presented to the officers Erpel and Seyffardt 
of the Hesse-Darmstadt regiment; oval, 43X 51 mill, (a specimen 
in the Bruce-Cartwright Sale, London, 1907, lot 962, realized € 3). 

Schepp was a noted Gem-engraver. His Portrait-intagli of Prince 
William V. of Orange-Nassau, of Princess Sophia Wilhelmina, etc., 
preserved at The Hague Museum, show very commendable work. 

Bibliography. — Catdloous der Nederlandsche on op Nederland betrekking hebbende 
Gedenkpeniiiiigen, 's Cjravenhage, 1906. — Oranje-Penningeii, n. d. — Van Loon, 
Bescbn'jvitig van NederlanJsche Htslorie-Penningen, Supplements, 1869. — Kramm, 
Leven en Werken, etc, 

SCHERER, JAKOB (Ausjr.). Mint-engraver at Vienna, circ. 1578- 
1588. He was a pupil of Abondio. Amongst his works is the reverse 
of a medal of Hugo Blotius, 1593 ("signed : SF), and he also cut dies 
for the Thaler ot Bartholomaus Alorecht. 

Bibliography. — Oesterreicher, loc. cit. 

— 382 — 

SCHERFF VON 'REYSS", STEPHAN (Germ.). Mint-master at Frank- 
fort-on-Main, Basle, Nordlingen, 1427-1438. 

SCHERL, ERHARD (Germ.). Mint-master at Ratisbon 1579, 
Nuremberg 1585; Bavarian district Warden, 1586-1598 (Fide 
Gebert, Gcschichtc dcr Mt"m:;;stdttc Niirnberg, pp. 62, 63). 

SCHEU (SCHEUBE), GEORG (Germ.). Mint-master at Kulmbach, 


SCHEURER, HEINRICH (Germ.). Goldsmith and Medallist of Bam- 
berg, 1 6 10. His name is mentioned by Erman in conjunction with 
those of Heinrich Knopf (</. v.) and Barthol. Holstein (q.v.) as the 
makers of a Portrait-medal of Johann Gottfried von Aschhausen, 
bishop of Bamberg. 

SCHEYBRL, HANS (Germ.). Die-cutter at the Mint of Landshut, 

SCHIELLE (or SCHILLE), TOBIAS (Bohem.). Die-cutter at the Mint 
of Prague, circ. 1 670-1 672. He was also a Gem-engraver, and cut 
armorial bearings. His name occurs in Prague mint documents, as 
having engraved dies for Groschen, Portugaloser, etc. He also 
worked for the Kuttenberg mint. 

SCHIEMANN, JOHANN HEINRICH (Germ.). Mint-master assistant at 
Konigsberg, 1780; Comptroller, 1785 ; Cashier, 1790; then Mint- 
master, 1795, as successor of Gosche, until 1802, when the mint 
was closed. In 1812 he was appointed Mint-master at Breslau, and 
entered into office, April 1 8 1 3 . On the second transfer of the Breslau 
mint to Glatz, he acted at the latter mint in the same capacity, bat 
he was dismissed from his post at the end of the same year for 
negligence. In 181 5 he was chief book-keeper at the Berlin mint, 
and in 1823 was promoted Mint-master there. He died on 
29. February 1827. 

Bibliography. — D"" Emil Bahrfeldt, Die Mun:^en- und Medaillen-Sammlung in 
der Marienburg, Danzig, 1906; III, 87. — Berliner MunzbldUer, 1899, p. 2733. — 
Friedensburg, op. cit. 

SCHIEP, WILHELM FRIEDRICH (Austr.). Assistant Mint-engraver 
at Vienna, 1893-1896. 

SCHIEPPATI, LUIGI (Ital.). Mint-engraver and Medallist at Milan, 
after the Restoration of the Austrian rule in Lombardy, 181 5. In 
conjunction with L. Cossa, Francesco Broggi, D. Canzaniand others, 
he is responsible for the currency of that period. (Gnecchi, Le 
Monete di Milano, Int. lxiv.) 

- 383 - 

A medal, signed SCHIEPPATI occurs in the Stroehlin Catalogue 
(Part III, lot 5667). It commemorates the Internment of the Army 
of Bourbaki in Switzerland 1871, and was dedicated to the Swiss 
Republic by the two departments of Savoy. 

of C. L. Schild, born in 1734 at Frankfort-on-M., settled at Hanau 
in 1756, and died in Paris. 

SCHILD, CHRISTIAN LEBRECHT (Genu.). Medallist, Gem- and 
Coin-engraver, born in 171 1 at Harburg, S.-N. ; was employed at 
the Mint of Frankfort-on-M. arc . 1742, and died at Sachsenhausen, 
3. October 175 1. He was a Jew by birth, but adopted the Protestant 
faith in 1731, and settled at Frankfort in 1733. 

Among his works I have noted : Allegorical medal, undated, of 
Frankfort-on-M. (Miin~en von F., 706); — Election of Charles VII., 
1742; Quadruple and Double Ducats {M.v. F., 736-740); — 
Medal on the Election of the Emperor, 1741 (M. v. F., 1812); — 
Frankfort-on-M., Ducat, 1749, etc. The Proclamation coins of 
Charles VII., 1742, of which many varieties exist, appear to be the 
most common of Schild's productions. He also cut seals for the 
Elector of Bavaria, and the Emperors Charles VII. and Francis I. 

This Engraver's medals are indifferently signed: S.; — C. S. ; — 

Bibliography. — Joseph u. Fellner, Die MuH:(en von Frankfurt-am-Main, i8q6. 
— Habich, Die Medaillen und Muniemies Gesamthauses WitUhbach, 1901. — Singer, 
Allgemeiues Kiinstler-Lexikon, Frankfurt-a-M. , 1901. 

SCHILD, JOHANN ERICH {Germ.). Mint-master at Hanover, 1678- 
1695 and after. His initials I.E. S. occur on Gulden of Ernest 
Augustus of 1680 and 1683, and he also issued a copper-jeton of 
himself, which has now become very rare. 

Bibliography. — Wolff, Die Marine ^u Hanover, Bl. fur Munzfreunde, 1879, 
p. 653. 

SCHILDKNECHT, ADOLPHE {Germ.). Contemporary Sculptor, and 
Gem-engraver, residing at Paris, pupil of Barbet, Roty, and Hiolin. 
At the Paris Salon of 1902 he exhibited a cameo portrait of M""' X***, 
and in 1903 another, child's portrait, in onyx. 

SCHILDTPERGER. CHRISTOPH {Austr.). Mint-master at Salzburg, 


SCHILLER, ADAM {Germ.). Master Locksmith at the Mint of 
Rostock, 1825-1842, w'hose initials A. S. occur on the coinage. 

SCHILLING, GEORG {Germ.). Contractor of the Mint of Breslau, 

- 384 - 

SCHILLING, ERDMANN FRIEDRICH (Germ.). Administrator of the 
Mint at Bayreuth, 1764, in conjunction with CASPAR HEINRICH 
SCHROEDER, Mint-director. Their joint initials S. S. occur on currency 
of 1764. 

SCHILLING, EMIL (Gm».). Medallist at Berlin, circ. 1844-1865. I 
have seen a medal of Bismarck by him, and noticed also: German 
Industrial Exhibition at Berlin, 1844; — Michael Skjelderup, M.D., 
1849; — Industrial Exhibition at Christiania; — Semi-centennial of 
the Freemasons of the Lodge of the Three Gavels, Halberstadt, 1846 
Hssued by Loos); — Baron von Nettelbladt, Memorial medal, 1843 
(masonic); — Hermann Leopold Ludwig v. Boyen, Prussian 
minister of war, 1844; — Christening of Princess Amalie Victoria 
von Ratibor, 1846, &c. 

SCHILLING, LORENZ (Germ.). Medallist and Coin-engraver, born 
circ. 1575 at Nieder-Wesel, died at Frankfort-on-Main, 19. Novem- 
ber 1637. He married on 7. June 1601 Juliane Baumann at Born- 
heim, and on 11. February 1602 obtained the citizenship of 
Frankfort, for which he had to pay 3 Gulden. He had six children, 
two sons and four daughters. As early as 16 10 and possibly before 
that date his services as an Engraver of coin- and seal-dies had been 
secured by the Frankfort Mint. His name first occurs in Joseph u. 
Fellner as the Engraver of the dies for the Frankfort Double and 
Single Thalers and Half Thalers of 1610, as well as of medals of 
that date. M. Lejeune suggests that all the dies for the larger coinage 
of that city, from i6ioto 1626, were engraved by Schilling, and 
especially those issued under the Mint-master Kaspar Ayrer, who 
was installed in 1618. He did not work only for Frankfort, but 
also for Erbach, Hanau, Isenburg (16 17-18), Friedberg, Stolberg, 
Mayence, as well as Hesse-Darmstadt, 1623, and Lowenstein- 
Wertheim. He is even supposed to be the author ot the Bremen 
Thalers of 1624, and Solms Half Thaler, 1623. Among his most 
interesting coin-dies are the Ducats, Thalers and Half Thalers 
commemorating the Foundation of the Castle of Aschaffenburg, 
and the later Thalers, etc. of Mayence, 1627-30. 

Schilling's medals, although they do not display very great skill, 
are nevertheless praiseworthy productions, considering the time of 
decadence when they were executed. The best known are : Large 
medal of 161 1 struck in honour of the city of the Frankfort Schultheiss 
Johann von MartorfF, the 12 Sheriffs and. 3 Syndics (2 or 3 varieties); 

— Plaquette with view of Frankfort, 1612 ; — Giessen University 
medal; — Portrait-medal of Ferdinand II., 16 19; — Medallic 
Thaler, 1625 ; — Medallic Thaler, 1626, with view of Frankfort ; 

— The so-called " Gliickhennen " Medals ; — Gustavus Adolphus, 
Memorial medal (c/rr. 163 1); — Undated Medallic Thaler (female 

-385 - 

figure standing on a rock in the sea; two sizes); — * Christmas' 
Medals (undated, circ. 1618) ; — The so-called' Comet' medals, 

Herr Lejeune surmises that the medals commemorating Frank- 
fort's fortitude in the Thirty years' War, and those of the Plague 
of 1635 and 1636 are most likely by SchiUing. He usually signed : 

The Frankfort Double Thaler of 16 10 appears to be one of the 
earliest productions of the Engraver, and well-known are also his 
Coronation medals of Matthias II., 1612. 

Bibliography. — Ernst Lejeune, Loreni Schilling (Stempehchtieider in Frankfurt 
a. M. 1601-16^"]) und seine Arbeileti, 1907. — Nagler, op. cit. — Ibid., Mono- 
grammisteu, V, 152. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Domanig, Die Deutsche Medaille, 
1907. — Joseph und Fellner, q/). cit. — Hildebrand, op. cit. 

SCHILLINGER, HANS (Germ.). Mint-master at Pfreimdt, Nabburg, 

SCHILOW, I. {Russ.') . MedaUist at St. Petersburg, in the first 
quarter of the nineteenth century. 

By him are : Portrait-medallion of Count Alexander Serge 
Stroganofl^(i734-i8ii), 1808; signed : I. SCHILOW.; — Medal ot 
Civil Merit, 18 14, &c. 

SCHIMMIOS. Two Poniatowski gems are thus signed : Sardonyx, 
The death of Patroclus ; — Cornelian, Idomeneus slaying Othryo- 

SCHINDEL, ROSINA ELIZABETH {Germ.). Medallist of the first halt 
of the eighteenth century, by whom is a Memorial medal of Queen 
Sophie Charlotte of Prussia, of inferior merit. F/^^ Bolzenthal, p. 254. 
Ammon gives her signature as ROSINE ELISAB. SCHINDELIN/^. 

SCHINDERL VON IMENDORF, VEIT {Austr.). Styrian Mint-master- 
general, 1629. 

SCHINDLER, AL (Austr.). Die-sinker and Medallist at Lemberg, 
by whom are the following medals : Prize medal of the Lemberg 
Skating Club ; — Visit of the Austrian Crown Prince Rudolf to 
Galicia, 1887; — Jubilee of Printing, 1890, etc. 

SCHINKEL, KARL FRIEDRICH {Germ.). Architect and Painter, born 
at Neuruppin, 13. March 1781, died at BerUn, 9. October 1841, 
one of the foremost German artists of the first half of the nineteenth 
centur}', whose works are distributed all over Germany. Bolzenthal 
draws attention to the influence he exercised on the medallic art, 
and it is known that he designed the reverse of A. F. Konig's fine 
medal of Bliicher {illustrated, Vol. Ill, p. 195; also note on p. 196). 

L. FoRRER. — Biographical Notices of MtJalliils. — V. 3$ 

— 386 - 

SCHIRMER, CHRISTIAN I {Germ?). Mint-engraver at Dantzig, circ. 
1623 ; then Mint-warden there, arc. 1642-1660, and possibly 1662- 
1664. (Kirmis, Handbuch der polnischen Miin:;^kunde, p. 182, 210). 
He had two sons : Christian and David. 

SCHIRMER, CHRISTIAN II (Germ.). Son of the last; Mint-warden 
at Dantzig from 1660 until his death, in the beginning of 169 1. 

SCHIRMER, CHRISTIAN III (Germ.). Possibly a son of the last; 
born in 1679; Cashier at the Konigsberg (Prussia) mint, 1699- 
1715 ; Assistant-warden, 1715-1718; Warden, 1718-1728; Royal 
silver buyer, 1728-1733 ; Mint-master, 1733-1743 ; Mint-master in 
reserve, 1743-1749; died at Konigsberg in 175 1. 

His initials occur on coins and medals. Among the latter, there 
is a commemorative piece of the Battle of Dettingen, 1743 (illus- 
trated in Med. Illustr., II, p. 577). 

SCHIRMER, CHRISTIAN IV (Germ.). Mint-master at Konigsberg, 
1732-1749. Initials on the coins. 

SCHIRMER, DAVID (Germ.). Son of Christian Schirmer I, was 
first in Swedish service, then appointed Mint-warden at Konigsberg, 
1 667- 1 69 1, and continued in that office after his brother's 
(Christian II) death. 

Bibliography. — Dr Emil Bahrfeldt, Die Mun:(en- und Medaillen-Satnmlung in 
de?- Marienhurg, Danzig, 1904. — V. Schrotter, Mun:^'U'esen Preussen. 

SCHIRMER, MELCHIOR (Germ.) Mint-master at Glatz, 1629. 

SCHIRMER (Germ.). Mint-master at St. Gall, whose arms occur on 
coins of 1730, 1732 and 1738 (engraved byG. Reich). 

SCHLANBUSCH (Germ.). Mint-warden at Zellerfeld, 1672- 1676. 

SCHLANDBUSCH (Dan.). Mining-master, who in 1686 acted as 
Mint-master at Kongsberg (Jorgensen, p. 23). 

SCHLAUBUSCH, HERMANN (G^r/n.). Mint-master at Goslar, 1619- 
1625. His initials occur on his issues. 

SCHLEE, C. (Swiss). Sculptor of Berne ; died in 1843. His signa- 
ture occurs on a Portrait-medal of D"" Paul Vital Ignaz Troxler, 
1780-1866, professor at the University ot Lucerne, and dedicated to 
him by his pupils in 1825. (Ad. Inwyler, Zur ScJm)ei:(erischen 
Medaillenkunde, Revue Suisse de numismatique, 1892, p. 317.) 

SCHLEMM, lOHANN WILHELM (Germ.). Mint-master at Clausthal 
(Brunswick), 175 3-1788, under George II. and III. His initials 
occur on the currency. 

- 387- 

SCHLESSEWIGK, HANS (Germ.). A native of Goslar, Mint-warden 
at Slolberg, in the early part of the seventeenth century, was 
appointed Mint-master at Gottingen, 1 6 14-16 17, and later at Miin- 
den, where he was still in office in 16 19. 

SCHLOSSER, PHILIPP (Germ.). Mint-master at Cramberg near 
Schaumburg-a. d. Lahn, 1626. 

SCHLOTH, LUKAS FERDINAND (Swiss). Sculptor, born at Basle, 
2). January 18 18; died, 2. August 1891 at Thai (St. Gallen). He is 
the author, amongst other works, of the Winkelried monument at 
Stanz, 1865, and St. James' Monument at Basle, 1872. His signa- 
ture occurs on the obv. of the Rifle Meeting Thaler of Stanz, 1861, 
as the designer of the Winkelried group . 

SCHLUND (Germ.). Contemporary Goldsmith of Frankfort-on-M., 
by whom are Plaquettes with view of the city, and other medallic 
souvenirs, brooches, buttons, pins, etc. 

SCHLUTER, CARL (Germ.). Mint-warden at Hanover 1832-1839; 

Mint-master 1839- 1844. 

SCHLUTER, HANS (Germ.). Mint-master at Siedel (Solms), 16 16. 

SCHLUTER, HANS (G^rw.). Mint-master at Harzgerode, 1795-1821. 
His initials H. S. occur also on a Gulden of Alexius Friedrich Chris- 
tian, Prince of Anhalt, 1796. 

SCHLCTER, JOHANN HENNIG (Germ.). Mint-master to the Land- 
graviate of Hesse, 1750-1760; died at Frankfort-on-M., 1773. 
Schlickeysen states that he made use for his privy-mark ot a mono- 
gram formed by the letters J and H, over which are two keys. 

SCHLUTER, HENNING (Germ.). Mint-master at Goslar and Zeller- 
feld, 1623-1672; worked also for the Harburg branch of the 
Brunswick-Luneburg house after 1636, and for Hesse-Darmstadt. 

Henning Schliiter is responsible for the fine series of Thalers, 
multiples and subdivisions, issued to commemorate the 88*'' Anni- 
versary of Duke Augustus of Brunswick (illustrated on p. 388). 

He also coined for Worms in 1654. 

SCHLUTTER, VASCO L. (Swiss). Die-sinker and Medallist residing 
at Geneva. His productions are all of local interest. I have made a 
note of the following : Lake ot Geneva frozen, 1891 ; — Sports at 
Chene-Bougeries, 1892 ; — Inauguration of the Albis Tunnel, 
1894 ; — Jubilee of M. B. Reber, of Geneva, 1893 ; — Prize medal 
for Archery and Boating, Geneva, 1893; — Meeting of the F^d6- 
ration musicale "Campagne" at Chene-Bougeries, 1893 i — Jeton 

— 388 - 


Six Thaler piece (88«h Birthday) of Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, i666. 

- 389 - 

of the Geneva Meeting of the Swiss Numismatic Society, 1893 
(with portrait of J. C. Hedlinger); — Vogue du faubourg St. Ger- 
vais, Geneva, 1896, and 1899 ; — Congregation des Saints-Anges 
du College St. Michel, Fribourg, 1893; — Prize medal of the Nau- 
tical Club of Geneva, 1896; — Medal of the Swiss National Exhi- 
bition at Geneva, 1896 (not official); — Meeting of the Swiss 
Numismatic Society at Geneva, 1896 (jeton with portrait of J. 
Dassier); — Charles Louis Empeyta, mayor of Chene-Bougeries, 
1901; — Geneva Automobile Club, 1892; — Cantonal Fete de 
gymnastique at Geneva, 1902, etc. 

Bibliography. — Revite suisse de uiimismatique, 1891-1905. 

Glatz ; was ennobled in 1562 under the name of VonFrankenfeld. 


SCHMALEKER, JOHANN BAPTIST {Ansti:). Apprentice-Engraver at 
the Vienna Mint, 1 779-1 781. 

SCHMALEKER, JOSEPH (Aiisir.). Born in 1756; Apprentice- 
Engraver at the Vienna Mint, 1779-1781. 


(Germ.). Medallist of the nineteenth century, born in 1829. He 
settled at Copenhagen, and worked for the Mint there and the Die- 
sinking works of W. Christesen. Among his medals I have noticed 
only the following : Masonic memorial medal of Frederick VII., 
1863 ; — Prize medal 1864 for Rifle Shooting; — Visit of King 
Charles XV. of Sweden to Denmark, 1862 (two varieties, signed : 
F. S. and SCHMAHLFELD) ; — Hans Christian Lumbye, Danish 
composer (1810-1874), '^^'^• 

SCHMALLVOGL, GOTTFRIED JACOB (Austr.). Chief-engraver at the 
Mint of Kremnitz, f/Vf. 1636--J- 11. June 1652. 

SCHMALZ (or SCHMELZ , G. (Germ.). Mint-engraver and iMedalHst 
at Stuttgart, 1737, 1738. According to Ammon, he signed : G. S. 
or G. SCHMELZ F. One of his medals is reproduced in Kohler, 
Miin:;;l)eii(sti^tingen, PI. xv, 297. 

SCHMARJE, WALTHER (Germ.). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist, residing at Berlin ; Professor at the Royal School of 
Industrial Arts. I have seen the following medallic productions by 
him: Inauguration of the Polytechnicum at Dantzig, 1904 (exhib- 
ited at the Salon de la Mcdaille, Brussels, 1910) ; — Medal of 

— ^90 - 

the Gudrun Lodge at Hamburg; — Portrait-medal of Perzynsky, 
writer ; — Plaquette of tlie German Federation of Watchmakers, &c. 

Bibliography. — W. Schnarje, Zeits. fur bildende Kunst, 1905.— G;w5e Berli- 
ner Kunst Aiisstellung, 1907. 

SCHMELZ (or SCHMOLZ), CHRISTOPH (Aiistr.). Mint-engraver at 
Hall in Tyrol (1753-1764) and later at Kremnitz in Hungary; 
born in 1700 at Bobrach in Suabia, died 1777. Interesting data 
concerning this Engraver are given in Katalog der Miin:(efi- mid 
MedaiUen-Stempel Sammlung des K. K. Hamp:^mnn:^amtes hi JVien, 
IV, 1337. 

SCHMELZER, HANNS (Austr.). Mint-warden at Hall, 15 36-1 5 51, 
then at Augsburg, 155 1-1560. 


master at Schwabach, 1503, and Bamberg, 1510-1515. 

SCHMID, BERTHOLD {Germ.). Contractor of the Mint of Ratisbon, 

SCHMID, CHRISTIAN {Germ.). Mint-warden at Domitz, 1675- 
1676; he coined also forWismar. 

SCHMID, CLAUS {Germ.). Mint- warden at Wiirzburg, 1528. 

SCHMID, LEONHARD {Germ.). Coiner at Brieg, and previously at 
Oels, 1 62 1. 

SCHMIDSHAUSEN, JOHANN {Austr.). Mint-engraver-assistant at 
Kremnitz, circ. 1754-*}* 25. April 1800. 

SCHMIDT (G^rm.). Mint-engraver at Brunswick, 1760-1776. He 
worked also for the Episcopal Mint of Hildesheim, 1761. 

SCHMIDT, BALTHASAR {Germ.). Mint-master at Augsburg, 1623- 

SCHMIDT, BALTHASAR {Germ.). Professor of modelling and sculp- 
ture at Munich. By him are two medals published by Hitl of 
Schrobenhausen : Confirmation Medal; — Baptism of Our Lord, etc. 

SCHMIDT, C. {Germ.). Saxon Medallist of the first half of the 
seventeenth century, by whom is a Portrait-medal of the reformed 
minister M. C. Ludovick, 1638, of Zeitz. Erman calls it a vigorous 
work reminding one of Leygebe's art. 

Mint of Breslau, rirc. 1864-1884; born 25. June 1838, died 
16. November 1884. He is the author of several medals. 

— 391 — 

SCHMIDT, HANS (Gm;/.). Goldsmith and Mint-wnrden at Wiirz- 
burg, 1506. 

SCHMIDT, HANS Fide. JOHANN SCHMIDT. He is responsible for 
the currency issued for common circulation in Mayence, Hesse- 
Darmstadt, Nassau-Saarbrucken, and Frankfort-on-Main 1623- 
1636, and coined at Frankfort, where he held the post of Mint- 
master from 1624 to 1637. 

SCHMIDT, HANS GEORG (Germ.). Goldsmith of Munich, 1681- 

SCHMIDT, HEINRICH(Gm;/.). Mint-master at Rostock, 1 571-1594. 
He took the oath at Liineburg in 1572, 

SCHMIDT, HEINRICH (Germ.). Die-sinker, in the firm of GOTT- 
FRIED DRENTWETT (q. v.) at Augsburg, after 1876. 

SCHMIDT. JACOB (Germ.). Mint-administrator at Oels, then at 
Breslau, 1634; later Mint-director to the Evangelical States. 

SCHMIDT, JAKOB (^«5/r.). Mint-master at Hamburg, 1572-1593. 

SCHMIDT, JAKOB (Austr.). Mint-engraver-assistant at Vienna, 
1799-1808; then at Kremnitz, 1808-1809 ; again at Vienna from 
November 1809 to 22. August 18 18, when he was pensioned off. 
Among his productions are Counters on the Marriage of Arch- 
duchess Maria-Josepha with King Ferdinand IV. of the Two- 
Sicilies, 1767, and on her Death, in October of the same year. 

SCHMIDT, JOHANN (Germ.). Mint-warden at Wertheim, 1694- 
1705, and Munich, 1705. 

SCHMIDT, JOHANN (Germ.). Mint-master at Frankfort-on-Main, 

SCHMIDT, JOHANN HEINRICH (Germ.). Warden and Mint-master 
at Langenargen, 1623. 


SCHMIDT, I. (Germ.). Medallist ot the early part of the nineteenth 
century, whose signature occurs on two commemorative medals of 
Napoleon's marriage with Marie Louise, 18 10, and others on the 
Birth of the King of Rome, 1 8 1 1 ; — Austro-Russian Alliance, 1 8 1 3 
(with busts of Francis I. and Alexander I.); — Nicolas Louis de 
Lacaille, astronomer, 1824 (Durand Series), &c. 

Nothing appears to be known about this Engraver, whom how- 
ever Bolzenthal mentions as one of the contributors to the Napo- 
leonic medallic gallery. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Bramsen, op. cit. — Edwards, Napoleon 

— 392 — 

SCHMIDT, LOUISA (G^rw.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
residing at Frankfort-on M. Her signature occurs amongst other 
works on a Portrait-plaquette of D"" Karl Weigert. 

SCHMIDT, MARTIN (Germ.). Mint-warden at Bayreuth, 1621. 

SCHMIDT, PAUL (Germ.). Ducal Mint-master (Bergmeister) at 
Saalfeld, 15 13-15 17. 

SCHMIDT, S. (Amer.). Die-sinker of New-Orleans, whose 
signature occurs on the obv, of the medal of the Med.-chir. Society 
of Louisville, Ky. (A. J, N. 167. In Boston Coll"). 

SCHMIDT, SAMUEL (G^rm.). Mint-engraver at Saalfeld, 1597, in 
which year he suffered capital punishment tor counterfeiting. 

SCHMIDT, TERENZ (G^rw.). Mint-master at Cassel, 1 621-1634. 
His currency bears the monogram TS. 

SCHMIED, HANS (Gm/7.) Medallist and Mint-Engraver at Nurem- 
berg, 1 628- 1 63 4. (Gebert, GescJnchte der Mun:;stdUe der Reichstadt 
Niirnberg, 1891 ; p. 93, no). 

of the Mint at Bayreuth, 1766. Schlickeysen gives EBERHARD 
SCHMIEDHAMMER as Mint-warden at Bayreuth, 1765-66, and states 
that his privy-mark is E. S. or E. & S. and E. (B.) S.Ammon brings the 
two in conjunction, and says their signatures occur on Thalers and 
subsidiary currency of ij$y66, E * S, or with a rose; E. S.; E. &S. 
and also I. C. E. 

the Mint of Prague, 161 1 ; appointed Mint-master at Kuttenberg 
ini6i4; died 17. November 1615. Privy-mark, cock to right, 
with sword in r. claws. 



SCHMITT, JOHANN FRANZ (Germ.). Mint-warden at Mayence,nVr. 
1751, 1763. 

SCHMITT, JEAN LOUIS MICHEL (Szuiss). Sculptor and MedaUist, 
born at Geneva, 7. February 1807 ; pupil of the Fine Art School of 
Lyons, and James Pradier ;died at Lyons, 28 July 1890. For 22 years 
he was drawing-master at Lyons, and from 1870 onwards Professor 
and Librarian at the Fine Art School of Lyons. 

Among his medals are : Baron de Poliniere ; — Societe d'Orph^ons ; 
— Chambre syndicale des Entrepreneurs; — Mines de houille; — 
Marriage of the Holy Virgin ; — Thiers ; — Medal for Musical 
competitions, 1877 J — Louis XI V.'s statue on the Place Bellecour, 
Lyons, partly submerged by the Saone, 1840 ; — Lyons under 

— 393 — 

water, 1840; — French Scientific Congress at Lyons, 1841 ; — 
Virgin and Child, 1843 (two medals commemorating the Bicenten- 
ary of the ' Voeu des Hchevins ', of 1638) ; — Charles, Comte de 
Montalembert, 1844 ; — Pius IX.; — TheLyonnese disarm in 1848; 

— Universal Jubilee, 185 1 ; — Bridge on the junction of the Rhone 
and Saone, 1840 ; — Expedition to Rome, 1849 (signed : L. SCHMITT. 
INV. ETF.); — The Republic acclaiming France, 1871 (signed : 
L. SCHMITT. FEC. LUG.); — Universal Exhibition at Lyons, 1873 i 

— Palais de Justice of Lyons, 1835 ; — Soci^te d'encouragement, 
founded by P. Jouve, 1843 > — Building of a group of 13 houses at 
Lyons, 1858 ; — Disarming of the Garde Nationale, 1848; — Pre- 
sentation Medal to Laforest, mayor of Lyons, 1848; — Token of 
Grosm^nil ColHeries (Florange 98); — E. V. de Castellane, general, 
185 1 ; — J. C. Fulch^ron, 1848; — Swiss Charitable Society at 
Lyons during the Franco-German War, 1870-71 ; — Hopitaux 
civils, Lyons, 1845, etc. 

SCHMITT, JOSEF (v^«.f/r.). Mint-engraver at Vienna; born 17. 
April 1 78 1, died 10. August 1866. He was appointed at Vienna, 
10. June 1799, and was first engaged on the copper coinage 01 
Schmolnitz; 1800, he was transferred to Kremnitz, then returned 
to Schmolnitz; 1818, he became third assistant at the Vienna Mint; 
1829, second, and 1832 first assistant; 1833-1835, he worked at 
Kremnitz; 1836, appointed Mint-engraver; 1841, third Engraver, 
and 1849, second Engraver; 1859, pensioned off. 

Among the dies preserved at the Vienna Mint are the following 
by J. Schmitt: Ferdinand I, 4 Ducats, and Gulden, 1837 (in conjunc- 
tion with J. D. Boehm); — Gulden for Kremnitz, 1837; — Souve- 
rain d'or for Lombardy and Venice, 1837, 1842 ; — 4 Ducats, 
1844; — Double Gulden, 1845; — \ Kreutzer, 185 1 (sev. var.); 

— 4 Ducats, and Double Gulden, 1852 (sev. var., engraved in 
conjunction with C. Lange); — Marriage Double Gulden of 
Francis Joseph L, 1854 (type not adopted); — 4 Ducats, 1856, 
1858; — Medal on the Constitution, 1849 ; signed : J. SCHMITT F. 
(Montenuovo 2630), etc. 

BiBLiOGR.^PHY. — Katalog der K. K. Mftn^en-und MedaiUen-Stetripel Sammlung. 

SCHMITZEN, JAKOB {Germ.). Mint-master at Koblenz, 1676. 

SCHMITZ, A. Pseudonym of Charles Wiener, the Belgian me- 
dallist, 1 83 2- 1 888. He signed thus a Medal of the Dusseldorf 
Industrial Exhibition, 1880, and a Portrait-medal of D' Albert 
Mooren of Dusseldorf (in Boston Collection). 

SCHMOLTZ. (F/W<; SCHMELZ, CHRISTOPH supra. ; 1700- 1777). Mint- 
engraver at Hall and Kremnitz, 1753-77. 

— 394 — 

SCHMUTZER, FRANZ (Austr.). Mint-engraver at Kremnitz, 1801- 
1817. He was born in 1781, died 28. July 1823. 

SCHMUTZER. JOSEF {Austr.'). Assistant-engraver at Vienna, 1763- 
1796; born in 1736, died in November 1796. 

SCHMUTZER Junior, JOSEF {Austr.). Assistant Mint-engraver at 
Gtinzburg, 1796-98. 

SCHMUTZER, PHILIPP (Austr.). Son of Josef Schmutzer, born in 
1778, died 24. September 1845. He entered the Vienna Mint as 
Engraver in 1796 and was still in office in March 1836. 

SCHNAEEL, ANTON {Austr.). The initials A. S. occur on a Vene- 
tian Tnllero of 10 Lire, 1797, issued at the time of the French 
Revolution, and are said to represent Anton Schnabel who was 
probably Engraver at the Mint of Venice. 

SCHNEGG, JACQUES LUCIEN (French). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born at Bordeaux; pupil of Falguiere. At the Salon 1890 he exhib- 
ited a series of seven Portrait-medallions in terra-cotta. 

SCHNESE, ALEXIS (Russ.). Mint-master at St. Petersburg, 1766- 
1772. His initials A. ill- occur on the currency. 

SCHNESE, IWAN (Russ.). Mint-master at Moscow, 1752- 1754. 
His initials l.iJi. occur on the coins. 

general for Bohemia, 1686- 1688. 

SCHNEIDER, CHARLES (Fr^wf/;). Contemporary' Sculptor, and Gem- 
engraver, born at Chateau-Thierry; pupil of Larcher, Chaplain, 
and Lechevrel. At the Salon, 1906, he exhibited the following 
cameos : Y penser toujours, n'en parler jamais; — Portrait of 
M™^ Schneider; — 1907. Three Portrait-cameos ; — Stars, cameos; 
— 1908. M^'-^T. S***; — M. T. S***; — Dawn, cameo; — 1909. 
Five Portrait-medals; — 1910. La toilette, galvano; — La toilette, 
cameo; — Portrait of M. R. P***, intaglio; — The Beggar, model 
in plaster, patinated. 

SCHNEIDER, CHRISTOFER (Dan.). Medallist at Copenhagen, third- 
quarter of the seventeenth centur}' circ. 1678- 1698. His initials 
C. S. occur on a medal commemorating the Peace of Lund, 26. Sep- 
tember 1679, between Denmark and Sweden, and on another, on 
the Departure of Princess Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark, King 
Charles XL's betrothed, for Sweden, i68o(Hikbrand, I, 422, 463). 

Schneider, among other medals, cut the dies for a medallion, 
which is one of the largest in size ever struck. It commemorates 

— 395 — 

the triple Victory of the Danes over the Swedish Fleet in 1677. The 
figures betray a want of taste and vigour in the invention and 
execution. On the reverse is a sea-fight, in which the artist has 
shown some knowledge of technicalities. As the medal was struck 
from a die, a certain strength was necessary on account of its size . 
It weighs in silver 49 ozs : (Bol:^enthal , p. 238). 

SCHNEIDER, GEBRUDER (.^W5/r.). Die-sinkers of Vienna. Issued in 
1903 a Memorial Portrait-plaquette of Pope Leo XIII., 1903 ; 
60 X 40 mill, (described in Mitth. des Clubs der Miin:;^- tind 
Medaillenfreiindein Wien, 1903, p. 81). 

The signature H. SCHNEIDER occurs on a Medal commemorating 
Prince Ernest zu Windisch-Graetz's 70''' anniversary as a Collector, 
issued by the Atelier Jauner; — New Year's Plaquette 1909; - - 
Plaquette of Viennese Warrant-holders, etc. 

SCHNEIDER, GOTTFRIED (Germ.). Gem-engraver at Breslau, 1638- 


SCHNEIDER, HANS (^/<j/;-.). Mint-engraver at Prague, 1578 (?), 
1586-87 ; later at Breslau. 

SCHNEIDER, HEINRICH (Germ.). Die-sinker, Cutter of armorial 
bearings, &c., of Breslau, 1595, 1605. 

master at Erfurt, 1624-1635, 

SCHNEIDER, LORENZ CHRISTOPH (Germ.). Mint-master at Halber- 
stadt, 1679-1682, and Berlin, 1682-1701 ; mint commissioner, 
1701-1713. His initials L. C. S. occur on the coinage issued under 
his authority. I have noticed them on a Gulden of Frederick III., 
1690. Subsidiary currency of Crossen, 1687, also bear his initials. 

SCHNELL, SIMON (Germ.). Mint-master at Arolsen, 1735, and 
later at Stuttgart, from 1744 to 1752. Initials on the coinage. 

SCHNITZSPAHN, CHRISTIAN (Germ.). Medallist, and Coin- 
engraver, born at Damrstadt, 6. December 1829, died 15. July 1877. 
He was the son of the court-jeweller Martin Schnitzspahn, with 
whom he learned engraving. Later he was apprenticed at Hanau; and 
at the Munich Polytechnic School and Academy he studied 
modelling under Prof. Windmann. In Berlin he worked for the 
Medallist Johann Karl Fischer, and made a year's stay in London 
(1856) as Engraver under Benjamin Wyon. 

Returning to his native city, he was appointed Court- and Mint- 
engraver, 1858, but he also worked occasionally (1859-1861) for 
the private Mint of Friedrich Wilhelm Loos of Berlin. 

— 396 — 

Schnitzspahn was a nephew of Jakob Fuchs, Mint-engraver at 

This Engraver's signature occurs generally in full : C. SCHNITZ- 
SPAHN on the coins he cut the dies for; thus on the silver currency 
1865-77 of Charles of Wiirttemberg, comprising the 1865 Vereins- 
thaler, 1870-71 Victory Thaler, 1871 Double Thaler commemor- 
ating the Restoration of Ulm Cathedral, &c. ; silver currency of 
Ferdinand, Sovereign Landgrave of Hesse, 1859-66, including the 
Vereinsthaler of 1859, 1861, 62, 63, &:c. 

Among his best known medals are : Portrait-medal of Friedr. 
Christoph Schlosser, historian, 1861; — Completion of the Luther 
Monument at Worms ; — Grand Duke of Hesse ; — King William 
of Prussia ; — Queen Augusta ; — Czar Alexander IL ; — Marriage 
medal of Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, and the Grand Duchess Marie 
of Russia, JR. (2 . 5 inch) ; — Horticultural Prize medal, with bust 
of King Charles of Wiirttemberg, 1878; — Coronation of King 
Charles XV. of Sweden and Queen Louisa, at Throndheim, i86o 
(issued in commission for Christiania Universit}'); — Jacob Fuchs, 
uncle of Scknitzspahn, naturalized in Belgium, 1854 (signed on I^ 
CHR. SCHNITZSPAHN IN DARMSTADT) ; — 50 years' Medical Jubilee 
of D"" Gustav Adolph Spiess, 1873; — Second Centenary of the 
Banking firm Metzler, Seel, Son & C" of Frankfort-on-M., 1874 
(signed : CHR. SCHNITZSPAHN IN DARMSTADT FEC.) ; — 50 years' 
Official Jubilee of Michael von Lukacsich (Heiligen Geist Hospital), 
1874; — Hesse-Darmstadt, JR. Service Medal for Burgomasters, 
instituted by Louis IIL, 1853; — Wiirttemberg, JR. Civil Merit 
medal of Charles, 1870; — Prize Medal for Arts and Sciences, 
with bust of King Charles of Wiirttemberg, 1865 (several varieties^; 

— International Exhibition at London, 1862 (^ by J. Wiener); 

— Memorial medal of Prince Alexander of Hesse, 1888 (the 
artist's obv. die was used for his medal) ; — Portrait-medal of 
Schiller; — D" W. F. von Ludwig, Stuttgart, 1861 ; — D-^ G. 
A. Spiess, of Frankfort-on-M., 1873; — Geneva Cross medal, 
Vienna, 1873; — Geneva Cross medal, " Amerigain (5/V) Benev- 
olence ". 

Schnitzspahn was the recipient of many orders, and was honorary 
member ot the Academies of Vienna and St. Petersburg. 

Bibliography. — Singer, op. cit. — D^ MQlIer, Biographisdxs Kunstler-Lexikott, 
1882. — Bolzenthal, ob. cit. — Von Heyden, Ehren-Zeicheu , Meiningen, 1897. 

— Hildebrand, op. cit. IL — Joseph u. Fellner, op. cit. — Sale Calahgues, &. 

SCHNtfRER {Germ.'). Mint-master at Hechingen (Hohcnzollern), 

SCHNYDER, ANTON {Swiss). Sculptor, Designer and Medallist, 
residing at Lucerne. Among his medallic works I have come across : 

— 397 — 

1889. Cantonal Rifle Meeting at Lucerne; — 1890. Federal Rifle 
Meeting at Frauenfeld (unofficial medal); — 1891. Sixth Centen- 
ary of the Swiss Confederation (signed : ANT. SCHNYDER INV.); 
— 1892. Centenary of the Massacre of the Swiss Guard at Paris, 
10. August 1792 (struck by Wilhelm Mayer at Stuttgart), &c. ; — 
1893. Inauguration of a Seminary at Sarnen (signed : SCHNYDER 
LUZERN); — Industrial Exhibition at Zofingen, etc. 

SCHNYDER, GEORG JOSEPH (Swiss). Goldsmith of Lucerne, born 
1775 -|- 1857; Mint-master at Lucerne, 18 14-15. 

SCHOBEL, TOBIAS JOHANN (Austr.). Mint-master at Gunzburg, 
1762-1789. His initial S occurs in conjunction with F representing 
JOSEF FABI, Mint-warden, on the well-known Maria Theresia 
" Levant " Dollars, 1780, which are still issued for circulation in 
Abyssinia and the Sudan. The dies were engraved by the Gunzburg 

Schobl signed also, in conjunction with the Mint-warden 
HUBERT CLOTZ, the Burgau Thalers of 1766. 

SCHfiLLER, HANNS (Atistr.). Seal-engraver, and Mint-master at 
Vienna, 1604. 

SCHOn, JOSEF (Austr.). Medallist and Coin-engraver, born at 
Vienna on 14. August 1809, died 5. March 1843. He was employed 
at the Vienna Mint from circ. 183 1 to 1840. Amongst his medals 
are : Archduke Frederick of Austria, 1840 ; — 50*'' Anniversary of 
Franz Grillparzer, 1841 ; — Franz Josef Fiirst von Dietrichstein, 
1839; — 50 years' Priestly Jubilee of Ladislaus Pyrker, 1842 
(sign : J. SCHOn) ; — Enthronisation medal of Maximilian Joseph, 
baron von Somerau-Beeckh, as archbishop of Olmiitz, 1837; — 
Anthon Friedrich Mittrowskyvon Mittrowitz, Hungarian statesman, 

A list of this artist's best works will be found in Wurzbach XXXI 
p. 115. 

Bibliography. — Katalog der K. K. Mfin^stempel Sammlung. 

SCHONAU, FRIEDRICH (Germ.). Goldsmith of Breslau, first half of 
the seventeenth century. He was appointed to cut dies for the Dukes 
of Liegnitz-Brieg; 1623 he was in Imperial service, and in 1625 
we find him installed as Mint-warden at Ratibor. 

SCHONENBERGER, HENRI (Swiss). Die-sinker, Seal-engraver, and 
Medallist, whe was residing at Versoix in the nineties, but entered 
into a partnership with John Lamuniere of Geneva, circ. 1900, 
where they opened a Die-sinking establishment. There are several 
badges, tickets, plaquettes, prize-medals, &c. by him ; amongst 

- 398 - 

them : Badge of Swiss Federal officials, 1902; — Fencing Prize, 
Swiss National Exhibition at Geneva, 1896^ &c. 

SCHONEWERK, ALEXANDRE (Germ.). Nineteenth century sculptor, 
born at Paris 18. February 1820, died in the eighties. Pupil of David 
d'Angers, JoUivet and Triqueti. He is the author of several Portrait- 
medallions executed in his master's style. 

SCHOnFELD, FRIEDRICH (Germ.). Goldsmith and Seal-engraver at 

Augsburg, 1645. 

SCHONFELD, NICOLAUS. Baron von (Bohem.). Mint-master-general 
for Bohemia, 1650 — December 1663. 

TET or SCHKULTET {Bohem.). Mint engraver at Prague, circ. 1638- 

SCHOLTZ, GOTTFRIED Gerw.). Mint-engraver at Breslau,nrr. 1655; 
born 1620; died 1666. 

SCHOLTZ, MELCHIOR (Germ.). Die-cutter at Breslau, circ. 1619. 

SCHOLZ (Germ.). Ammon states that a medal, dated 1692, des- 
cribed in Follstdndig Brannsclyw. Liineburg. Mun^ und Medaillen 
Cabinet n. ^81, is thus signed. 

SCHOLZ, GEORG (Germ.). Die- and Stone-cutter at Breslau, born 
1676, died 1707. 

SCHOLZ, HEINRICH (Austr.). Contemporary Viennese Sculptor 
and MedaUist. 

He exhibited the following plaquettes at the Brussels Salon de 
la Medaille, 1910 : Gustav Richter von Wittech ; — Centaur's 
wooing; — The Victor; - - End of Happiness. 

SCHOLZ(Mint-warden) and FORSTER (Mint-master) at Nuremberg, 
circ. 1760-64. Their joint initials occui on the currency, NSF. 

Marriage Thaler, 1762 . 

— 399 — 

Scholz and Forster's initials occur on a Marriage medal or Thaler 
of Prince Christian Ludwig von Wied and Charlotte Sophie 
Auguste von Sayn-Wittgenstein, 1762 {illustrated). 

BiLiOGRAPHV. — Domanig, Die Deulsche Medailk. 

SCHOLZ (Mint-warden) and RIEDNER (Mint-master) at Nuremberg, 
circ. 1764-74. Coins occurs with NSR; also SS; and G. N. R. 

SCHOLZ, SIEGMUND {Germ.). Mint-warden ar Nuremberg, circ, 
1760-1774 (Nagler, 1741-60). 

SCHONGAUER, HEINRICH and Consort {Germ.). Contractors of the 
Mint of Augsburg, 1270-1272. 

SCHOMBURG, JOHANN GEORG {Germ.). Mint-warden-general in 
Saxony, circ, 1737. I have noticed his initials I. 6. S. on a Gulden 
of Frederick Augustus II. of Saxony, 1733, and Amnion states that 
they occur on Saxon Thalers and Gulden of 1717, 19, 27 and 33, 
Kirmis mentions him as Mint-master at Dresden, 17 16-1734. 

SCHOONJANS {Belg.). Chief of the Mint-works at the Brussels 

mint, under the direction of J. Allard, 1903. 

SCHOORL, JAN VAN {Dutch). Painter of the first half of the 
sixteenth century. Jean Second, the painter and medallist, was one 
of his pupils. 

SCHOPF, HANS GEORG {Germ.). Mint-engraver at Schillingifiirst, 

SCHOPPER, GEORG (5w/^ J.). Mint-master at Berne, 1581 ; also at 
Fribourg, 1581-1589, 1595 (?); and at Lucerne, 1589. 

SCHORAS, SEBASTIAN {Germ.). Mint-master at Rostock, 1594- 

r6o6. Vide Ed. Grimm, Munien utid Medaillen der Stadt Rostock, 
Berliner Miinzbliitter, 1904, p. 548. 

SCHOSSELER-JERDELET, M""' ROSETTE {French). Contemporary 
Sculptor, born at Paris ; pupil of the Ecole des Arts Industriels ot 
Geneva, and of her father. At the Paris Salon, 1892, I noticed a 
fine Portrait-medallion of Queen Victoria, 1892, by her. 

SCHOTT, HANS {Austr.). Moneyer at Vienna, 1428. 

SCHOTT, PROF. WALTHER {Germ.). Contemporary Sculptor of 
Berlin, who modelled the German War medal for China, 1901, 
issued by W. Mayer and F. Wilhelm. 

At the Brussels Salon de la Medaille, 19 10, he exhibited three 
Plaquettes, cast in silver: Christ preaching to the people, 1903 ; — 
Oscar Huldschinsky, 1907; — Lorenz Adlon, 1907. 

SCHOTTENMtJLLER (G^rm.). Mint-master at Stockau, 1622. 

— 400 — 

SCHOUBERG, JOHANNES {Dutch). Chief-Engraver of Seals at the 
Mint of The Hague, for 45 years, at the end of the eighteenth and 
early part ot the nineteenth century. He engraved armorial bearings 
for the Hereditary Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach and 
Princess Sophia of the Netherlands (F/^^Immerzeel, II, 77). 

SCHOUBERG, JOHANNES PETRUS (Dutch). MedaUist, and Coin- 
engraver of the iirst half of the nineteenth century, son of Johannes 
Schouberg, born at The Hague, 10. January 1798," died at Utrecht, 
6. Januar}' 1864. 

He learned the art of engraving from his father, and was 
appointed Mint-engraver at Utrecht, in 18 16, and under Willem I. 
and II. He visited Prussia and Belgium, and from 18 12 to 1852 
he was Engraver to the Mint; he cut most of the dies for the gold 
currency, whilst Van der Kellen was entrusted with the silver 
coinage. The Rijksdaalder of 1839 is however by this Engraver, 
who under Willem III. prepared dies for the silver coins, whilst 
Van der Kellen did those for the gold. The currency engraved by 
Schouberg is usually signed: I. P. SCHOUBERG P., but also I. P. S. 
or I. P. S. P. He resigned office in 1852 after forty years' service at 
the Mint. 

I have come across Schouberg's signature on the following coins : 
Rijksdaaler, 1840 and Florin; — 10 Florins, 1842; — 5 Florins, 
1843; — Double, single and half Negotiepenning, 1848, etc. 

Amongst his medals I have noticed : Accession of Willem I. as 
King of the Netherlands, at Brussels, 181 5 ; — Opening of the 
Great North-Holland Canal, 1824; — Military Medal for Faithful 
semce, 1824; — The Ten Days' Campaign under the leadership 

Visit of Nicholas I. to Zandam, 1835. 

of the Cro\yn Prince, 1831; — Erection of the bronze Cross, 
183 1 ; — Introduction of new Legislation in Holland, 1838 ; — 
Prize Medal with bust of King Willem II., 1840; — Prince Fred- 
erick of the Netherlands on the 25''' Anniversary of his Grand 

— 401 — 

Mastership of the Order of Freemasons, 1841 ; — Memorial medal 
of Willem I., 1843 i — Inauguration of a Monument to Willem I. 
at The Hague, 1846 ; — Prize medal with bust of Prince Frederick, 
1849; — Memorial medals of Willem II. (2 varieties of types) ; 
— Silver Wedding of Prince Frederick and Princess Luisa of Prus- 
sia, 1850; — Crown Prince Willem visits the Royal Mint at 
Utrecht, 1853; — Peter the Great's residence at Zandam visited 
by Nicholas I. of Russia, 1839 {illustrated); — Centennial of the 
restoration of the Order of Dutch Freemasons, celebrated at the 
Lodge La Bien Ahite'e at Amsterdam, 1835 ; — Token of remem- 
brance of a true Brother, 1836 ; — D' G. Vrolik, Amsterdam ; — 
Cholera Plague at Amsterdam (2 var. ; both in Boston Coll") ; — 
Prize Medal of the Exhibition at The Hague, 1839; — Medal for the 
Improvement of the social condition of the Jews, 1827 ; — Commem- 
orative medal of the Festival in connection with Leyden Univer- 
sity, 1835 ; — Memorial medal of Willem II.. 1849; — Marriage of 
Princess Wilhelmina with the Crown Prince of Sweden, etc. 

Schouberg was created a Knight of the Crown of Oak in 1848, and 
in 185 1 he was granted the Order of Wasa by the King of Sweden. 

Bibliography. — De Oranje-Nassau Penningen in de Koninklijke Bibliolhek, 
1898. — Marvin, Masonic Medals, 1880. — Iramerzeel, Leven, &c., Ill, 77. — 
Kramra, Leven &c., 5, 1494. 

SCHRABSACK (Germ.). Gem-engraver of the second half of the 
eighteenth century, under Louis XVI. 

SCHRADER, PETER (Germ.). Mint-master at Konigssee, 1621 
(for Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt) ; Cothen, 1622; Magdeburg and 

Archiepiscopal Thaler of Magdeburg, 1640. 

Halle, 1627-1645. D^ Bahrfeldt states that Schrader officiated from 
1623-1630 as Mint-master to the city of Magdeburg; 1635-38 as 

L. FoRRE*. — Biographical Notices oj Mtdallitls. — V. j6 

— 40:2 — » 

Mint-master to the Archiepiscopate, and from 1639 to 1661 again 
as Mint-master to the city. The Thaler of Augustus, 1640, repro- 
duced above shows that Schrader, whose signature it bears, was in 
office at the archiepiscopal mint in 1640. Whether he cut coin dies 
himself, or was only responsible for the issue of the coinage, I 
cannot ascertain. 

Bibliography. — Emil Bahrfeldt, Ahkiir\iingen auf Munien, Berliner Miinzbl., 
1896, 2019. — Fischer, Die Mun\en des Hatises Sclnuariburg , Heidelberg, 1904. 

SCHRADER, ANTON {Germ.). Die-cutter and Engraver of Armorial 
bearings at Breslau, 1581. 

SCHRATTADER, FRIEDRICH {Germ.). Mint-master at Coblenz, 

SCHRAUDOLPH {Germ.). Contractor of the Montfort Mint at 
Langenargen, 1676. 

SCHRAUF(alsoSCHRAUFF), HANS(G<'rm.). A native of Wiirzburg; 
Mint-master at Nuremberg, 1467, and Frankfort-on-M., 1468- ? 

SCHRECK, KONRAD or KURT {Germ.). Bolzenthal writes in the 
following terms of this North German artist of the second half of 
the sixteenth century : '' A highly esteemed goldsmith who pro- 
duced many w^orks of art under the Electors of Brandenburg, 
Joachim I. and 11. There is an important testimony in his favour 
in the diary of the Court preacher Colestin, where it is stated that 
Joachim II. gave Schreck a commission to make a medal to be 
worn on a chain, in the following words : " Schreck, thou wilt 
make for D"" Georg Colestino, our Court preacher, our gold coin 
and likeness at our expense and present it to him. He shall wear it 
for our sake. This is our will. Given at Copernik, 28*'' July 1566. 
Joachim Elector. " The Royal Collection at Berlin is especially rich 
m native medals of the kind; it possesses one of the reign of 
Joachim II. done by an able hand, and having the bust of the Mar- 
grave Frederick, who was a son of the Elector. We however find 
no work which can undoubtedly be traced to Schreck as the one 
ordered for D"" Colestin. " 

According to Nicolai, K. Schreck was appointed Mint-master and 
Engraver at Berlin for one year, 1572, and died in 1580. 

In the Berlin Collection is a Portrait-medalet of Conrad Schreck 
and his wife Anna, by the same hand, as that of Mathias Spon, 15 61 
(Mohsen II, PI. I, 2). Erman does not think that these two medals 
are by our artist. The Conrad Schreck medal is reproduced on 
PI. VIII, 6 of Erman, Deutsche Medailleure, 1884. 

SCHRECK, LUDWIG {Germ.). This signature occurs on a medal, 

— 403 — 

dated 1838, as that of the issuer of a commemorative medal of the 
Battle of Leipzig, 18 13 (L. S. D. Liidwig Schreck Direxit). 

SCHRECKENFELS, LAZAR ERKER VON (Bohem.). Mint-master at 

Prague, 1 583-1 594. 

at Prague, 1594 to September 1600. 

SCHREIBER, CHUNTZEL DER (Atistr.). Mint-master at Gratz, circ. 

13 14-13 16. 

SCHREIBER, HENNING (HEINLING) (Germ.). Mint-master at Hal- 
berstadt, 1614-1626; Goslar, 1622; and Clausthal, 1630-1640. His 
is£ues are signed : H. S. 

SCHREIBER, IGNAZ (Aiistr.). Mint-master at Carlsburg, 1848- 

SCHREIBER, MATTHAEDS (Germ.). Gem-engraver at Augsburg, 

SCHREIBERSDORF, ALBERT VON (Gm«.)- Mint-master at Annaberg 
(Saxony), circ. 1 5 07--]- 4. June 1523. Privy-mark on the currency ►{< 
(VUe Erbstein, Erorierimgen auf dem Gebiete der Siichsischen Mtin:;^- 
und Medaillm-GeschichlCf 1888, p. 6). 

SCHREITMtJLLER, AUGUST (Germ.). Contemporary' Sculptor and 
Medallist, residing at Dresden. At the Berlin Art Exhibition, 1907, 
he exhibited: — Portrait-plaquette of Robert Diez; — Dresden 
Archers' Club medals, etc. 

SCHREMPF, VEIT (Germ.). Mint-engraver at Stuttgart, 1744; 
Mint- warden, 1746-48. The coins issued or engraved by him are 
usually signed : V. S. or V. S. F. 1 have seen a Thaler and Half- 
Thaler, 1744, of Carl Eugen of Wiirtemberg, bearing the initials 
V. S. 

SCHRETTINGER. FRANZ HEINRICH (Germ.). Mint-engraver at 

Munich, 1724. 

SCHRINER, or SCHREIBER, GERDT (Germ.). Mint-master at Riga, 
circ. 1547. 

SCHRODER, CASPAR HEINRICH (Germ.). Director of the Mint at 
Bayreuth, 1764. His initial S occurs in conjunction with that of 
SCHILLING, Administrator of the Mint, on the coinage of that 


SCHRODER. H. (Germ.). Medallist of North Germany, third 
quarter of the eighteenth century. His signature occurs on Masonic 
medals : Mecklenburg's first Masonic Lodge, St. Michael, founded 

— 404 — 

in Schwerin, 1754; — A. O. von Vierrage, Lodge of '^Love of 
Fatherland', Wismar, 1844, etc. 

Bibliography. — Marvin, Masonic Medals, 1880. 

SCHRODER, HEYNE (Germ.). Goldsmith ot Brunswick, third 
quarter ot the sixteenth century, by whom are Konterfetts or Gna- 
denpfennige of Duke Julius. He engraved the seal for the Inaugu- 
ration of the Julius University at Helmstadt, i^j6(FideV.]. Meier, 
MedaiUeure im Dieust des Her:(ogs Julius von Braunschweig y Bl. fur 
Miinzfreunde, 2071). 

SCHRODER, JAKOB (Germ.). Warden of the Mint at Stade, 1660, 
and Mint-master, 1680-1687. 

SCHRODER, JOHANN ANTON (Germ.). Warden of the Mint at 
Zellerfeld, and later Mint-master at Hanover, and Neuhaus near 
Paderborn, 1751-1777. His initials A. S. or I. A. S. occur on his 
issues; also on Conv, Thalers and Gulden of Wilhelm Anton, 
baron von der Asseburg, bishop of Passau, 1765; Thaler 1761 of 
Friedrick Carl of Holstein (Wolff, Die Miinxe ^u Hannover, Blatter 
fiir Miinzfreunde, 653). 

SCHRODER, JUSTUS CARL (Germ.). Mint- master at Stralsund, 
1761; Elbing, 1762-1763 ; Mittau, 1763-1764; and Warsaw, 1768- 
1774. His initials J. S. or J. C. S. occur on the coins. 

SCHUCHMANN, WILHELM (Germ.). Engraver, Goldsmith, and 
Medallist, born at Ravensburg (Wiirttemberg), settled at Neuchatel 
with his wife (nee Pauline Becker) and two children in 1840, and 








Independence of Neuchatel, 1848. 

left that town again in 1852. By him is a medal (illustrated) commem- 
orating the Independence of Neuchatel, 1848 (a specimen of which 
in lead exists in M. Arnold Robert's Collection at La Chaux-de- 
Fonds), M. Michaud (in Bull, de la Sociite suissedenumisniatique, 1 886, 
p. 78), states that some specimens were struck in silver, but none 
appear to be known. 


— 405 - 

SCHUFFLER, FRANZ (Swiss). Moneyer at Fribourg, 1622- 1628. 

SCHUH, PETER (Germ.). Mint-administrator at Gundelfingen, 
1622 (Pfalz-Neuburg). 

SCHUHMACHER, CASPAR (Swiss). Mint-warden at Lucerne, 1737; 
died, 2. July 1748. 

SCHUHMACHER, HANS (Germ.). Goldsmitii and Medallist at 
Munich, circ. 15 60-1 573. In 1561 he received no Hungarian, 
70 Salzburg and 82 Portuguese Ducats, also 23 Italian crowns, 
etc., with the order to make therefrom six large gold and twelve 
silver Presentation medals (J. V. Kull, Die Goldschmiede und 
Medaillenkiinstler in den Hof:^ahlamtsrechnungen :^u Miinchen, 1551- 
1650, Mitth. der Bayer. Num. Gesellschaft, 1900, p. 26). 

Schuhmacher appears to have been doing medallic work for the 
Mint-master Anton Hundertpfund. Some medals of Albert V. of 
Bavaria may be by him (Wittelsh. N"" 393, 394, and possibly also 
N°' 401-403). 

SCHULER, GEORG (Hung.). Medallist in Transsylvania, in the 
early part of the eighteenth century. He signed a gold medal 
(5 Ducats) and J^ Halt Thaler of Georg Banfi von Losontz, 
governor of Transsylvania, 1709 ; also a satirical medal of Franz 
Rakoczi II., existing in gold, silver, bronze and tin, 1710 (described 
in Resch, Siebenbiirgische Miin-^en und Medaillen, 1901, p. 230, 
n°^ 109-112); — and a medal of General Steinville, commander- 
general in Transsylvania, undated. These are signed either G. S. or 

SCHULER, HANS (Germ.). Mint-warden at Nuremberg, 1395. 

SCHULER, JOHANN LEONHARD (Germ.). Mint-assistant at Glatz, 
181 3; later Mint-warden at Breslau, in succession to Sigismund 
Wagner, died in 1825. 

SCHULMAN, JAKOB (Dutch). Contemporary Dealer in coins and 
antiquities, formerly residing at Amersfoort, now since circ. 1900 
at Amsterdam. He has edited several medals, amongst them : Visit 
of the German Emperor and Empress to Amsterdam, 1891 (by J. 
D. Posthumus) ; — Aemilio Castellar (by Arnau); — Accession ot 
Queen Wilhelmina, 1898 (by Mayer); — Kruger, De Wet and de 
la Key (by Scharff) ; — Inauguration of the New Stock Exchange 
(Beurs) at Amsterdam, 1903; — Bicentenary of Rembrandt (two 
types), etc. 

SCHULMEISTER. HANS (Germ.). A nativeofNabburg, Mint-master 
at Pfreindt, 1520-41 (Frankfurter Miin:^bl., p. 206). 

— 4^6 — 

SCHULT, JAKOB {Dau.). Mint-master at Trondhjem (Denmark), 
circ. 1529. 

SGHULTE, JOHANN (Germ.). Mint-master at Rostock, 1387. 

SCHDLTES, ERNST (Germ.). Mint-master at Gera, 1622, and 
Lobenstein, 1623 . 

SCHULTES, GEORG (Germ.) . Counter-Manufacturer at Nuremberg, 
circ. 1550. Neumann, Beschreibung der bekanntesten Kup/ermiiti^en, 
Prag, 1868, V, p. 403, describes seven counters, some of which 
are dated 1551, 1552, 1553, and 1556, on which the Engraver's 
name occurs in the following forms : lORG SCHVLTES SPENGLERZU 
Georg was possibly the father of Hans Schultes, and the founder of 
the Schultes Counter-Manufactory. 

SCHULTES, HANS (Germ.). Counter-Manufacturer at Nuremberg, 
circ. 1 5 50-1 574. Neumann gives 45 varieties of counters by him 
(n*** 32136-81) on which the maker's name occurs in full or 
variously abbreviated. One has 10. HANS. SCHVLTES on obv. and 
HNS SCHVLTES. TO on ^, ; another, exhibiting fine work, is signed: 
HANS -+- SCHVLTES -f- ZV + NVRENBERG 4- D^ Freudenthal had a 
specimen, dated 1574, with the inscription : HANS : SCHVLTES : 
GEMACH. In Blatter fiir Miin:(freunde, 1904, 3201, is a description 
of a counter by this engraver, bearing on obv. a bust variously 
identified as that of Duke Albrecht of Prussia (1525-69) or Duke 
Friedrich of Liegnitz (1495-1547). A counter described by D*^ 
Erbstein (Bl. fur Mi'm'^fr., 1828) shows on one side the whole 
alphabet accompanied by the signature : HANS SCHV (wrongly 
interpreted by D"" Voigt as Hans Schtilmcister). Hans Schultes also 
signed his counters H. S.; — HANS. S. ; — and HANS SCHV. 

Beside the Schultes the principal Nuremberg counter makers in 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were : Damian Krauiuinchel 
(15 5 0-15 70); and his successors Egidius (1571) and Hans Kraii- 
zuincM (1580-1610), Kiliiin Koch (i 580-1600), Haus Lanfer or 
Lauffer (1607, Mint-master 1620, f 1632), Wolf Lanfer, Mathaeus 
Laufer (Mint-master 1622), Co«;W and Cornelius Lanfer^ to whom 
succeeded towards the end of the seventeenth century, La:;arus 
Gottlieb Laufer. The manufacture of gaming counters etc. is still 
represented at Nuremberg in our day by the well-known die-sinking 
establishment of C. Chr. Lauer. 

SCHULTHEISS (or SCHULZE), HEINRICH (Germ.). Mint-master at 
Thesa (Anhalt), 1623, and Dessau, 1624. 

SCHULTHESS (G^;'w.). Moneyer at Ratisbon, 1391. 

— 407 — 

SCHULTZ, ANTON (Schlickeysen, ADAM) (Genu). Medallist at 

Copenhagen, 1716-1724, said to have settled at Moscow under the 

reign of Peter II. I have only come across the following medals by 

him : Marriage medal of Christian VI. of Denmark and Sophie 

Magdalene of Brandenburg, 1721 (signed: A. SCHULTZ F.) ; — 

Peter the Great as Chief of the four fleets gathered at Bornholm, 

1716; — Peace of Nystadt, 1721 (signed on I^. A. SCHULTZ FEC. 

I HAFN: D.A); — Coronation of Catherine I. of Russia, 1724, etc. 

Some of his medals are signed also : A: S., or A.S.F. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Iversen, op. cit. 


SCHULTZ or SCHULZ, CHRISTOPH {Germ.). Mint-master at Elbing, 

SCHULTZ, GEORG (Gfrm.). Die-cutter at Breslau, 1676-f 1701. 

SCHULTZ, GOTTFRIED {Germ.). Painter of Breslau, 1620-t 1666; 
was appointed Mint-engraver therein 1665. 


and Copper-plate engraver in the service of the Elector Frederick 
William of Brandenburg at Berlin from about 1680 to 1695, the 
vear of his death. He signed his productions variously: S; — 
SC, L B. SCHULTZ F., etc. The initials I.B.S. occur also on coins 
(Thaler of 1693) of John George II., Prince of Anhalt-Dessau. 

The following medals are by J. B. Schultz : Undated Portrait- 
medal of Prince Elector Frederick and Sophie Charlotte (signed 
SCHVLTZ on either side); — Marriage medal of Princess Maria 
Amelia of Brandenburg and Charles, hereditary prince of Mecklen- 
burg-Giistrow (signed : B. SCHULTZ) ; — Another, with portraits 
of the Ducal pair (signed: SCHULTZ F.); — Foundation of the 
Colony of Grossfriedrichsberg in Guinea, and of the German Afric- 
an Mercantile Society, 1681 (signed : /. B. Schult::^ F.Y, — Memor- 
ial medal of Frederick William I., 1688 (two varieties; ; — Capture 
of Bonn, 1689; — Plan of BerHn in perspective, 1688; — Peace 
between France and Austria, 1679 ; — Capture of Kaiserswerth 
by Frederick III., Elector of Brandenburg, 1689 (2 var.); — Freder- 
ick III.'s victories on the Rhine, 1689, etc. 

BiBUOGR.\PHY. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Ammon, op. cit. — Menadier, 
Schanmiin-en des Hauses Hohniollern , 1901. — Flad, BerUhmie Medailleurs, p. 28. 
— Se\!er, Leben Frifdrich fViWehti des Grossen ChurjfUrsten ^u Brandeithurg . — 

SCHULTZ, JOHANN CHRISTIAN {Germ.). Mint-inspector at Oels, 
seventeenth century, circ. 1671. 

— 4o8 — 

SCHULTZ, JOHANN GEORG (Germ.). Gem-engraver, born at Bir- 
kenfeld; pupil of Brainger. He made the following exhibits at the 
Paris Salon : 1883, Creation of Adam, after Michel Angelo, sar- 
donyx cameo; — 1889. La Source, after Ingres, sardonyx of two 
strata ; — Portrait, sardonyx of three strata ; — God animating 
man, sardonyx. 

SCHULTZ, OTTO (Genu.). Contemporary Mint-engraver and 
Medallists at Berlin ; born 16. December 1848 at Berlin; pupil of the 
Medallists Wittigs;and W. Kullrich, died on 13. August 191 1. He 
was employed for some time at the "Berliner Medaillen-Miinze von 
L. Ostermann, vorm. G. Loos ", and spent some years in London, 
in the employ of Wyon, under whom he collaborated in the cutting 
of the great State Seal of Queen Victoria. Towards the end of 188 1 
he returned to Germany, and worked for some years with Kullrich, 
G. Loos, and others. In May 1889 he was appointed Second Medallist 
at the Royal Mint, Berlin, and on Weygand's resignation, First Medal- 
list on I. April 1902. 

Among his productions I have noted : Prize medal of the 
Wittstock Exhibition, 1885, with bust of Princess Marie Anna ot 
Prussia (issued by G. Loos) ; — Academical Art Exhibition at Berlin, 
1888; — International Art Exhibition at Berlin, 189 1 ; — Complet- 
ion of the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal, 1895 ; — International Art Exhib- 
ition at Berlin to commemorate the bicentenary of the Royal Acad- 
emy of Arts, 1896; — Portrait-medallion of H. M. William 11. ; 
— Portrait-medahion of H. M. Kaiserin Augusta Victoria; — Mar- 
riage meda of the German Crown Prince, 1905; — Goethe; — 
Tercentenary of the foundation of the Dutch community at Berlin, 
1885 ; — Carl Conrad, Mint-director at Berlin, 1899, etc. 

Otto Schultz is responsible for the engraving of the dies of the 
German Thalers since 1882, and many of the dies for the German 
Imperial Coinage are his work. He also prepared dies for the follow- 
ing coins : Marriage Five and Two Mark pieces, 1903, of Grand 
Duke Wilhelm Ernst of Saxony and Grand Duchess Caroline of 
Reuss (24,000 Five and 40,000 Two Marks issued); — Lippe- 
Detmold, Two-mark pieces, 1 906 (20,000 issued) ; — Pattern Thaler, 
with bust of William II., 1908; — Thaler, 1908, with same bust (issue 
of 5 million pieces). 

In 1892 Schultz was entrusted with the cutting ot dies for the 
Transvaal coinage of President Kruger, consisting of the Pond 
and I Pond in gold, 5, 2 |, 2 and i Shillings, 6 and 3 Fences in 
silver, and Penny in copper. The first type of Pond, Half Pond, and 
Five Shillings were recalled on account of a curious mistake of the 
die-sinker, who represented on the reverse instead of the " Dis- 
selboom " (or waggon with a single pole) a van with two poles or 

— 409 — 

double shaft. President Kruger further took exception to the initials 
O.S. of the Engraver being placed on the truncation of his bust, 
those letters in Dutch signifying an *'ox". 

The first issue only of these coins were minted at Berlin. 

The following coin-dies executed between 1895 and 1904 are by 
Otto Schultz: — Hesse- Darmstadt, 5 and 2 Markpieces 1895 (after 
a model by the sculptor Uhlmann); — Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, 
Doppelkronen 1896; — Anhalt-Dessau, Doppelkronen and Kronen 
1896; — Saxe- Weimar^ Doppelkronen 1896; — Hesse-Darmstadt, 

Pond of President Kruger, 1892 
(by Otto Schultz). 

Doppelkronen and Kronen 1896; Doppelkronen 1897; — Anhalt- 
Dessau, 5 and 2 Mark pieces 1896; — Hesse-Darmstadt, Doppel- 
kronen, Kronen, 5 and 2 Marks 1898; — Schaumburg-Lippe, 
Doppelkronen, 5 and 2 Marks 1898; — Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, 
Kronen, 5 and 2 Marks 1898 ; — Hesse-Darmstadt, Doppelkronen, 
5 and 2 Marks 1899, 1900; — Reuss a. L., 2 Marks 1899 (after 
Prof. Jos. Echtcher's model); — Hesse-Darmstadt, Doppelkronen 
1901; — Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Doppelkronen, Kronen, and 
2 Marks 1901 ; — Anhalt-Dessau, Doppelkronen and Kronen 
1 901; — Saxe-Weimar, Doppelkronen 1901; — Saxe- Weimar, 
Marriage 5 and 2 Marks 1903; — Anhalt-Dessau, Doppelkronen 
1904; — Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Marriage 5 and 2 Marks 1904; 
-^ Hesse-Darmstadt, 400*'' Anniversary of Philip the Magnanimous 
5 and 2 Marks 1904; — Anhalt, 2 Marks 1904. 

The latest issue of the Berlin Mint is the Jubilee Thaler of the 
University, which howe%'er has not met with much approval from 
the puh\ic(^Fide Spink's Numismatic Circular, February 191 1). 

SCHULTZ, WALTER {DutcH). Engraver of Haarlem, second half of 
the seventeenth century. In 1676 he published a work on Travels 
in East India, for which he engraved some of the plates. "There 
is in the British Museum a uniface piece with the portrait of 
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, which bears W. S. in monogram, 
the initials of the artist, probably Walter Schultz ". A similar piece, 
with the portraits of James I. and Prince Charles, of same style 
and work, unsigned, also in the National Collection, maybe equally 
by Schultz. Vide Medal lie I! lustrations y I, ijif;. 

— 4^0 — 

SCHULTZ & CO (Atner.). Private issuers of Californian currency, 
middle years of the nineteenth centur}'. 

SCHULTZE, JOHANN (Genu.). Ducal Mint-master in Saxe-Lauen- 
burg, 1656. 

SCHULZ, CHRISTOPH (Germ.). Mint-master at Elbing, 1671-1672. 

SCHULZE, FRIEDRICH (Germ.). Administrator of the Mint at 
Rostock, 1783. 

SCHUMACHER, FELIX ANTON (Siviss). Goldsmith, in the service of 
the Lucerne Mint in 1756 as Assayer. 

SCHtJRMANN, ANTON (Siuiss). Goldsmith of Lucerne, 1792; 
Mint-warden there, 1804- 18 16, 

SCHUSTER VON GOLDBURG, TOBIAS (Bohem.). Mint-administrator 
at Prague, 1631-1636. 

SCHUSTERIN, DOROTELk (Bchem.). Widow of the last; carried on 
the business of the Prague Mint, 16^6-16^'j. 

SCHUTKY, M. (Germ.). This signature occurs on a medal of the 
Bavarian Agricultural Committee, Munich, 1872. 

SCHUTTER, W. (Dutch). Medallist of the early part of the nineteenth 
century, who resided at Groningen. Some of his productions are 
fairly successful ; (Nederlandsche Gedenhpenningen verklaard etc. door 
Jeronimo de Vries en Johannes Cornelis de Jen^, Haag and Amsterdam, 

SCHUTZ, VALENTIN (Germ.). Mint-master at Griinstadt, 16 10, for 

SCHUYRMANS, GERRIT (Dutch). Mint-master at Medemblik 
(Westfriesland), 1682- 1692. 

SCHWAB, ANDR£ PIERRE (French). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist, born at Nancy (Meurthe-et-Mosellej ; pupil of Mercie, 
Chaplain, Vernon and Paul Auban. At the Paris Salon 1909 he 
exhibited a silvered Plaquette; in 1910 : Three Plaquettes: Mam 
Cooz Pennec ; — Tad Cooz Pennec ; — La veill^e bretonne ; — 
Souvenir medal ; — Au bord de la mer, galvano. 

SCHWAB, HANS (Swiss). Mint-master at Berne, 1485. 

SCHWAAB & CO, W, (Austr.). Die-sinking establishment at Vienna; 

— 411 — 

makers of buttons, tickets, badges. Tliey issued a brass plaquette 
with portrait of Field Marshal Radetsky. 

SCHWAB. MARX (Germ.), Goldsmith of Augsburg, aVr. 1550. He 
is supposed to have been the inventor ot the coining-press, which 
France obtained in 1550 trom Augsburg. In French documents ot 
the period he is named Chevalier du Saint-Sipukre (jj. v.). 

SCHWABE, HEINRICH {Germ.). Contemporary Sculptor of Nurem- 
berg, born at Wiesbaden, 30. October 1847, who also modelled 
Portrait-medallions and Medals {Wittelsb., 458). He worked for 
Lauer, and modelled for this firm the Portrait-medal of the Emperor 
Frederick, commemorating his stay at San Remo {illustrated in 
Vol. Ill, p. 317), and another on the Accession of William II., 
1888, signed : H. SCHWABE SCVL. | W. LAUER FEC. ; also: Graf 
Moltke, 1890, etc. 

SCHWABE, NICOLAUS {Germ.). Pupil of Valentin Maler of Nurem- 
berg, worked as an Engraver and Modeller in wax at Dresden 
towards the end of the eighties in the sixteenth century. Between 
1590 and 1599 we find him following the profession of a Medallist at 
Copenhagen, where in 1602 he was appointed Master of the Mint. 
In 1628 he was pensioned off on account of old age. He signed his 
medals : 1«: — NS: — NIC.SC.F., and also NICOLA. SCVAP. FEC. I have 
noted the Engraver's signature NS on a Thaler of Christian IV. of 
Denmark, 1527, and he produced a series of Portrait-medals of the 
six kings of Denmark of the house of Oldenburg. The medal 
illustrated here of Christian IV of Denmark is signed : NICOLA. 

Christian IV. of Denmark. 

SCUAP.FEC, and is dated 1596. One of 1598 signed: C.L. R.M. 
NIC.S.F. {Cum licentia regiae majestatis) occurred in the Gutekunst 
Collection {Mer:^bacher Sale Catalogue^ Munchen, 1900). 

— 4^2 — 

Erman hesitates to attribute the cast medalHons of later date of 
the same king to Schwabe. 

Bibliography. — Erman, op. cit. — Chr. Lange, op. cit. — Berliner Miinihldtter. 

SCHWABEN, C. (Germ.). Medallist at Frankfort-on-M. about 1742; 
t 1752. 

SCHWAIGER, GHRISTOPH (Germ.). Gem-engraver, born in 1532, 
died in 1600, and probably flourished at Augsburg. In the verses 
beneath his portrait by Lucas Kilian, he is compared to Pyrgoteles 
for his talent in engraving (Fide King, Antique Gems, p. 267; 
Mariette, op. cit., p. 124). He is also called, no doubt erroneously 
SCHWARGEN (Babelon, Pierres gravies, p. 283). Vide SCHWEIGER. 

SCHWAMBERG, ERASMUS (Bohem.). Mint-master-general for 
Bohemia, 1532, 

SCHWAMBERG, HANS ERASMUS VON (Bohem.). Mint-master- 
general for Bohemia, 15 62-1 5 66. 

SCHWANEFELDER (Germ.). Chief-engraver at the Koenigsberg 
(Prussia) mint, 1751-1754 (1756?) under Frederick II. the Great. 
His dies are usually signed : S. 

SCHWANENBERGER, HANS (Germ.) and his widow. Goldsmiths 
at Munich, circ. 1593-1600, had some connection with the Munich 
mint (Mitth. derbayer. Num. Gesellschaft, xix, 35-37). 

SCHWANTHALER, LUDWIG MICHAEL (Germ.). Sculptor of the 
nineteenth century, and author of the colossal monument repre- 
senting Bavaria at Munich. His portrait occurs on a medal by 
Birnbock, 1850, commemorating tne unveiling of the monument. 

Born 26. August 1802 at Munich; died there 15. November 1848. 


SCHWARTZ, HANS (Germ.). Medallist of the first half of the 
sixteenth century, born at Augsburg circ. 1492 or 1493, date of 
death unknown. The period of his activity is comprised between 
1516 and 1527. 

Schwartz was one of the greatest artists of his day in his partic- 
ular branch, and stands out conspicuously from amongst his 
contemporaries because of his marked individuality. He does not 
appear to have been influenced, as D' Habich remarks, either by the 
Italian or German schools; his style is always original though his 
productions vary in artistic merit. 

— 413 — 

Prof. Adolf Erman, who had only Neudorffer's notice of the 
artist to go by, was the first to draw attention to Hans Schwartz 
and to compile a tentative list of his medals (Deutsche Medailleure, 
1884, pp. 20-27). He detected in the Felix collection the medal 
reproduced below, showing the Medallist's self portrait, and by 
comparing this piece with others presenting the same characteristics 
of style and treatment he was able to group them together as works 
of the Master. To the fifty medals ascribed to Hans Schwartz by 
Erman, D' Habich has now added another fifty, and the list is 
probably by no means complete. 

Self-Portrait of Hans Schwartz. 

I give, after D"^ Habich, the following forms of signatures which 
occur on the works of Hans Schwartz : 


Monograms of Hans Schwartz. 

Very little is known of the artist's life. NeudorfJer calls him a 
son of Ulrich Schwartz, and states that he was apprenticed to 
Stephan Schwartz, and also that he was presented as an apprentice 
in 1506 to the guild of painters, goldsmiths, sculptors, etc. He 
served four years' apprenticeship, and another six as journeyman, 
so at least we may conclude, as the youth's first signed work is 
dated 15 16. No mention exists of his obtaining the Mastership, but 

— 414 — 

the free art of the Medallist (Konterfetter) did not probably require 
this legitimation. 

Albert Durer. Wood Medallion. 

Anne blessing the infant Christ. 

The year of the imperial diet 15 18 saw the artist in full activity 
at Augsburg. A year later we find him at Nuremberg, whither he 

— 415 

js?^_.^ «' 



Lamentations over the body of Christ. 

Konrad Peutinger. 

— ^i6 — 

had been invited by the Provost of St. Sebald, Melchior Pfinzing, 
whose portrait he had modelled in 15 18. Here he became intimately 
acquainted with his famous contemporaries, Ludwig Krug, and 
especially Albrecht Diirer, who gave him a sitting for his medal. 
In March 1520, he was requested to leave the city on account of 
his dealings with the imperial city bailiff, Tilman von Bremen, and 
other citizens. In September of the same year he was again at 
Augsburg, and in the following spring we find him at Heidelberg, 
Worms, Speier, etc. Returning through Swabia, he was allowed to 
again take up his residence at Nuremberg in 1525. His last signed 
medal is dated 1527 and depicts a citizen of Augsburg. Afterwards 
all trace of the artist is lost, unless he may be identified with the 
Hans Schwartz of Oettingen, who in 1540 married the widow of 
Hans Schaufelin. 

Hans Schwartz's earliest signed and dated work is an * Entomb- 
ment', carved in wood (15 16), which D''Habich styles" a Donatello 
in a Burgkmaier shrine ",a true Renaissance production savouring of 
the Quattro Cento. Four medallions in boxwood, executed about 
the same period, show a close connection with Italian prototypes. 
Two are in the Kaiser Friedrich Museum, Berlin : ' Anne blessing 
the Child Jesus', and 'Lamentations over the body of Christ' 
(both illustrated),3.nd the other tvjo: 'The Judgment of Paris', and 
'Death with a nude female 'belong to D"" Figdor of Vienna. In the 
Louvre are a statuette of Eve and an 'Ecce Homo', neither signed, 
by this Master. 

The actual series of Schwartz's medals begins in 15 17 with a 
Portrait-medaUion of Konrad Peutinger. I have compiled the 
following list from Erman and D' Habich's indications : 


1516. I. Emperor Maximilian (Domanig,£'r:(/;fl«jOei/gr. II, 10). 

15 17. 2. Konrad Peutinger, of Augsburg (^Berl. Mtis. ; Tresor, 

17, 2). 

15 18. 3. Frederick II., Count Palatine (Bed. Mus.). 

4. Melchior Pfinzing ; 1^. anlmo forti vincitvr cvpido. 

Female figure and column (Berl. Mus.; Erman, 
v.2^).—Habich, P1.D,5). 

5. Melchior Pfinzing. A variety, small (Vienna). 

6. Sebastian von Rotenhan, Councillor of Mayence 

(Tresor 2, 3. — Habich, PI. A, 9). 

7. Johann Burgkmaier, painter of Augsburg (^Berl. Mus. 

— Dannenberg) . 

8. Jakob Fugger (Erman, p. 24). 

— 417 — 

9- Otto, Count zu Solms (Tresor, 2, 7). 
ID. Christian of Brunswick (Habich, fig. 28). 

11. Aibrecht ot Brandenburg (Menadier, Hoheniolkrn II, 6). 

12. George of Saxony (iiffl^/c^, fig. 27). 

13. Hans Tummer (Hahich, PI. A, 12). 

14. Jakob Elle (Habich, Pi. A, 6). 

15. Unknown personage, witli MDXVIII in the field 

{Nuremberg) . 

16. W. von Jorger (Bergmann, Ber. Marnier XI. 49 imi- 


15 19. 17. Melchior Pfinzing. This medal occurs with several 

reverses, and also with an interesting Spes {Berl. 
Miis. — Trisor 5,2. — Habich, fig. 45 a). 

18. Melchior Pfinzing; small, with bust only, and new 

^L . (Dannenberg) . 

19. Ulrich Stark and his wife (Berl. Mus. — Habich, 

PI. D, 9). 

20. Andreas Imhof (5^r/. Mus.). 

21. Lorenz Stayber (Berl. Mus. — Habich, PI. D, 12). 

22. Martin Tucher (Berl. Mus.). 

23. Jakob Welser, of Augsburg (Berl. Mus.); 47 mill. 

24. Sebald Pfinzing; ^. Arms (Berl. Mus. — Erman, 

PI. I, 6). 

25. Lucas Hanolt (Berl. Mus.). 

26. Kolman Helmschmid, of Augsburg (Berl. Mus.). 

27. Sigmund von Dietrichstein (Berl. Mus.). 

28. Hans Burgkmaier, painter (illustrated. — Max 

Rosenheim Coll"). 

29. Hans Adam Wiirzeburg. 

30. Unknown personage (Tresor IT, 5). 

31. Jakob Welser. 36 mill. 

1520. 32. Eitel Friedrich von Zollern, * Hauptmann im Land 

Wiirtemberg' (Trisor 3, i. — Habich, fig. 34). 

33. Eitel Hans Langennmantell (Berl. Mus.). 

34. Simon von Liebenstein, cononicus at Speier (Berl. 

Mus. — Habich, P\.D, 10). 

35. Charles V. (Habich, fig. 40 ; illustrated). 

36. Otto Heinrich, Count Palatine (Habich, p. 32 ; 

PI. D, I). 

37. Thoman LofFelholz (Habich, fig. 38). 

38. Matthaeus Lang; 47 mill. (Vienna^. A variety. 

39. Bernhard von Cles, bishop ofTrient (Habich, fig. 31). 

40. Georg, Count-Palatine, bishop of Speier (Coll. Felix, 

Medal Cat. I, 136). 

41. Another;^. Spes (Habich, PI. C, i). 

L. FORRE*. — Biographical Notices oj Mcdallisfi. — V. 27 

— 4i8 — 

42. Another {Herdus V, 8 and 9). 

43 . Cyriacus von Polheim (Bergmann, Ber. Manner XI, 51). 

44. Georg Truchsess von Waldburg (Co//. Greene, Cat. Hess 

II, part. Ill, 52). 

Hans IjLiixkiiiayr. 

45. Another {Vicuna). A variety. 

46. Ludwig v.. Count Palatine (//a/'iV/;, fig. 39). 



— 419 — 

47- Johann II, Count Palatine Simmern-SpanheimCi/a/'/c/», 

48. Unknown personage; in field : m.d. — .x.x. (Habich, 


49. Johann II., of Simmern-Spanheim, en face portrait 

{Munich \ Habich, fig. 55). 

50. Franz von Sickingen {Tresor,%^. 

51. Victor Schutz {Habich, fig. 46). 
$2. Lucia Dorrer {Habich, PI. B, 8). 

Charles V. 

Toman Lo^tXhoh {Habich, p. 32, fig. 38). 

Sigismund von Hohenlohe {Munich). 

Sebastian Schedell and his wife Barbara Pfinzing(7Vtwr, 

Johann II., von Spanheim {Habich, fig. 53). 
Georg, bishop of Speier {Coll. Felix, Med. cat. 197). 
Jakob Fugger. Small, 20 mill. 
Georg von Schwalbach, provost at Speier (Vienna). 

60. Ludwig v.. Count Palatine {Habich, PI. D, 2). 

61. Johann Kleinmuller(i/fl^/r/;, PI. D, 11). 
Undated 62. Hans Schwartz, self portrait (///«ifrfl/ei). 

63. The brothers Sigismund, Melchior, tJlrich, Seytried 
and Martin Pfinzing (5^r/. Mas. — Habich, fig. 52). 
Ulrich Starck (act. 35). {Bed. Mus. — Danmnberg. — 

Habich, PI. D, 8). 
Matthaeus Lang, coadjutor of Salzburg {Berl. Mus.). 
Ursula Seifried Pfinzingin {Berl. Mus. — Habich, 
PI. C, 2). 
67. Ursula Andreas Imhof (^^r/. Mmj- . —Illustrated). 

















— 4^" — 

68. Martin Pfinzing (Berl. Mus.). 

69. Anna Martin Pfinzing (Berl. Mus. — Hahich, PI. C, 1 1). 

70. Felizitas Hans Imhot {Berl. Mus. — Erman, PI. I, 5 . — 

Habich, PL C, 10). 

Ursula Andreas Imhof. 

71. Margareta Tetzel (^Berl. Mus. — Habich, PI. C, 12). 

72. Bonaventura Furtenbach (5^r/. Mus.). 

73. Georg Schlauderspacher {Berl. Mus. — Habich, PI. C, 


74. Friedrich Pehatn (Behaim) {Berl. Miis.). 

Albrecht Durer. 

— 421 — 

75- Johannes Wenck, abbot at Heilbronn (Berl. Mus. — 
Hahich, fig. 42). 

76. Berthold, Count zu Henneberg {Berl. Mus.). 

77. Georg, Count zu Wiirttemberg (Tresor 19, 11). 

78. Alexander Martine (Berl. Mus.). 

79. Georg Volckhamer (aet. 24). (Berl. Mus.). 

80. Hieronymus Tucher (Berl. Mus.). 

81. Bernhard Baumgartner (Berl. Mus.). 

82. Albrecht Diirer (Berl. Mus. — illustrated). 

Christian, archbisiiop of Bremen. 

83. Ulrich Linck(5^r/. Mus.). 

84. Unknown personage, bearded head with hat, high 

reHef ; signed (Dannenberg). 

85. Joachim I. of Brandenburg (Berl. Mus. — Hahich, 

Pl.B, 11). 

86. Philipp, Count zu Solms (Trisor, 2, 6). 

87. Hugo, Count Montfort (Berl. Mus.). 

88. Jorg von Elcz, knight of the Teutonic Order; aet, 

42 (Berl. Mus. — Hahich. pi. A, 8). 

89. Another; smaller (Trwar, 14,9). 









— 422 — 

Siegmund von Dieirichstein ; ^L. Arms (^Berl. Mus.). 
Sieg. von Herberstain {THsor, 7, 5. — Habich, 

PI. A, 10). 
Christian, archbishop of Bremen (illustrated). 
~ ~ ' " VArt du 

391. — 

Christian, king of Denmark {Simonis, 

me'daillenr en Belgiqnc, VI. 5). 
Stephan Westner (Coll. James Simon, n' 

Habich, pi. C, 5). 
Jakob Murmann (i^fl/7/V/;, fig. 35). 
96. Hieronymus Ebner (Habich, PI. C, 6). A variety in 

Hans Tummer (Habich, PI. C, 3). 
Heinrich, Count von SchVick (Habich, fig. 33). 
Charles, connetable de Bourbon (Habich, fig. 54). 
Maximilian von Berghen (Zevenbergen) (Coll. Delbecke, 

Cat. Hess, 1891, PI. 2, 80). 
Unknown personage (Habich, PI. B, 2). 
Another, with monogram pand k (Habich, PI. A, 7). 


Charles V. 

Another with I^. » verlogen . vnd . . neydisch, etc. 
(Habich, fig. 56). 

104. Another (Tresor, III, 3). 

105. Heinrich, bishop o( Worms (Habich, PI. D, 3). 

106. Alexander Schwartz (Habich, PI. A, 2). Uncle of Hans 


107. Uhlck StzTck (Hahich, ?\. D, 7). 

— 423 — 

io8. Kunz von der Rosen {Habich, PI. B, i), 
109. Charles V. {Habich, fig. 31. — Illustrated). 
no. Archduchess Margaret of Austria, Regent of the 


Albrecht Durer (Brunsunck. — Habich, fig. 47). 
Unknown personage (Louvre. — Habich, fig. 48). 

— possibly Johann II. von Spanhcim (Berl. 
Mus. — Habich, fig. 50a). 

— (Bav. Nat. Mus. — Habich, fig. 51). 
Ulrich Stark (Coll. Felix). 

Jakob Fugger (several varieties), 

Martin Tucher (Berl. Mas. — Habich, fig. 49). 

Urban Labenwolf (5fr/. Mus. — Habich, fig. 52 a). 

Martin Tucher. 

Erman has had the good fortune to recognize as works of Hans 
Schwartz the drawings (numbering 124 so far) so-called : "Diirer 
profile Heads", which are preserved in Berlin, Bamberg, Weimar 
and elsewhere. Many of these drawings have been identified as 
sketches for medals; Erman gives 35 and D' Habich 14 more. They 
were drawn from life. 

The portrait of Matthew Lang on the currency of this archbishop 
of Salzburg is taken from Schwartz's medal {Habich, fig. 29), and 
likewise that of bishop Bernhard von Cleson the currency of Trient 

— 424 — 

(Habich, fig. 31, 32). Even the Thalers of George of Saxony show 
the artist's medallic portrait of the Duke (Habich, fig. 27). 

The medalHc portrait gallery ot early sixteenth century German 
celebrities by Hans Schwartz is a remarkable one. Let it suflBce to men- 

Obverse of Medallic Double Thaler of Matthaus Lang, of Salzburg, 1521. 

tion the portraits of Hans Burgkmaier, D"^ Peutinger, Jakob Fugger, 
Melchior Pfinzing, Lucia Dorerin, " the tenth Muse and Germany's 

Alexander Schwarz. 

ornament ", and above all Albrecht Diirer, whose sympathetic 
figure the artist depicted carved in wood and sunk in metal. The 

— 425 — 

medals of Charles V., executed during the Emperor's residence at 
Heilbronn, soon after his coronation, are very realistic in port- 

Schwartz' medals are the productions of a Portrait-carver, and 
stand in contrast with those of Daucher, which exhibit the noble 
art of relief plastic in stone. He is an impressionist. His style is 
vigorous and bold. He sacrifices details for expression. D' Habich 
resumes his masterly critique of the artist by saying " Unserem 
modernen plastischen Empfinden steht Schwartz zweifellos naher 
als irgendein anderer deutscher Medailleur. An Einfachheit der 
Haltung und Energie der Charakteristik kann einzig cr den Meistem 
der italienischen Quattrocentomedaille verglichen werden. Abererst 
wenn im Geschmack des kunstfreundlichen Publikums die gegen- 
wartig so beliebte"Kunstmedaille", dieses franzosischeSalonprodukt, 
durch ein echtes Gebilde der Plastik ersetzt ist, wird fiir HansSchwarz 
die Stunde kommen und seiner lang verkannten Kunst ihr Recht 
werden. " 

D'' Domanig in Deutsche Medaille suggests after D"" Habich, that 
it is not always possible to discriminate quite absolutely between 
the works of Hans Schwarz and Hans Daucher. 

Bibliography. — D"" G. Habich, Hans Sclnvari, Studien lur detitschen Renaissanu- 
medailh, Sonderabdruck aus dera Jahrbuch der Koniglich Preussischen Kunst- 
sammlungen, 1906; Heft I. — Erman, Deutsche Medailleure, 1884. — D' E. Merz- 
bacher, Ktinst-Medaillen-Katalog, Munchen, 1900. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — 
Domanig, Portrdtmedaillen, &c. — Ih'id, Die Deutsche Medaille. — Cahn, Sammlun^- 
Met^ler. — Numismatische Zeitschrift, XX, 394. — Num. Chron., 1904, p. 42. — 
Catalogue of the Dresden Exhibition of Medals, 1906. — Menadier, SchaumUnieti des 
Hauses Hohen\ollern, 1901. 

SCHWARTZ, HANS (Austr.). Mint- master at Vienna, 1518-1532, 
reappointed on 11. August 1522 in succession to T. Behem. Con- 
demned to death for forgery, and executed in the same year 
(Luschin von Ebengreuth, JVietis Miiniwesen, Handel und Verkehr 
im spdteren Mittelalter, Wien, 1902). 

SCHWARTZ, Prof. STEPHAN (Austr.). Contemporary Sculptor, and 
Medallist, and K. K. Professor at the Viennese Academy; born at 
Neutra, 20. August 185 1 ; studied at Pest under Landauer, 1865, and 
learned chasing at Vienna, 1867, with Dziedzinski and Hanusch. 
He was employed for some time, until 1870, by J. C. KUnkosch 
(at the time, Mayrhofer and Klinkosch), using his spare moments in 
studying sculpture under Prof. Otto Konig. 

He is at the present time Professor of sculpture and medal- 
engraving at the " Kunstgewerbeschule " in Vienna. At the Paris 
Universal Exhibition, 1900, he obtained a »old medal, and also one 
at the Jubilee Exhibition of the Berlin Academy. 

Since 1876 he is Director of a school of chasing and engraving. 

— 426 — 

The following is a list of Prof. Schwartz's principal medallic 
productions: 1880. Louise Kratschwil, medallion (50 mill.); — 

1 88 1. R. von Eitelberger, chased bronze casting (82 mill.); — 

1882. Three children playing at balls, repousse work (83 mill.); 
— 1883. R. von Eitelberger, profile portrait, bronze casting, gilt 
fi 10 mill.); — 1885. Prince Hohenlohe, portrait, bronze chasing 
(96 mill.); — National Hungarian Exhibition at Budapest, 1885 
(^66 and 50 mill.); — Seven Medallions: The works of benevo- 
lence of Saint Elizabeth, alter Moritz von Schwind's drawings, 
repousse silver (each 35 mill, diam.); — 1886, Rudolf von Eitelberger, 
bronze casting (123 mill.) ; — Another, of the same (62 mill.) ; — 

1887. Jos. Falnesics, profile portrait, bronze casting (165 and 
124 mill.); — 1888. Jubilee Industrial Exhibition (64 and 
161 mill.); — 1889. Large Plate, Arts ands Industries ; — Theodor 
Billroth, profile portrait (62 and 120 mill.); — 1890. Sculpture, 
bronze casting (128 mill.); — Leopoldine Schwartz, profile 
portrait (88 mill.); — Vienna Fashion (145); — 189 1. Portrait- 
medallion of a Child, low relief (88 mill.); — Portrait-medallion 
of an old Man, high reUef (88 mill.); — 1892. Herr und Frau 
Eduard Friedmann, oval Portrait-medaUion (75 and 60 mill.); — 
Jeannctte von Eitelberger, portrait-plaquette (128X97 niill.) ; — 
Eugen Weissel, portrait-plaquette (12 5x9 5 mill.); — The Morning, 
bronze casting (208 X 160 mill.); — The Evening, bronze casting 
(208x160 mill.); — JuUus Wiesner, profile portrait (62 and 

— 427 — 

122 mill.); — 1893. Stephan and Rudolf Schwartz, profile portraits 
( 1 60 X 120 mill.) ; — Otto Koenig in his workshop, silver casting, 
chased (197X153 mill.); — Ferdinand Kirschner, portrait- 
medallion in repousse silver (i 18 mill.); — Raphael Donner, medal 
and medallion (69 and 209 mill. ; me illustrated) ; — Comple- 
tion of the Hofburg at Vienna (70 mill., and Medallion); 
— 1894. Edmund Lidner, Portrait-medallion (118 mill.); — 
Charlotte Siess, Portrait-plaquette (130x96 mill.); — Julius 
Andrassy (80 and 118 mill.); — 1895. Vindobona, medallion 
(50 mill.); —A. Jest, boy's head (50 mill.);— 1896. Lili Michalek, 
portrait-plaquette (150X no mill.); — St. Hubert, medallion (in 
various sizes, 98, 40-10 mill.); — 1897. Carl Schenkl, profile 

Raphael Donner. 

portrait (32 mill.); — Minna Herdtle, portrait plaquette (150 X 
113 mill.); — David R. von Schonherr (41 mill.; medallion, 
129 mill.); — 1898. Victor von Renner, portrait-plaquette (150X 
122 mill.); — Francis Joseph I., portrait-medallion (various sizes, 
43 to 34 mill.); — Empress Elizabeth, portrait-medallion (43-34, 
and 85-68 mill.); — Maiglockchen, plaquette (190 X 135 mill.); 
Francis Joseph I., Jubilee, oval (3 sizes, 22 X 18 mill.) ; — Empress 
Elizabeth, the companion portrait; — Death of the Empress Elizabeth 
(two sizes, 40 and 30 mill. ; medallion, 100 mill.) ; — 1899. Grand 
Duchess Elizabeth Feodorowna, profile portrait (200 mill.); — 
Piety (200 X 150 mill.); — Ferdinand von Miller, profile portrait 
(41 mill., and medallion, 206 mill.); — 1900. Wilhelm von Miller 

— 428 — 

(6r mill., and cast medallion, 206 mill.); — Stone-mason at 
work, triangular (40X21 mill.); — D' Anton Dworak, portrait- 
plaquette (62x44, ^^^ 104X144 mill.); — Treasure finder, 

Death of Empress Elizabeth. 

pendant (30 mill.); — A Tale {N. and^R. 40-30 mill. ; — Empress 
Elizabeth as consoler of the poor and cripples, plaquette (205 X 
143 mill.); — Medicinal Spring with representation of the four 
ages of Man (175x130 mill.); — 1901. Gabriel Sedlmayr, profile 

- 429 — 

portrait (66 mill., and cast, 150 mill.); — " Gschnasfest" of the 
Society of Viennese sculptors (31 X 24 mill.); — Austria's partici- 
pation in the Paris Exhibition, 1900, plaquette (72 X 54 mill.); — 
1902. Badge of the Society of Viennese artists; — Local Railways 
of Bukowin ; — 1906. Silver Wedding of Arthur Krupp, of Berndorf; 
— Commemorative medal of the Bukarest Exhibition ; — Schiller 
(several varieties); — 1907. Portrait-plaquetteof D'Johann Exle and 
consort; — Hubertuskapelle at Walster near Miirzzuschlag; — 
Portrait-plaquette of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven; — 1908. 
Portrait-plaquettes of Otto Konigand consort; — Sigmund Exner, 
1906; — H. von Angeli, 1907 ; — H. E. Marquis de Reverseaux, 
French ambassador at Vienna, 1907; — Plaquette representing 
Miners at work ; — Viribus Unitis, Plaquette; — Veiled Virgin ; — 
Schiller Festivities, Homage by Viennese Ladies ; — William Tell ; 

5 Denara of Peter I. of Servia. 

Bopura Deru ; — Jubilee Plaquette of Francis Joseph L, 1908 
(illustr. Mitth. Ocsler. Gesellsch. der fur Miini- und Medaillenkunde, 
1909, n° 4, Beilagei). j u . c • 

Prof. Stephan Schwartz was entrusted by the Ser\^ian govern- 
ment in 1904 to cut the dies for the coinage of Peter 1. 

Montenegro, 20 Perpera, 19 10. 

In 1909 he engraved a 5 Kronen piece of Francis Joseph L and 
subsidiarv currency. The 5 Kronen piece was withdrawn on account 
of the artists' full signature ST. SCHWARTZ appearing under the bust. 

This engraver is also responsible for the new Montenegrm 
gold coinage, consisting of 100, 20 and 10 Perpera pieces. The 

— 430 — 

Silver, Nickel and Bronze Coinage of this State was struck at the 
Paris Mint, 1909. 

Prof. Schwartz has made a great number of pieces in bronze 
and marble, many medals and small moulded pieces. Among his 
large works may be named *' The Engraver Rudolph von Eitel- 
berger"; " Cardinal Prince Fiirstenberg " (Olmiitz) ; " The Styrian 
Chief Adventus Augusti " (Hofburg, Vienna), in stone, '* Die 
Bliitezeit des Rittertums " (the golden age of chivalry) (Neue 
Hofburg, Vienna) ; the marble statue of Seneca ; the marble statue 
of Frederick, Count Schonborn (Reichstadtsgebiiude, Vienna). His 
awards include : Paris, 1878 ; three silver medals; Chicago, 1893, 
a medal; Berlin, 1896, a small gold medal; Paris, 1900, a gold 
medal; Vienna 1905, the Grand Duke Karl Ludwig's gold medal. 
He is a knight of the Franz Josef Order, and Commander of the 
H. Sava Order. He is professor in the Royal Art School of Vienna. 
He has gained great recognition and has been the teacher of a 
majority of the younger men. 

At the Salon de la Medaille held at Brussels in connection with 
the Universal Exhibition, 1910, the same Artist exhibited a series 
of no less than 40 Medals and Plaquettes, which were very much 

At the New York International Medallic Exhibition held in 
March 1910, he exhibited the following works : — Damenportrait; 

— Inspiration ; — Das Wasser; — Der Alchimist; — Julius Wies- 
ner ; — Viribus Unitis ; — Dr. Istrati ; — Die bildenden Kiinste ; 

— Graf. F. Schonborn ; — Stadt Hall in Tirol ; — Stadt Hall 
Allegorie; — Schiller; — Tunnelarbeiter; — Theodor Billroth ; — 
Drei Portraits ; — Notturno ; — Elegie; — Adagio ; — Fiirst Rudolf 
Liechtenstein; — Dr. Karl Freiherr von Lemayer; — Sigmundus 
Exner; — Otto Konig; — H. Hessl; — Madchenkopf; — 
Schillermedaille. Obverse and reverse ; — R. Donnermedaille. 
Obverse and reverse; — Trauer; — Kinderkopf; — Kaiser Franz 
Josef I ; — Fiirst Nikita von Montenegro ; — Konig Peter vcn 
Serbien ; — Kaiserin Elisabeth ; — Arthur u. Margareth Krupp ; — 
Dr. David Ritter von Schonherr ; — Hofkirche, Innsbruck ; — 
St. Hubertus; — Stadt Hall in Tirol. Obverse and reverse; — 
Viribus Unitis ; — Ausstellung in Bukarest. 

Bibliography. — A. von Loehr, Wiener Medailleure, 1899 u. Nachlrag, 1901 . 

— Die Moderne Medaille, 1900. — Mittheilungen des Clubs der Mhu:(- und Medailku- 
freunde in tVien, 1898-1909. — R. Marx, Medailleurs modernes en France el a 
Velranger, 1901. — Les Medailles et Plaquelles nioderties, Haarlem, I, II, III. — 
Moderne Gedcnkpenningen, etc., 1904. — Studio, XXII. 229. — A. Moyaux, Les 
chemins defer, 1905. — Domanig, Deutsche Medaille. 

SCHWARZBERGER {Germ.). Manufacturer of medallic buttcns at 
Wasserburg on Inn, nineteenth century. 

— 431 — 

SCHWARZE, HEINRICH (Genu.). Mint- master at Dortmund, 17n2- 

Gem-engraver, born at Frankfort-on-M., 4. June 1672, died there 
in July 1741. He is noted for his Cameos. In all his works he was 
greatly assisted by his sons ADOLPH S. (born about 1714, 7 March 
1738), FRANZ S. (born about 1699, t November 1735), and 
VALENTIN S. (born about 1904, 7 April 1732). 

SCHWATHE. HANS (Austr.). Contemporary Sculptor at Vienna, 
by whom is a Plaquette commemorating the erection of a Monu- 
ment to Charlem.igne in St. Peter's Church, Vienna, 1908. This 
Plaquette is modelled after the designs of the sculptor Rudolf Weyr, 
author of the monument. 

SCHWEDTLER. ABRAHAM (Germ.). A Goldsmith of Dresden, by 
whom are cast Portrait-medals (Conterfecte) of John George I. 01 
Saxony, and Badges, &c., executed between circ. 161 r and 1630 
(Julius und Albert Erbstein, Erorterimgen auf dem Gebiete der 
sdschischen Miini- und Medaillen-Geschichte bei Ver:^eichnung der 
Hofrath Engelhariif schen Sammlung, Dresden, 1885, p. 131). 

SCHWEGERLE, HANS (Germ.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medal- 
list, residing at Munich. At the Brussels ' Salon de la MedailJe ' 
19 10, he exhibited the following works : K. E. Heintz; — M"' 
Paula Heintz; — Hans Prinzhorn; — Ernst Gloeckner, 1908; — 
M""= Schwegerle, 1908; — Hermann Schwegerle, 1908; — Eva 
Jonas, 1908; — Harro, Freiherr von Zeppelin. 1909; — Walpur- 
gis; — Youth riding on Pegasos ; — St. Peter; — Juggler; — 
Youth with owl ; — Child's head, etc. 

The Die-sinking works of Carl Poellath of Schrobenhausen have 
issued a number of this artist's works : Commemorative medal of 
the Regiment of Infantry No 102; — Landgerichtsrat Heintz; — 
Paula Heintz; — Ernst Gloeckner; — Prinzhorn ; — Harro Zeppe- 
lin; — Eva Jonas; — Pegasus; — Walpurgisnacht ; — V. M. K. 
" Gaucklertag ", Munich; — Prize Medal of the 'Handwerks- 
kammer ' Augsburg ; — Jubilee medal of the Royal Lyceum 
'* Albertus Magnus " (2 sizes); — Silvia Kalm, of Ratisbon ; — 
St. Christophorus, 19 10, etc. 

SCHWEIDLIG, MARKUS of Olmiitz (Germ.). Administrator of the 
Mint at Breslau, 1624, 1625-1627, and again in 1629. 

SCHWEI6ER, HANS (Germ.). Seal-engraver at Augsburg, 1600. 

— 432 — 

SCHWEIGER, JACOB (Gfrm.). Mint-master at Emden, 1648-1650. 
Schlickeysen and Pallmann take him to he the same person as JAKOB 
SGHWIEGELT (^. v.), who was acting as Mint-master at Gluckstadt 
between 1644 and 1660. 

SCHWEIGER. The name of a distinguished family of Engravers of 
Basle, who for three generations in the sixteenth century were 
entrusted with the preparing of coin-dies for that city and neighbour- 
ing towns. 

The first Die-sinker of that name was : — 

SCHWEIGER, GEORG (lORG) (Swiss) . Goldsmith of Basle; a native 
of Augsburg. The first mention of him at Basle dates from 1507. In 
a contemporary document dated 1533, he is named "Jorg Schwei- 
ger, goldtschmidt, burger zu Basel "'. In that year he entered into an 
agreement to cut coin-dies for Basle, Freiburg in Brisgau, Colmar, 
Breisach, and Thann, &c. The Batzen of 1533 are the first modern 
currency of the ' Rappenbund ', which was intended for wide 
circulation not only inside but also outside the Union. The Union 
was obliged to withdraw this coinage in 1536 in consequence 
of the opposition of king Ferdmand and other ruling Princes. 

D'^Cahn suggests that the fine Basle Dicken of 1521 and 1522 
are by Jorg Schweizer, whose death must have taken place some 
time previous to 1542. 

Schweiger died circ. 1534. Ambrosius Holbein painted his por- 
trait. He was also acquainted with Urs Graf, who gave him a 
drawing in 1523 (D. Burckhardt, Schwei:!^. Kiinstler-Lexikm ,111, 96). 

SCHWEIGER, HANS (Swiss). Son of the preceding, and also a 
clever Die-engraver, whose name first occurs in 1542. Thefive cities 
of the " Rappenbund " were granted in that year the right of 
issuing large silver currency, on the condition of their subscribing 
to the war fund against the Turks. In consequence Basle, Freiburg in 

— 433 — 

B., Colmar, Breisach and Thann coined Thalers, Half Thalers and 
subsidiary currency from 1542 to 1554 in fairly large quantity, the 
dies for which were cut by Hans Schweiger, who is responsible 
also for a very rare Pattern Half-Thaler of Basle, 1542, with a 
representation of L. Munatius Plancus, the founder of the city, 
Half Thalers and Zehner for Basle, Freiburg i. B., Colmar, and 


^/.^/^r-^' '^^'v'^A 


Guldenthaler of Basle, 1 564. 

Breisacii, which coinage was continued with slight variations in the 
types for some years. From 1566 Freiburg and Breisach were to 
place on their coins the effigy and titles ot the reigning archduke 
Ferdinand. The coins of 1564 show artistic superiority over those 
of 1542. 

SCHWEIGER, SIEGMUND {Swiss). Son of Hans S., and his succes- 
sor as Engraver to the Mint of Basle. We find him in office in 
1579, and working for various Princes. In 1580 Archduke Ferdinand 
forbade the sale of silver and in 1554 erected a mint of his own at 
Ensisheim, in consequence of which the services of the Basle 
Engraver were no longer required except for autonomous currency. 
We hear nothing more of Siegmund S. after that date. 

Bibliography. — Dr Julius Cahn, Die Baseler StentpelscJmeiderfamilie Sclnveiger 
itn XVI. Jahrbtindert, 1808. 

GEORG {Germ.). Goldsmiths, Seal-engravers, &c. at Augsburg, 
about 1550. 

SCHWEIGGER, GEORG {Germ.). Sculptor, Gem-engraver and 
Medallist of Nuremberg, born 6. April 161 3, died there 13. June 
1690. He was a pupil of his father EMMANUEL S. and of Christian 

Bolzenthal mentions as his work three Portrait-medallions of 
Pirckheymer, Melanchthon, and Theophrastus Paracelsus. One of 
Luther is described in the Gutekunst Catalogue of medals, and a 

L. FoKRER. — Biographical Nolicts oj Medallists. — V. »8 

— 434 — 

specimen of this was formerly in D' F. P. Weber's collection ; 
which is now in the British Museum. Domanig attributes to the 
same artist a uniface Portrait-medallion in honestone of Ferdi- 
nand III., undated (PortrdtmedaiUen, &c., n° 190). 

Babelon states that Georg Schweigger engraved in 1643 a fine 
portrait of Ferdinand III. in precious stone, and that by him are 
also various religious subjects, one of his works having been sold 
for 60.000 florins to Russia (Arneth, Die cinque-cento Cameen, 
p. 80). 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — E. Babelon, La gravure en pierres fines, 
p. 283. — Domanig, Portrdtmedaillen des Erihauses Oesterreich, 1896. 

SCH WEINBERGER, ANTON and FRANZ (Germ.). Seal-engravers at 
Augsburg, aV^. 1600. 

master at Wiirzburg, nV^. 1524. 

SCHWENDER, HANS (Germ.). Mint-engraver at Prague, 1563 ; he 
was a native of Joachimsthal, for which Mint he also worked, from 
about 1563. 

SCHWENDIMANN, KASPAR JOSEPH (Sioiss). Medallist, Gem-, and 
Coin-engraver, Modeller and Line-engraver, born at Ebikon (near 
Lucerne), 6. December 1721, died at Rome in November 1786. He 
was one of the most esteemed artists of his time in Rome, but had 
a very chequered early life. His father was a joiner, who was unable 
to provide the youth with the necessary means to learn the profes- 
sion of draughtsman and line-engraver. Young Schwendimann was 
sent to Rome, then to Augsburg, where he suffered many privations, 

Portrait-medalet of K, J. Schwendimann 
(by J. Kaufmann). 

and even hunger. Later he worked tor six months at Zoug as 
amanuensis to the engraver Hiltensperger. Many were the difficul- 
ties he had to encounter until he was able to dedicate himself 
entirely to the art of his predilection. It was not until he met the 
famous Hedlinger at Schwytz that his success was assured. The 

— 435 — 

great artist took him under his protection, noticing his clever 
dispositions, and offering him the instruction he was still in need 
of. After a few years, he made himself a name at Lucerne, won the 
patronage of two distinguished statesmen Amrhin and Balthasar, 
and was even entrusted with the engraving of the State seals and 
official stamps. In 1772 he went to Rome, where he studied the 
antique, and attained a high degree of perfection as a medallist. He 
lived there for fourteen years, but his career was cut short by the 
hand of an assassin ; he was stabbed 24 times with a knife in his 
own house, and died eight days later, on i. December 1786. The 
artist's right hand especially was severely mutilated, and to the 
friends around him who sought to instil into him hopes of recovery, 
he exclaimed : " Vedete mia mano e lasciate mi morir, ". He was 
buried in Rome. A monument, bearing the following inscription, 
was raised to his memory : 





Schwendimann's signature occurs as follows : I. SCHWENDIMANN 

The following list of the artist's medallic productions is taken 
from Inwyler's monograph {Bull, de la Societii Suisse dc numistna- 
tiqiie, 1883, pp. 49-61) : Prize Medal of the Painters' Academy of 
San Luca in Rome, 1775 ; 45 mill, (the reverse die of this medal 
was used by G. Girometti in 1846 for a Roman Scholastic Prize 
medal for Art); — Pope Pius VI., 1776; 55 mill.; — Memorial 
medal of Pope Clement XIV., 1775 ; — Prize medal of Pius VI., 
1779 ; Collegio Romano; 37 mill. ; — Charles Theodore's election 
as Prince Elector of the Bavarian Palatinate, 1777; 51 mill.; 
{JK and JE); — Union of the Palatinate with Bavaria, 1777; 
72mill. ; — Renewal at Soleureof the Treaty concluded between the 
French Crown and the Helvetic Confederation, 1777 (two varieties), 
54 mill. This medal won the artist his firstgreat distinction (illustra- 
leil) ; — Portrait-medal of Cardinal Valenti Gonzaga, 1778 ; 42 mill. 
(Cardinal Gonzaga was the artist's great patron at Rome) ; — Por- 
trait-medal of Antonio Raphael Mengs, painter; 37 mill, (one of 
the engraver's best works) ; — Commemorative medal of the 
Battle of Sempach (undated, but executed in 1780; one specimen 
struck in gold from the Emme river) ; 34 mill. The reverse of this 
medal was used in connection with Jonas Thiebaud's obverse of the 

— 436 — 

Lucerne 4 Ducat piece for a medal issued in 181 5 and intended to 
commemorate Lucerne's participation in the Allies' Campaign 
against Napoleon L; — Third Centenary of the Stanz Compromise, 
with bust of Nikolaus von der Fliie, 1781 ; 30 mill. ; — Joseph 
Laber (circ. 1783 ; only known from plaster casts, and lead impres- 
sions of the obverse) ; 38 mill. ; — Ducats ot Pius VL for Bologna, 
1782 ; — Scholastic Prize Medal of Zoug, undated ; with figure of 
St. Oswald ; 33 mill ; — Portrait-medal of Gustavus IIL, King of 
Sweden, 1784 (two varieties : one with I^ legend : svecia servata. 
Storm tossed ship; and the other with an inscription in 13 lines; 


Treaty between Louis XVI. and 
the Helvetic Confederation, 1777. 

both 64 mill.); — Cardinal Marco Castelli, Roman prelate, 1784 
(two varieties : (a) Facade of the Church at Ravenna; (b) Pius VL 
receiving from the kneeling prelate a plan of a Church ; both 
60 mill.); — Prize Medal of the University of Bologna, 1785 ; 
53 mill.; — Pisan Scudo of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, 1784; 
— Portrait-medal of Duke Peter of Curland, undated ; 64 mill. 

All these medals exist m the Lucerne " Burgerbibliothek " 

Schwendimann was in the act of engraving an official medal for 
the State of Lucerne when he fell a victim under the murderers 
steel (24. November or i. December 1786). 

By him are also a large number of copper plates, armorial 
bearings, seals, gems, rings, etc. 

The peculiarity of his talent is evident in the works which relate 
to the Renewal of the Treaty between France and Switzerland, 
Cardinal Al. Val. Gonzaga, Chevalier Mengs, and Union of the 
Palatinate with Bavaria. He was a worthy disciple of Hedlinger. 
Meyer of Hamburg in his " Reise in Italien " states that " Schwen- 

— 437 — 

dimann was for a long time the great artist in Rome ", and 
Fuesslin is equally eulogious. 

Bibliography. — A. Henseler, Gaspard Joseph Sdrwendimann, Bull, de la Soc. 
Suisse de numismatique, 1883, p. 10-15. — Supplement, by D' C. F. Trachsel, 
loc. cit., p. 27. — Nocbmals Kaspar Josef Schu'ertdimann, by Adolf Inwyler, he. cil., 
pp. 49-61. — Elrenves helve'tiqiies, 1831, p. 380. — Ret-iie Suisse de numismatique, 
1892, p. 4. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Hildebrand, op. cit. — Franz Heinemann, in 
Schwei:^erisches Kiinstlerlexikon . 


SCHWENZER, KARL {Germ.). Medallist and Coin-engraver, born 
at Lowenstein in Wiirttemberg, iG. February 1843, died at 
Stuttgart, 29. November 1904. He was the second son of a turner, 
and already manifested in his school days a taste and ability for 
engraving, in which he received instruction from his elder brother 
Ludwig. At the age of 14 he was placed as an apprentice with the 
engraver Schiller at Stuttgart, from 1861 to 1864 he visited the 
Stuttgart art schools, and from 1864 to 1867 studied under 
Krohling at Nuremberg. Here it was that he obtained his first 
official orders, consisting of a Portrait-medal of Kepler for the 
University of Tubingen, and a Prize Medal for Trade and Industries 
of the Wiirttemberg commercial centre. In 1867 and 1868 he worked 
in Paris for the medallist Paulin Tasset, and later until 1872 he 
was with Wyon in London. 

The Vienna Universal Exhibition brought Schwenzer's name to 
the front. Among the competitive designs sent in for the five 
official Prize medals, two of his obtained a first prize, and he was 
entrusted with the cutting of the dies for these in 1875. During his 
three years' residence in Vienna, from 1872 to 1875, the artist 
engraved a variety of medals. In 1875 he returned to Stuttgart, 
where he lived until his death, with the exception of a stay in 
Berlin from 1883 to 1885. 

Switzerland and Bulgaria are indebted to Schwenzer for various 
patterns of Coins. A pattern 20 Centimes of Switzerland, 1881, is 
described in Bull, de la Societe Suisse de numismatique, 1882, p. 76, 
n° 4. He cut the dies for the nickel coinage from 1879. In 1883 he 
prepared the dies for the 20 Franc piece, which was coined until 
1895, when Landry's type was adopted. Also the dies of the 5 Franc 
pieces, 1888-1895, are by him. 

Among his medals, the following may be mentioned : Freiherr 
Franz Karl von Hauch zu Haunsheim, on the birth of his daughter 
Irma, 17. August 1873; — Fifth German Federal Rifle Meeting, 
1875 ; —Vienna Exhibition of Photography, 1875; — Jubilee 
(4. Centenar)') of Tubingen University, 1877; — First Visit of 
William L, German EmpeW, to Strassburg, 1877 (struck in 1879); 
— Fisheries Exhibition at Berlin, 1880 ; — Birth of the first son 

- 438 - 

of Freiherr Franz Karl von Hauch zu Haunsheim, 1880 ; — Golden 
Wedding of Prince Karl Anton zu Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and 
consort Josephine, 1884; — Jubilee (5. Centenary) of Heidelberg 
University, 1886 ; — 25''' Anniversary of King Charles of Wurtt- 
emberg's reign, a Decoration, 1889; — Completion of Ulm Cathedral, 
1890; — Kommerzienrat Albert Niethammer, 1892; — Prize 
Medal of the Stuttgart Exhibition for Electrotechnique and Indus- 
tries ; — Portrait-medals of Prince Bismarck (two sizes) ; — Por- 
trait-medal of Nordenskjold, undated; — Prize Medal for the 

Swiss 5 Franc piece, 1 890. 

German Agricultural Society; — Another, dated 1889, for the 
Wiirttemberg Agricultural Society ; — Patterns for a 5 Mark piece or 
Wiirttemberg ; — Various Prize medals, official and unofficial, &c., 
and numerous Portrait pieces; — Emil Riecke and his consort ; — 
Theodor Diefenbach, uniface Portrait-medallion, 1883 ; — Anna 
and Karl Walcher, Portrait-plaquettes ; — Karl Walcher ; — Archduke 
Karl Ludwig, 1875; — Election of Prince Alexander of Battenberg 
to the throne of Bulgaria, 1879 (2 van); — Prince Alexander of 
Hesse ; — Medal of Merit, granted by Prince Alexander of Bulgaria, 
undated (1880) (3 var.,for MiUtary, and Civil Merit, Sciences and 
Arts); — Pattern 5 Lewa of Prince Alexander (type not adopted, 
Russia objecting to the portrait of the Prince on the coinage) ; — 
Else Kerner, 1880; — Bernhard Dondorf, 1887; — Jaquette Don- 
dorf, 1887 ; — Prize Medal for Architecture, with bust of William I., 
German Emperor, undated (designed by Bendemann) ; — Silver 
Wedding of Grand Duke Frederick of Baden and consort Louise, 
1881; — 70"' Anniversary of Frederick, Grand Duke of Baden, 
1896; — Opening of the Kiel Canal, 1895 (signed : K. S. F.), &c. 
Schwenzer was elected in 1874 honorary member of the Academy 
of Vienna, and the King of Wiirttemberg and Grand Duke of Baden 
both bestowed orders upon him for his services to Art. As a man. 

— 439 — 

he was a noble character, true and straight in all his dealings. King 
Charles had appointed him Court-medallist. 

Bibliography. — P. Joseph, Karl Sclrwenier, Frankfurter Munzzeitung, 1905, 
p. 195, 211. — W." Karl Schweitzer, Berliner Miinzblatter, 1905, p. 10. — 
Corraggion'i, Mun:(geschichte der Schweti, Luzern, 1896. — Von Heyden, op. cit. 

— Menadier, op. cit. 

SCHWERDT, A. (Gertn.^. Die-sinker and Medallist of Stuttgart, 
by whom I have noticed the following medals : Centennial of Homeo- 
pathy, with bust of Hahnemann, 1890 (signed : SCHWERDT 
STUTTG.); — First International Congress of the Homeopathic 
Society, at Hamburg, 1895 ; — Fifth General German Gymnastic 
Feteat Frankfort-on-M., 1880 (signed : A. SCHWERT STUTTGART); 

— Federal Choral Festival of Basle, 1893; — Federal Fete of 
Gymnastics at Lugano, 1894, ^c. 

SCHWERDTNER, KARL MARIA {Austr.). Contemporary Sculptor 
and Medallist, residing at Vienna; pupil of his father Johann 
Schwerdtner and Professor Helmer. 

By this talented artist are a number of cast Portrait-medallions 
and Plaquettes; amongst which one of his father (illustrated), which 
he presented to him on 14. July 1903, on the occasion of the 
70''' anniversary of his birth. Further works by him are : Prize 
Medal of the Horticultural Show at Vienna, 1901 (with bust of the 
Archduke Franz Ferdinand); — Hedwig and Norbert Reichert ; — 
Gretl Benk ; — Von Billisch ; — Ferdinand von Saar, on his 
yo**" birthday ; — Inauguration of the Unveiling of the ' Deutsch- 
meister " Monument at Vienna, 1906 (signed : CARL MARIA 
SCHWERDTNER JUNIOR); — Burgomaster D-" Carl Lueger, 1907; 

— Ludwig Gabillon, 1900; — D' Wilhelm Winternitz, of Vienna 
(signed : C. M. S.); — Inauguration of the Monument to German 
Art in Vienna (Deutschmeister Denkmal); — D"" Franz Berger; 
plaquette; — Archduke Franz Ferdinand; — Ferdinand von 
Saar, a Viennese poet. 

C. M. Schwerdtner, a young man of marked individuality, he 
naturally seeks for those traits which lie beyond the outward expres- 
sion of those whose features he is moulding. Herein lies the secret 
of his success. His first intention was to devote himself to sculpture 

— to create some large work in which he could show the world a 
vigorous and daring treatment. A visit to Charpentier in Paris was 
to be decisive for him. The great artist took no pupils, but he did 
more than teach young Schwerdtner, for during the six months he 
was in Paris, Charpentier not only allowed him to visit him in his 
studio, but corrected his work, and, what is more, explained his 
own development by means of illustrations and models of his own 
work. The knowledge of technique thus gained proved invaluable 
to Schwerdtner. 

— 440 — 

Thedesire to portray is inborn in Schwerdtner, and his "portraits" 
are portraits in the larger and deeper sense of the word. That of 
Captain Weyprecht, the North Pole explorer and joint discoverer of 
Franz Josefs Land with Payer, is wonderfully true. There is an air 
of nobility and dignity worthy the man whom the medal repres- 
ents, and the Ministry of War did well in commissioning 
Schwerdtner to design the Memorial at Pola, which is carried out 
in pure white marble. 

Schwerdtner's Portrait-plaquettes of the artist's father and the 

Portrait-plaquette of Professor Benk. 

sculptor Professor Benk are both full of strength and vigour, while 
that of the professor's daughter, Frau Urban, shows that the artist 
can also mould other types : here he has caught the delicate expres- 
sion of his subject, a true Viennese. In none of his plastic produc- 
tions does he seek to overweight one characteristic at the expense 
of another, but makes it his aim to harmonise and blend them all 
in due proportion. 

At the International Medallic Exhibition of the American Num- 
ismatic Society at New York, March 1910, this artist exhibited the 
following works : Stadtbaudirektor Berger ; — Fechtmeister Werd- 

— 44^ — 

nik; — H. E. Burgsmaster Lueger; — Deutschmeister Monu- 
ment ; — Prof. Winternitz; — Prof. Freud ; — Union Fechtclub; 
— Prof. Laurenz Miiller; — Johann Schwerdtner. 

Portrait-plaquette of Frau Urban. 

SCHWERDTNER, JOHANN (Aiistr.). Contemporary Sculptor 
and Medallist, born at Vienna on 14. Jul}- 1834, died in 1909; 
pupil ot J. Fischer, and Wenzel Seidan, and the Academy of 
Arts of Vienna. At the age ol 20 he entered the K. K. Military- 
geographical Institute as pupil in line-engraving, where he 
remained until 1864, in which year he founded the Works 
which he directed until his death. Since 1869 he was a member of the 
Society ot Sculptors of Vienna, and since 1873 a member of the Jury 
at Viennese Arts and Crafts Exhibitions. In 1874 he founded the 
Independent Society of Viennese Engravers ". On the occasion of 
his professional Jubilee in 1897 Schwerdtner was presented with the 
large gold Salvator medal by burgomaster D' Karl Lueger in the name 
of the city of Vienna. 

Although some of his medallic productions are clever and skilful, 
the artist does not rank with the great masters of the Austrian 
school of medallists, headed by Scharff, and Tautenhayn. Among 
his numerous works, I may mention the following of which I have 
seen descriptions : 1868. Third German Federal Kifle Meeting at 
Vienna, 1868 (obv. only); — 1871. Third Choral Society Festival 
at Vienna; — 1872. Tenth Anniversary of the Male Choral 
Society of Vienna ; — 1874. Prize medal for Latin scholarship at 

— 442 — 

the State Gymnasium of Graz; — 1876. Fortieth Anniversary of 
the Hydrotherapic Institute of Kaltenleutgeben, with portrait of 
D"" Emmei; — Joseph Schindler, of Grafenberg; — -877. Prize 
Medal of the Exhibition of Arts and Crafts in Vienna (2 var.); — 
1879. Centenary commemoration of the Franchise granted to the 
town of Fiume; — 1883. Commemorative medal of the " Otta- 
kringer Liedertafel's" foundation; — 1884. Prize Medal of the 
Krems Industrial Exhibition ; — 1886. Meeting of Saxon Societies 
at Kronstadt(Transsylvania); — Jubilee of Kaltenleutgeben Hydro- 
therapic Institute; — 1889. Marriage of the Crown Prince Rudolph 
with Princess Stephanie of Belgium; — 1890. Jubilee (Centenary) 
of the Neusatz Rifle Club; — Dedication of the " Kaiser" church- 
bell at Retz, 1889 (I^. only); — Bronze badge of the ** Schlaraffia 
Vindobona " ; — Commemorative medal of the Third Gymnastic 
F^te at Hainfeld ; — Commemorative medalet of the Foundation of 

Portrait of Johann Schwerdtner 
(by his son). 

the Vienna Numismatic Club; — Wilhelm and Mathilde Cubasch; 

— Opening of the " Tiirkenschanz " Park at Vienna; — Opening 
of the Railway Line from Jamboli to Bourgas, in Bulgaria (3 var.); 

— 1891. Schlaraffia Vindobona; — Social evening of Viennese 
artists and actors, 14. March 1891; — Trip ot the Numismatic 
Club to Carnuntum; — Visit to Constantinople of the Viennese 
Male Choir; — Portrait-medal ot A. M. Beschorner; — Austrian 
Athletic Club ; — Priestly Jubilee of Florian Polifka, of Aspang; — 
1892. Trip of the Numismatic Club to Gottweig; — Fifth Centen- 
ary of the Foundation of Weyer (Lower Austria) ; — 40''' Anni- 
versary of the St. Polten Sharpshooters' Club; — Olmiitz Industrial 
Exhibition; — 1893. Social evening of the Vienna Male Choir, 

— 443 — 

21. January 1893 ; — 40''' Anniversary of the St. Polten K. K. 
Rifle Corps; — Visit of the Vienna Numismatic Club to Herzogen- 
burg; — 30*'' Anniversary of the Athletic Club of Neunkirchen ; — 
First Visit to Vienna of the Haydn Orchestra Club ; — • 1894. Ritter 
Lorenz von Liburnau Institute ; — Journey to Constantinople of 
the Austro-Hungarian Export Commission ; — Volunteer Fire 
Brigade at Hainfeld, badge; — 1895. Trip to Krems ot the Vienna 
Numismatic Club; — Fourth Centenary of the Lower Austrian 
Rifle Club at Krems; — Choral Festival at Perchtsldodorf (Lower 
Austria) ; — 25. Anniversary of the Volunteer Fire Brigade of Her- 
zogenburg; — 1896. Philipp Franz von Siebold, on the 100''' 
Anniversary of his birth ; — Eighth Lower Austrian National Rifle 
Meeting; — 1897. Portrait-medallion of Charlotte Wolter, Hof- 
burg actress; — 1898. Jubilee of H. M. Francis Joseph L (many 
varieties); — Jubilee medal of the Industrial School Committee of 
Retz ; — Riflemen's Badge of the Retz Rifle Club ; — Fourth Cen- 
tenary of the Rifle Club of Bregenz, and Kaiser Jubilee Rifle 
Meeting; — Inauguration of the Josef Struber Monument at 
Pongau ; — Badge of the Graz Schlaraffia ; — Private Jeton ; — 
Scholastic Jubilee Badge of the District of Perg; — 1899. Andreas 
Hofer, commemorative medal; — 1900. Rifle Meeting medal of 
Perg; — 1902. Jubilee of Karl Andorfer; — Fisheries Exhibition 
at Vienna; — 1903. Opening of the ''Commerce Exchange" at 
Vienna; — 1905. Schiller commemoration medals; — 1906. Pla- 
quette of the Wiener-Neustadt Military Academy; — Visit of the 
Vienna Male Choir to London, &c. 

Undated, Vincent Priessnitz, physician at Grafenberg, -|- 185 1; 
— Prize Medal of the Horticultural Club of Klosterneuburg ; -~ 
Badge of the Fisheries Club ; — Prof. Griepenkerl, &c. 

Schwerdtner usually signed : J. S.; — J. SCHWERDTNER; — 

Schwerdtner was a clever Engraver in ivory and copper. 

Prof, von Renner's obituary notice of Johann Schwerdtner gives 
a very full account of Schwerdtner's life and artistic career. 

Bibliography. — Mittlxilungen des Kltibs der Muti^- und Medaillenjreunde in 
Wien, 1890. — Various Catalogues, &c. — Prof, von Renner, Johann ScJnuerdtner , 
Mitth. der oest. Gesellschaft fur Munz-und Medaillenkunde, 1909. 


SCHWERTGE, NIKOLAUS {Germ.). Mint-engraver at Simmern, 
circ. 1 572-1 582 (Frankf. Miinzz., 1903, p. 372). He worked under 
Mint-master Jacob Mertz, and coined under Count Palatine 

SCHWIEGELT, JAKOB {Germ.). Mint-master at Gluckstadt, 1644- 

— 444 — 

i66o, under Christian IV. During the last few years of the Thirty 
years' War, the Gluckstadt mint did not work (Chr. Lange's 
Sammlung schleswig-holsteinischer Miinzen iind Medaillen, 1908). 

at Prague, 175 5-1784, in connection with A. STOhr, Mint-warden. 
Their issues are signed S.S., and occur also on coins of Schlick. 
The mint of Prague was closed on 18. February 1784, but reopened 
on 28. August 1795. 

SCIPIONE AMICI, GIULIANO DI (Ital.). Gem-engraver to Pope 
Paul II., 1464-1471. 

SCLATER, ROEERT (Brit.). A Scottish Medallist of the second 
quarter of the nineteenth century, who lived at Edinburgh. His 
works date from 1826. By him are : Portrait-medal of George 
Heriot, -J- 1624 ; signed: SCLATER F. (a presentation medal ot 
Heriot's Hospital in Edinburgh) ; — Medal of the Highland and 
Agricultural Society of Scotland, instituted 1784 ; obv. Heads of 
Geo. III., Geo IV., and William IV., in profile to left; — Medal of 
the Royal Caledonian Club, instituted in 1838 (signed: SCLATER 
SC.) (Cochran Patrick, Scottish Medals, 1884). 

SCOPAS {Greek). This inscription CKOPAC occurs on a fine 
hyacinth intaglio of the Leipj^ig Library, representing a beardless 
male head. M. Babelon adds, in his description of the gem, that it 
is unlikely that the Engraver is the same person as the famous 
sculptor of the bas-reliefs of the Mausoleum. 

Scopas was an artist of pre-imperial times. 

The signature ZKOPAI on gems purporting to be ancient is 
undoubtedly modern. 

The signature has been added in modern times on various gems: 
Oedipus and the Sphinx ; signed : iKOPA-EP' (Stosch) ; — Bust of 
Apollo Citharedus (Sellari); — Head of Epicurus, sard (Count 
Butterlin); — Young woman at her toilet (Caylus). 

Bibliography. — Furtwangler, AntikeGenimen. — King, Antique Gems, <(». 224. 
— Babelon, La gravure en pierres fines, 1894. 

SCOTHEM, JAN VAN (Dutch). Mint-master at Middleburg, 
appointed 19. October 1355, under Willem V. 

SCOTT, MAJOR then LIEUT. COL. B. (Brit.). Officiating Mint- 
master at Calcutta, appointed on 22. September 1891, and in 
office until 1'' March 1892; 23. November 1897 to 6. July 1900; 
1. October 1900 to 30. November of the same year; and again 
from 1. November 1902 to 22. April 1904. He also officiated at 
Bombay, 1895-1897. 

— 445 — 

SCOTT, B. (Brit.). Engraver of coins and Medallist to the empresses 
of Russia, Elizabeth and Catherine the Great, 1754-1762. Iversen 
states that his initials B.S. occur on Roubles of the years 1754 to 
1737, and on two small Memorial medals of Elizabeth, and I have 
further noticed it on a Portrait-medal of Catherine II., 1761, and 
on a commemorative medal of the Battle of Poltawa (signed : 
B. SCOTT F.). 

SCOTT. J.D. (Brit.). Engraver of a St. Patrick's Total Abstinence 
Society medal of Montreal, 1841 (Leroux, Medaillier du Canada, 
p. hi). 

SCOTT, R. (Brit.). This signature occurs on a Prize medal of the 
Glasgow East End Exhibition, 1890. The engraver is a local Die- 
sinker and Seal-engraver. 

SCOTT. ROBERT (Anier.). First Engraver of the United States 
Mint at Philadelphia, appointed on 23. November 1793, and appa- 
rently in office until January 1824. Evans states that "information 
is wanting as to the nativity of Scott, but at the time of his 
appointment he seems to have been turning the down-hill of life. 
He is remembered as rather under size, and as an honourable and 
agreeable gentleman "'. 

The first official coinage of the United States dates from 1793 
and consists only of Cents and Half Cents. In the following year, 
silver Dollars, Half Dollars, and Half Dismes were also issued, and 
in 1795 the Eagles and Half Eagles were first struck. 

Dollar of the United Sutes of America, 1795. 

The earliest coins issued by the United States Government were 
Half Dimes. This issue, which took place in October 1792, is thus 
described by Washington in his message to Congress, 6. November 
1792 : "There has been a small beginning in the coinage of Half- 
dismes; the want of small coins in circulation, calling the first 
attention to them". 

— 44^ — 

On these early coins, the portrait of Martha Washington is said 
to have been used tor the personification of the head of Liberty; — 

Half Disme. Obv. lib. par. of science & industry. Head of 
Liberty (portrait of Martha Washington) with flowing hair to left; 
beneath, 1792. 

^L. UNI. STATES OF AMERICA. Eagle flying to 1. ; beneath, half | 
DISME I * 10, 5 mill. — 21 grains. 

Half Disme of 1792. 

Of these Half-dismes only 100 dollars' worth were struck and 
laced in circulation. They are now very scarce and sought after 
y collectors. 

The same portrait of Martha Washington occurs also on a Pattern 
Disme of the same year. 

Pattern Disme. Obv. liberty parent of science & indus. Head 
of Liberty to left, with flowing hair; beneath, 1792. 

I^. united states of AMERICA. Flying eagle, head to left; 
beneath, disme. 14 mill. — 57 grains. 


To these coins may be added a Pattern Cent, also of 1792, with 
the same portrait. 

Pattern Cent. Obv. liberty parent of science & industry. Head 
of Liberty to right with flowing hair; on truncation: birch; 
beneath, 1792. 

1^. united states of AMERICA. Within laurel-wreath tied below 
with a ribbon, the inscription : one cent; under the wreath: j^g. 
Edge inscribed: to be esteemed « be useful. 21 mill. — 217 — 
286 grains. 

Although the last piece only bears the engraver's name, it is most 
probable that Birch cut the dies for all three coins. 

— 447 — 

The head of Liberty on the United States silver currency (Dollars, 
Half Dollars, Quarters, Dimes, and Half Dimes) continued for 

Pattern Cent, 1792. 

several years to be a modified type of the portrait of Martha 

Bibliography. — Evans, U. S. Coinage, 1892. — Snowden, Washington Medals. 

SCROCCETTI, GIUSEPPE (Ilal.). Author of a Portrait-medal of 
Faustina Bordoni, 1723. 

SCUAP, NICOLA. Signature of Nicolaus Schwabe q. v. 

SCUDDER, JANET (Aiiier.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
born in Terre Haute, Indiana, on 27''' October 1874, a daughter of 
William HoUingshead and Mary Sparks Scudder, a descendant from 
Thomas Scudder of London, who with his wife Mary emigrated to 
Salem, Mass. in 1635. Miss Scudder was educated at the High 
School in Terre Haute, began to study sculpture at the Cincinnati 
Art Academy under Louis J. Rebisso, and continued at the Art 
Institute, Chicago, under Lorado Taft. Later she entered the Aca- 
demie Vitti and Collarrossi in Paris, finally becoming the pupil of 
Frederick Mc Monnies. 

While studying in Chicago Miss Scudder was given orders for 
two figures for the Columbian Exposition, one for the Illinois 
Building, and another for the Indiana Building. She was awarded 
a Bronze medal at the Chicago World's Fair, and also at the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis. In 1901 five Portrait- 
medallions by her were acquired by the French State for the 
Luxembourg Museum. 

Miss Scudder's principal works are : Seal for the Bar Association 
of New York; — Cinerary Urn for Daniel Mather Walbridge, 
Woodlawn Cemetery, New York ; — Fountains for Archbold Cottage, 
Bar Harbor, Maine ; — Other Fountains for Mrs. E. Howard Child, 
Westwood, Mass; Chas Piatt, N.Y.; James Burge, Southampton, 
L.I.; Richmond Art Association; — Statue of "Japanese Art" 

- 448 - 

for the Brooklyn Art Museum ; — Marble sun-dial for Mrs. Warner 
M. Leeds, Port Washington, L.I. ; — Bronze Memorial Tablets to 
Arthur Middleton Reeves, Richmond, Indiana ; — Marble Memorial 
to Bishop Hare, Sioux Falls, Iowa; — "Frog Fountain" and 
Collection of 8 silver Medallions, purchased by the Metropolitan 

Miss Mildred Barnes. 

Museum, New York, In 1904; — Collection of Medallions in 

Congressional Library at Washington D . C . and Indianapolis Art 

Museum, etc. 

Miss Scudder is a Member of the American National Sculpture 

Society, and National Society of Arts. 

Her principal Portrait-medallions are the following : 

1900. Mrs. Michael van Buren ; — Mrs. Warner M. Geeds; — 

Miss Leslie Emmett; — Miss Alice Jones; — 1902. Bishop Hare ; 

— Percy Chubb Esq. ; — Miss Margheretta Mac Veagh; — 1903. 

Portrait of a Gentleman (illustrated); — 1904. A. J. Parsons Esq. ; 

Master Billy Fahnestock. 

Portrait of a Gentleman. 

L. FoRRER. — Biograpbieal Nolica of Mednlluls. — V. 


- 4)0 - 

— Master Royal Parsons ; — Master Billy Fahnestock ; — Miss 
Caroline Reeves Foulke; — Arthur Middleton Reeves Esq.; — 
E. Howard Child Esq. ; — 1905. Miss Helen Seely ; — Mrs. Alice 
Eno; — Miss Mildred Barnes {il\usiraled)\ — 1906. Mrs. William 
Eno; — 1909. Francis Whitehouse Esq., etc. 

Miss Janet Scudder has been very successful so far, thanks to her 
real talent and keen artistic perception. Her work is delicate, but 
does not lack in boldness and originality. 

Articles treating of this artist's work have appeared in the 

At the International|Medallic Exhibition of the American Numis- 
matic Society at New York, March 19 10, she exhibited a dozen of 
her works ; also a selection of thirteen of her best medallic produc- 
tions at the Brussels Salon de la Medaille, 1910. 

Bibliography. — Injonnation kindly supplied by tlx artist and by Mr. Theodore 
Spicer-Simson. — The Studio. — Catalogue of the International Medallic Exhibition 
of the American Numismatic Society, March ipio. 

SCULTET VON SCHOLTISHEIM, SALOMON (5(?fe///.). Mint-engraver 
at Prague, 1636-165 6. Beside coin-dies, he cut Religious medals, 
some dies of which are still preserved at the Vienna mint. 

SCYLAX (Greek). Gem-engraver of the Alexandrine period, by 
whom only two absolutely authentic gems are known. One signed 
CKYAAI is an intaglio representing a young Satyr dancing (Furt- 
wangler, 0. c, p. 49-50); and the other, purchased for 2500 frs. by 
the Bibliotheque nationale, Paris, at a sale of D-" Sambon's in 
March 1902, is a Portrait-intaglio {illustrated). YouihM male bust 
in profile to right ; behind the head, CKYAAZ. The work is charm- 
ingly delicate and of exquisite style. This gem was found at Brin- 

Portrait-intaglio, by Scylax. 

Referring to the first of these two works of Scylax, the youthful 
Satyr dancing. Prof. Furtwangler says : "Die Arbeit des Steines ist 
eine ganz vorziigliche; trotz der zierlichen Ausfuhrung des Details 
herrscht doch eine so feine Massigung, eine so acht antike Frische 
im Ganzen, ein solcher Gegensatz zu allem Weichlichen und 
Unsichern, dass ich die Gemme nur fur antik halten kann. Wie 

— 451 — 

schon und klar sind die Formen des Korpers, wie einfach derb das 
stumpfnasige Satyrgesicht, und wie zart geschmackvoll ist das 
Pantherfell behandelt. " 

Among the dubious gems, whether antique with a signature 
added in modern times, or entirely modern, I may mention the 
following bearing the inscription of Scylax : — Cameo representing 
Hercules Musarum (formerly in Baron Roger de Sivry's collection). 
This gem is considered as original by M. Babelon (Daremberg & 
Saglio'sDict.jflr/. Gemtnaell, 1479); — Eagle's head, sard (formerly 
in the collection of Lord A. Percy, and now in the Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; probably borrowed from the Blacas gem, inscribed 
CKYAA). An imitation of this gem, from the Castellani collection, 
exists in the British Museum, with the inscription CKIAAK; — Head 
of Pan, full face, amethyst (Blacas); — Head of C. Antius Restio, 
sard (formerly in the Marlborough Collection) ; — Male portrait, 
sard (ibid.); — Head of a bald man, garnet (formerly in Baron 
Roger de Sivry's cabinet) ; — Man standing, holding a bow, sard 
(ibid.); — Mask of Satyr, front face (ibid.); — Combat between 
a giant and griffin, sard (St. Petersburg), etc. 

Pichler imitated some of these. 

In the Poniatowski collection were the following eighteenth 
century gems, inscribed Scylax : Bacchus bringing Semele from 
Hades, oriental cornelian ; — The centaur Phobus pouring out 
wine for his guest Hercules, oriental cornelian ; — Hercules in the 
act of striking Telamon, who, to appease him, points to the altar 
he is constructing in his honour, oriental cornelian ; — Thetis 
inquiring of Achilles the cause of his affliction, cornelian. 

Bibliography. — Furtwangler, Antike Gemmen. — Ibid., Jahrbuch &c., 1889. — 
Babelon, op. cit. — King, Antique Gems, i860. — Murray, Catalogue, Sic. — Raspe, 
op. cit. — Prendeville, The Poniatowski Gems. 

SCYMNUS, CKYMNOC (Greek). The only authentic gem known 
with this signature CKYMNOY was formerly in the Kibaltchich 
Collection (St. Petersburg). In his catalogue of the collection, D*" 
Sambon describes this gem thus : 

Intaglio, by Scymnus. 
" Jeune Faune courant vers la droite ; il agite de la main gauche 

— 452 — 

le thyrse et verse, de la main droite elevee, le contenu d'une coupe. 
II regarde en courant une panthere qui gambade a ses cotes. Der- 
riere, se lit la signature du graveur CKYMNOY (dune authenticity 
incontestable). Intaille sur cornaline orientale. Travail hellenistique 
d'une grande finesse. Conservation irreprochable. Piece d'elite. 
" Cest la seule piece connue avec cette signature. " 
This signature occurs also on another gem, which is modern, 
and described by King as representing Bacchus followed by a 

S. D. also SEBA. DATT. Fide SEBASTIAN DADLER. Medallist at 
Augsburg, 1619-1653. 

S D. Fide DANIEL SIEGMUND DOCKLER. Medallist at Nuremberg, 
•j- circ. 1688. 

S. D. Fide SEBALO DIERLEBER. Mint-master at Dresden, 1635- 
1640. He appears to have been Mint- warden at Prague from about 

S. D. Fide SIMON DANNES. Mint-master at Schleitz, 1669- 1675 
and 1678-1680; in Harzgerode, 1675-1676. 

S. D. r/J^ SIEGMUND DANNIES. Mint- warden at Minden, 1682- 
1689 ; Mint-master at Stargard, 1689- 1692, and Konigsberg in 
Prussia, 1695-1697. 


S. D. A. (Jtal.'). According to Milanesi and Armand these initials 
may be the signature of a Florentine Goldsmith SALVESTRO DELL' 
AVACGHIA, who worked for some time at Rome for Pope Leo X. 
Vasari states that this goldsmith excelled in all the branches of his 

The initials S. D. A. occur on a medal of Cardinal Giangiacomo 
Sclafenati, undated; 58 mill.; — and on another of Filippo Sclafe- 
nati; 54 mill. 

Bibliography. — Armand, of. cit. — Heiss, op. cit. 

SEATON, CHRISTOPHER (Brit.). A Scotsman, pupil of the Danish 
Gem-engraver Christian Reisen, was in 1750, says King, "at the 
head of his profession in London. " He endeavoured to give an 
extreme finish to his gems : hence they are weak, cold, and without 
spirit. His chief works are portraits of Pope, Inigo Jones, and Sir 
John Newton, for the last of which he was paid 25 guineas" 
(p. 273). Raspe describes further by him a Head of Psyche, in white 
cornelian, and a Portrait of Charles L, in the character of the 'Ecce 

— 453 — 

Seaton engraved the Great seal of George III. and also, in the 
opinion ot Mr. Frank Bo\vcher,one of those for use in Ireland under 
the same reign. 

Bibliography. — Mariette, op. cit. — King, op. cit. — Raspe, op. cit. 

SEBALD, MARTIN (Genu.). Sculptor and Medallist of the nine- 
teenth century, died in the early part of 1888 at Augsburg. He 
worked for the DRENTWETT Die-sinking establishment for many 
years (circ. 1875-1887) as Modeller of the medals they issued. 
The firm was founded in 1842 at Augsburg by Gottfried Drentwett 
Of 2. May 187 1), and continued by his son Carl Drentwett (born 
9. April 1848--J- 24. March 1878), who made the business over in 
1869 to the lithographer Heinrich Schmidt, the present owner. 

Schlickeysen-Pallmann (p. 3 80) led me in error when I mention- 
ed (Vol. I, p. 614) the name of Sebald Drentwett as that of the 
founder of the Drentwett private mint. For a list of some ofSebald's 
productions, confer my article on Drentwett (Vol. I, NE,pp. 614- 

By Sebald are also a number of Portrait-medals of German cele- 
brities, as Goethe, Schiller, Prince Bismarck, Count Moltke, etc. 

SEBASTIANI, HEINRICH JUSTUS (Germ). Mint-warden, 1692- 
169^, and later Mint-master, 1694-1702 at Steuerwald. His initials 
H. S. or also H. I. S- occur on the coins. 

SECCHI, LUIGI (Jtal.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
residing at Milan, from whom I have been unable to obtain any 
information as to his artistic career. 

At the Brussels "Salon de la Medaille" 1910, he exhibited a 
Portrait-medal of Camillo Boito, 1905, and at the New York Inter- 
national Medallic Exhibition, March 1910 : Prof. Carlo Baravelle ; 
— Senator Francesco Brioschi ; — Portrait of a young Lady ; — 
Virile portraits; — Senator Giuseppe Colombo ; — Comm. Camillo 
Boito ; — Cav. Prof. Luigi Brianzi ; — Senator Luca Beltrami ; — 
Senator Luca Beltrami's mother. 

SIBILLE. M'"'^ JULIETTE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Paris; pupil of Chapu, and P. Dubois. At the Salon of 1892 this 
artist exhibited a Portrait-medallion of a young Lady. 

Poet, and Medallist of Malines, born at The Hague, 14. November 
15 1 1, died at the early age of 25 on 27. September 1536. His life 
has been told by Pinchart. Picque, Raymond Serrure, and again 
more recently by D"^ Simonis, in his L' Art du MedaiUeur en Belgique, 
1900 (pp. 35-92). 

— 454 — 

The artist's father, Nicolas Everaers, was born at Gruysperke, 
near Middelburg, and from humble circumstances he rose to become 
President of the Council of Holland. The mother, Elisa Bladelle, 
was a native of Malines. The youth's first teachers were Jacques 
Wolcard, ot Berg-op-Zoom, and Stenenmeulen, of MaHnes. 
Nothing is known of his childhood, but in 1527 he settled at 
Malines, where he became a favourite in the brilliant circle of 
dignitaries of the court of Margaret of Austria. At the age of 
seventeen, he modelled his first medal, a portrait of his father. In 
1532, he went to Bourges to study law, and after a year obtained 
the degree of doctor-in-laws. In 1534, we find him filHng the post 
of secretary to the Cardinal of Toledo in Spain. His stay there was 
of short duration. The Emperor Charles V., to whose ears the fame 
of the delightful poet had reached, appointed him his private secre- 
tary and panegyrist. As such. Second accompanied the Emperor in 
his expedition to Tunis in 1535. The African climate proved 
injurious to his health, and he was obliged to return to Spain, 
where however he did not recover his strength. Returning to 
Tournay, he was taken ill with fever, and died on 27. September 

Kits, who found in 1838 a Portrait medal in lead of Second's 
mistress Julia, was the first to draw attention to the medallic work 
of the poet. Picque in 1873 published his medal of Nicolas Grudius 
and Anna Cobella. Cumont in 1894 &^^'^ ^ ^'^^ of eight of his 
productions, to which D' Simonis has been adding ten more, at 
least tentatively. 

List of Medals. 1. Nicolas Everaers, the artist's father, with the 
legend : nicolao everardi patri ioan . filivs . f . CJ (only known from 
a later casting); — 2. Another, with the legend : 
(in the collection of M. Mayer-van den Bergh, of Antwerp); — 

3. Joachim Ringelbergh, of Antwerp (TrSsor, Med. all., PI. IX, 9); 

4. Lucius Brassicanus, poet; — 5. Johannes Dantiscus, bishop of 
Culm, undated (Simonis, PL III, 3; diam. 55 mill.); — 6. Aegi- 
dius Buslidius (Gilles Busleiden), poet, undated ; — 7. Julia, the 
artist's first mistress, of Malines (lead portrait-medal). In a letter, 
dated 8. May 1533, to Jan van Schoorl, a painter of Utrecht, 
Second mentions that he has just modelled a medal, and that he 
has already done that of Julia ; his terms are very explicit : Rogo 
sincere judices, vix enim indticor, ut credatn judicium quod de Juliae 
imagine proferebas, fuisse incorruptum ; — 8. Franciscus Craneveld, 
1533; honestone ; 48 mill. (Hague Museum); — 9. Nicolas 
Grudius, brother of Second ; — 10. Anna Cobella, first wife of 
Grudius; — 11. Neera, second mistress of Second, whom he met 
in Spain; — 12. Jean Carondelet, archbishop of Palermo, provost 
of Saint Donat at Bruges; — 13. Charles V.; '^L. The Pillars of 

— 455 — 

Hercules; modelled in honestone, and bronze (Tresor, Med. all., 
p. 38, n° 2). This was executed in various sizes; — 14. Andr6 
Alciat,lawyerofBourges, Count Palatine; 1^. ANAPOI AIKAIOY 
KAPnOI OTK ATIOAAYTAI Caduceus between two cornucopiae, 
undated (1533); — 15. Nicolas Grudius and Anna Cobella (two 
specimens in the Brussels Museum); — 16. Nicolas Perrenot, 
cardinal Granvella, minister of Charles V.; — 17. Johann Danielis, 

Portrait-medal of Erasmus of Rotterdam. 

secretary ot Charles V.; — 18. Erasmus ot Rotterdam ; formerly 
ascribed to Quentin Metsys, but given to Second by D"" Simonis 
{op. cit., p. 80-88). 

Second probably modelled his portraits in wax, or honestone, 
after the fashion of his German contemporaries, and only some 
specimens were cast in bronze. Most of the known pieces in 
bronze exist only in later casts of the seventeenth century. 

The artist's most famous poetical works are Les Baisers and his 
Elegies. He has been called the Flemish Tibullus, and indeed he 
ranks very high. 

Bibliography. — Pinchart, Biographies des graveurs beiges. Rev. beige, 
lie s6rie, II, p. 429. — Picque, Discours a VAssenihlee generale annuelle de la Societe 
royale beige de numismaliqtie, 6 juillet 1873. — Simonis, L'Art du Medailleur en 
Belgique. — Georges Cumont, Medaille au huste de Charles Quint par le poete Jean 
Second, Rev. beige num., 1895, p. 113. 

SECR£TAIN, LOUIS {French). Goldsmith of Tours, who in i486 
w^as condemned, for making spurious coin, to be boiled alive and 
afterwards to be hanged. 

Bibliography. — Babelon, La Monnaie, p. 163. 

SEDLATZEK, FR. {Germ.). Die-cutter whose name occurs on the 
Token described below : Obv, Head, to right, above crossed 

- 456 - 
laurel-branches, wilhelm ii. deutscher kaiser. I^. fr.sedlatzek 

catessen market). APOTHEKE I - . — j FABRIK FUR STE.MPEL ] SCHABLO- 

NEN I & I MEDAiLLEN. Aluminium. 22 mill. Edges beaded. 

SEECK, M. (Germ.^. London Agent of Messrs. L. Chr. Lauer and C° 
of Nuremberg, and Designer of a Souvenir medal of the Univer- 
sities of Oxford and Cambridge. On obv. are coats of arms and 
dates of foundation of the various colleges arranged around arms of 
University; the ^. shows a figure of the Muse of Learning while 
the background represents a view of the respective university town; 
the legend is oxonia (resp. cantabrigia) alma mater mea (Studio, 
XXIX, 209). A more recent production is the Coronation medal of 
King George V. and Queen Mary, June 191 1. 

SEEL, or SOLL. Two Die-cutters of that name, PETER, and 
PAVL S. were employed at the mint of Salzburg, ra. 1632-1665, 
and 1 660- 1 69 5 resp. They descended from a tamily of Salzburg 
officials, the name of one George Seel occurring as early as 1506- 
1509 as Justice of the peace atTittmoning. 

Herr Gustav Zeller has published a very full monograph on the 
work of these Engravers : Die Familie Seel imd ihre Medaillen, 
Mitth. des Klubs, &c., 1893. 

SEEL, PAUL (Auslr.). Son of Peter Seel ; Medallist, and Mint- 
engraver at Salzburg, circ. 1660-7 1695. He learned the art of die- 
cutting with his lather, and worked also as a Line-Engraver. From 
1660 to 1665 he assisted his father at the Salzburg mint ; from 1665 

John Et'nest Count Thun, archbishop of Salzburg. 

until his death, he filled the office of Chief-engraver; his successor 
was Ignaz Portenschlager (1695-1715). 

Paul Seel worked for and under archbishops Guidobaldus Count 

— 457 — 

Thun (i 654-1 668), Maximilian Gandolfo Count Khuenburg 
(1668-1687), and Johann Ernest Count Thun (1687-1709). 

Amongst his most noteworthy productions are : Large gold 
coins (multiples of the Ducat) with the arms of Max Gandolfo and 
the Patron Saints Rupert and Virgil, dated 1668; — Thaler 
commemorating the Eleventh centenary of the Archiepiscopate 
under Max Gandolfo, 1682; — Silver Portrait-medal of Max Gan- 
dolfo, 1686 ; — Oval Portrait-medal of Johann Ernst Count Thun, 
1687 (illustrated); — Large gold coins (multiples of the Ducat) 
with arms of Johann Ernest, dated 1687. 

Paul Seel's reputation must have been considerable. He cut a vast 
number of so-called "^ Pilgrim's Badges" and "Monastic Medals" 
(generally in yellow brass), which range from Westphalia and 
Switzerland to Hungary, and from Saxony and Silesia to the coast 
of the Adriatic. The probable date of their production is comprised 
mainly between 1680 and 1690. 

The artist signed his medals PS, and less frequently SP ; his full 
name occurs only on the round Portrait-medal of Archbishop 
Max Gandolf Count Khuenburg, 1686, and on the oval one of 
Archbishop Johann Ernest Count Thun, 1687; but the great 
majority of the works of the two Seels are unsigned. The initials 
SL no doubt also represent Seel. 

Count Karl Liechtenstein, bishop of Olmutz. 

Prof. Domanigsuggeststheattribution to Paul Seel of an oval Portrait- 
medal of Count Karl Lichtenstein, bishop of Olmutz (illustrated), 
which in treatment and style bears strong analogy with the artist's 
authenticated productions, and he reproduces on PI. 85, n° 74 
(Die Deutsche Medaille) a Pilgrim's Badge, undated, signed : P. S., 
with the Adoration of the Shepherds on obv. and on ^L. The three 
Kings worshipping the Infant Christ. 

- 45« - 

By Paul Seel are further : Oval medal on the Capture of Buda- 
pest, 1686 (signed : P. S.) (2 var.) ; — Oval medals of the Priory of 
Chiemsee (Upper Bavaria), with bust of Pope Sixtus II. (signed : 
P. S.) (2 var.); — Oval Plague Amulet of Munich; — Oval medals, 
Academy of the Militia angel. St Thomas ab Aquinus, Salzburg, 
founded in 1669 (4 var.); — 11* Centenar}' of the Benedictine 
Nunnery of Nonnberg, 1682; — 11'^ Centenary of the Benedic- 
tine Monastery of St. Peter at Salzburg, 1682 (signed : P. S.) ; — 
5''" Centenary of the Abbey of Windberg at Sossau, near Straubing, 
1677 (heart-shaped); — Oval medal on the Relief of Vienna, 
1683 ; — Sixth Centenary of the Foundation of the Shrine ot 
Mariazell, 1687 (2 var.; one signed P. S.) ; — Erection of the 
Column of the Holy Trinity in Vienna, etc. 

Bibliography. — Gustav Zcller, Die Familie Seel und ihre Medaillen, Mitth. 
des Klubs derMunz- und Medaillenfreunde in Wien, 1893. — Sammlting heruhmter 
MeJaiUeure und Miminieister nebst ihren Zeicheii, Nurnberg, 1778. 

SEEL, PETER (Austr.). Medallist, and Mint-engraver at Salzburg, 
circ. 1632-1665. His name first occurs in contemporary^ records 
in 1632 as archiepiscopal Seal- and Coin-engraver at the Salzburg 
mint, and for a period of 33 years he held his office, which only 
old age compelled him to give up. His colleague at the Mint from 
1630-165 5 was the Tyrolese Engraver Konig (otherwise Mathias 
Khuenig von Baumbhausen) of Hall, and after that period he was 
assisted by his son Paul. 

Peter Seel's productions for the archiepiscopal mint consist 
mostVy of dies for the Salzburg currency, from the Thaler 
downwards, including the Ducat, of archbishops Paris Count 
Lodron, and Guidobaldus Count Thun. By him are also the two 
gold medals with a representation of the facade of Salzburg Cathedral, 
dated 1654 and 1655. We may note that this Engraver did not cut 
any Portrait-medals of the Salzburg archbishops, and that his work 
is inferior to his son's. 

That the artist accepted commissions outside the Salzburg mint 
is apparent, as by him are, for instance, the medal commemorat- 
ing the Breaking out of the Plague at Munich in 1634; — Fourth 
Centenary of Fraukirchen, 1640; — Transfer of the image of the 
Holy Child from Cloister Dietlendorf in Bavaria to Salzburg, 1650 
(3 var.); — and Seventh Centenary of the Battle of Lechfeld near 
Augsburg against the Huns, 1655. 

He is probably responsible also for a number of Pilgrims' Badges 
and Monastic medals, in which his son Paul is said to have made 
a special mark, circ. 1680- 1690. Prof. Domanig describes one of 
these Badges in his recent work (Die Deutsche Medaille') under the 
name of Peter Seel, but admits that it is impossible to discriminate 
between the works of father and son. The appended list, compiled 

— 459 — 

by Zeller, from Beierlein's descriptions, comprises productions ot 
Peter and Paul Seel and other related engravers, for the following 
shrines and holy places : — Adelwany (Upper Austria) (8 var.); — 
Allotting (Bavaria), Pilgrims' Badges, Rosenkranz medals, Badges ot 
the Jesuits College, &c. (25 var.).; — Andechs (HI. Berg) Benedic- 
tine Monaster}' and place of Pilgrimage near the Ammersee in 
Upper Bavaria (2 var.); — Arniesberg (Bavaria) (2 var.); — 
Augsburg *' Udalricus' Victory crosses (7 var.); — Augsburg and 
Maria::^ell ; — Benedictbeuern (7 var.); — Bogenberg (Lower Bavaria) 
(2 var.); — C/;/Vwi^<' (Herren-Chiemsee) (3 var.); — Dorfen 
(3 var.); — Dorfen (and Altdtting); — Dorfen and Lofer; — 
Duntenhausen ; — Ebersberg (signed : V. S.); — Edenberg; — Elend 
(2 var.); — Ettal (near Oberammergau) (6 var.); — Fischingen 
(ct. St. Gallen) ; — St. Horian (2 var.); — Frauenberg (Styria); 
Frauenstein ; — Fraukirchen (Bavaria) (2 var.); — Freiburg in 
Brisgau (Dominican Cloister of St. Katharina Senensis) (6 var.); — 
Fiissen (signed : G. N.) ; — Heiligeiiberg (near Olmiitz) (2 var.); — 
HeiligenbJut (near Erding in Bavaria) (2 var.) ; — lunsbruch (Serx'iien 
Cloister); — Inchenofen\ — Innsee (Benedictine Monastery near 
Kaufbeuren) ; — Ketteniell (in the Black Forest) ; — Kirchcnthal 
(near Lofer in Pinzgau) (3 var.) ; — Cologne, iR polygonal medal, 
Obv. Birth of Christ; ^. The three Kings, &c.; and " Rosen- 
kranz " medal ; — Lechfeld (2 var. ; one signed : P. S.) ; — 
St. Mang in Fiissen (on the Lech); — Maria-Eck {near Traunstein, 
Upper Bavaria) ; — Einsiedeln (Switzerland) (ir var.); — Maria- 
Einsiedel (near Munich) (2 var.) ; — Maria-Plain (near Salzburg), 
(4 var.) ; — Maria-Saal (Carinthia) ; — Maria Scharten and 
Maria Taferl ; — Maria Schmer:;^ ; — Maria- Taferl and Maria:{ell 
(on the Danube in Lower Austria) (9 var.); — Maria^ell (Styria) 
(8 var.); — Mettenham (Bavaria); — Munich (4 var.); — Munich 
B.nd Altotting, Plague Amulets (2), one dated 1634; — Pantaleon; 

— Ponlach (shrine of Maria-Brunn at Ponlach, near Tittmoning, in 
Upper Bavaria) (2 var.); — Prague, ^. oval, dolorosa . ad . s . 
lACOBVM. &c. ; signed: P. S. (2 var.); — Ratisbon (Monastery of 
St. Emeran) ; — Salzburg, Congregational medals of the Sacrament 
or Red Brotherhood (5 var. ; two signed : P. S. and P.SL.); Plague 
Amulet, St. Sebastian's Church, &c. ; — Scheyern; — Seitenstetten 
(Lower Austria) (2 var.); — Seligenstadt (4 var.) ; — Sonntagsberg 
(20 var. or more) ; — Plague Amulets, signed or unsigned ; — 
Tegernsee (Upper Bavaria) (2 var.) ; — Trens (near Sterzing, Tyrol) ; 

— nigertshofen (near Schongau, Upper Bavaria) (3 var.); — Waldsas- 
sen (Cistercian monastery and holy place in the Upper Palatinate); 

— Waldthurn (2 var.); — Warta; — Weihenlinden (nez: hWAxng, 
Upper Bavaria) ; — Weingarten (Benedictine monastery in Wiirttem- 
berg (4 var.); — Weissenstein (Tyrol); — Vienna and Ma riaiell 

— 4<^o — 

(5 var.) ; — Wessobrunn (Bavaria) ; — St. Wolfgang am Burgholi 
(Upper Bavaria); — and numerous Religious badges, &c. of uncer- 
tain places of issue, St. Michael Brotherhoods, &c. (the description 
of 22 varieties is given by Zeller and 22 more by Pachinger); — 
Vihbiburg (Lower Bavaria); — Wiblingen (near Ulm) (2 var.). 
These Badges and Medals are chiefly oval, and struck in yellow 
brass, rarefy silver, dated or undated, with or without signatures. 

The post of Engraver at the Salzburg mint does not appear, 
from the mint archives, to have been a very remunerative one; the 
Die-cutter was paid for piece work only, receiving a fixed salary 
(Wartegeld) of 30-60 Gulden, and one can hardly wonder that the 
Seels sought to extend the field of their activity outside their place 
of residence. 

"Die Seelschen Medaillen sind Kleinkunststiicke, sind Werke 
eines echt deutschen Meisters, sie sind ein getreues Abbild 
deutschen Kunstlebens. Ebenso stolz wie die Italiener auf ihren 
Abondio und Hamerani, durfen wir Deutsche auf unseren Seel 
sein, den Begriinder einer neuen Schule. Seel ist fiir das siebzehnte 
Jahrhundert das gewesen, was fur unsere Zeit der Wiener Meister 
Anton Scharff war " (Pachinger, loc. cit., i). 

Bibliography. — Domanig, Die deutsche MedaiUe, 1907. — Gustav Zeller, Die 
an der fiirster:(biscl]dflich-salT;bx4rgischen Miitiie angestellten, u. a. Mvmieisenschneider, 
Graveure und Medailletire, Wiener Numismatische Zeitschrift, XX, p. ^96. — 
1. V. Kull, Repertorium, &c. — A. M. Pachinger, Medaillen von Peter und Paul Seel 
und diesen verwandten Meistern. Eine ErgHn^ung ^u Gustav Zellers gleichiamiger 
Monographie, Mitth. der bayer. numism. Gesellschaft, 1905. 

SEELANDER, NICOLAUS {Germ.). A noted Line-engraver of the 
first halt of the eighteenth century, appointed Engraver to the 
Ducal Library at Hanover in 17 16, in which office he remained 
until his death in 1744. He was born at Erfurt, and apprenticed to a 
locksmith, but early devoted himself to Line-engraving and Die- 
sinking. His first known medallic production is a Portrait-piece ot 
Count Philipp Wilhelm von Boineburg, Siatthalter of Erfurt. In 
17 1 5 he executed a large Coronation medal of George L of Great 
Britain (of a silver weight of 16 oz. ; fully described in Medallic 
Illtistraiions, II, %\ signed on obv. N. SEELANDER. FECIT) '. 
D"" Bodemann, in his short monograph of the artist, published in 
1890, relates that Seelander came over to England in 171 5, in 
order to present personally his Coronation mednl to the King. 
Although armed with a letter of introduction from Leibnitz to the 
Princess of Wales, he had to wait many weary months before his 

I. The British Museum only possesses a lead specimen of this medal. Casts are 
found in the Gotha Ducal Cabinet, and Apell Collection at Erfurt. The dies were 
in the possession of the medallist G. G. Adams, but I do not know what became 
of them after his death. 

- 46i - 

work could be brought to the notice of the sovereign, who after 
keeping it sometime caused it to be returned with a message 
that the medal pleased him ver)' well, and that the Engraver was 
at liberty to strike replicas for sale . In the mean time the poor 
artist appears to have spent his all and to have been in straitened 
circumstances, as he complains in a letter to Leibnitz, dated 
13. February 17 16. In the famous philosopher, Seelander had 
found a patron and friend, and to him he owed the appointment 
in that same year of Line-engraver to the Hanover Library, with a 
monthly salary of 20 Thaler 30 Mariengroschen. In that capacity 
he engraved the fine copper-plates (of seals, coins, monuments, 
relics, landscapes, etc.) of the Origtnes Guelficae, published after 
Leibnitz's death by his successors. 

Seelander cut the engravings of Treuer's Geschlechtshistorie 
der V. Miiiichhausen, 2ind in 1743 he published: Zehen Schriften von 
TeiUschev Miini^en mittlerer Zeiien; miteimgen historischen Erlduterungen 
erhldret und in drey:^ehen Kupfer- Flatten vorgestellt. Hannover, 1743, 
4°. But his most important numismatic treatise is the Numophyla- 
cium Brunsvico-Lunebiirgicum she Thesaurus mimormn iconicorum et 
uncialiuin, quae Serenissitni Principes ac Duces Brunsv.-Luneb. ah initio 
seculi XVI. ad annum MDCCXXKVII cudi jusserunt, aeri impressa 
per Nicolauni Seelander. This folio work contains engravings of 
1383 coins and medals of members of the Ducal house of Bnins- 
wick-Liineburg from the beginning of the sixteenth century to the 
middle of the eighteenth. Seelander further engraved the 147 copper- 
plates of the catalogue of the numismatic collection of Gerhard 
Walter Molanus, abbot of Loccum, the well-known friend of 
Leibnitz, Catalogus numntorum, quos sen Ducum seu Ducissarum seu 
civitatum rariores colligere studio curaeque habuit Gerardus, Abbas 
Luccensis. The greater part of this collection was purchased by 
George II. and now forms part of the Duke of Cumberland's cabinet. 
By order of George II. 20 copies of the Seelander copper plates • 
were pulled off for presentation in 1754, and 30 more in 1853 by 
order of George V. 

The compilers of Medallic Illustrations state that Seelander filled 
the post of Mint-engraver at Hanover (p. 739), but this is appar- 
ently an error. Unfortunately however it is a well-known fact now 
that this Engraver cut a large number of dies for spurious mediaeval 
coins, chiefly bracteates. His forgeries number not far short of 300; 
some are imitations from originals, others are concoctions. In the 
Berlin Cabinet eight drawers full of these false bracteates exist, and 
they are represented also in the Cassel, Donaueschingen, Leipzig, 
and other official and private collections. They are distinguished 
by the bluish tint of the silver. D"" Buchenau states that they were 
chiefly produced by the repousse process. 

In Gottweih monastery are beside bracteates also Carlovingian 
Deniers, which are undoubtedly the work of Seelander. 

Seeliinder published his own forgeries amongst original coins in 
his " Numophylacium Brunsvico-Luneburgicum ", and these 
remained undetected until about fifty years ago. Even Schlum- 
berger has reproduced some of this Engraver's spurious coins as 
originals in his standard work : " Des Bracteates d'Allemagne ", 
Paris, 1873 (PI. II, 21?; VI, 67; VIII, loi, etc.). A number of 
Seelander's forgeries have been described byD'' E. Bahrfeldt, D' H. 
Buchenau, Leitzmann, C. F. von Posern-Klett, and other writers. 

Nagler mentions a medal by Seelander commemorating the 
Inauguration ot the Numismatic Cabinet of the Duke ot Gotha, with 
a bust of Frederick II., and an allegorical representation on the ^L. 

Bibliography. — Dr. Eduard Bodemann, Xicolaus Seelander, MedaiUenr uvd 
Kurhannoverscher Biblioiheks-Kupferslecher iji6-iy44, Zeitschrift des Historischen 
Vereins fur Niedersachsen, 1890, and Blatter fur Munzfreunde, 1891, 162^ sq. — 
Nagler, AUgemeines Kunsller-Lexihon . — D"" H. Buchenau, Uher " Seelandersche " 
Fdlschungen, Blatter fur Munzfreunde, 1902, 2739-2742. — Leitzmann, Uher 
Seelander's Mun:(en miitlerer Zeiten, Num. Ztg., Weissensee, i860. — C. F. v. 
Vosern-Klett, Nachgemachte Mtinien des Mittelafters, Blatter fur Munzkunde, 1838, 
IV, 21. — Bracteates, p. 423. 

SEELEN, I.e. (Germ.). Mint-master at Halberstadt, 1691. 

SEELIGER, MELCHIOR (Germ). Mint-assistant at Breslau, 1627. 

SEFFNER, PROF. KARL (Germ.). Contemporary Sculptor, residing 
at Leipzig, who modelled a Portrait of Schiller, which was used for 
medals and plaquettes commemorating the Schiller Festivities, 
9, May 1905. At the Brussels " Salon de la M^daille " 1910 he 
exhibited two uniface Portrait-medals: Friedrich Schiller, 1905 ; — 
D"" Lahmann, 1905. These medals are cast in bronze. 

SEGALA, FRANCESCO (ItaL). Milanesi suggests that the letters 
F. S. on an Italian Portrait-medal of Sperone Speroni, a Paduan 
writer, may represent the name of Francesco Segala, a Paduan 
sculptor and bronze founder, who flourished circ. 1565. 

SEGAN Vide SAGAU, F. supra. 

SEGER, CLAUS (Austr.). Mint-master at Ingolstadt, circ. 1400- 
1402 (Lori I, 28). 

SEGER, PROF. ERNST (Germ.). Contemporary Sculptor, residing 
at Charlottenburg, born at Neurode in 1865. He is the author of 
several Portrait-medals and Plaquettes: — Grempler, 1896; — 
Privy Councillor Molinari, President of the Breslau Chamber of 
commerce, 1906; — J. Heimann, founder of the Jewish Orphan- 

— 4^3 — 

age at Breslau, 1907; — Silver Wedding medal (Bender consort), 

At the Brussels ' Salon de la Medaille ', he exhibited a silver 
medal entitled : Sorciere. 

SEGNANI, NICOLO (ItaL). Medallist of the second and third 
quarters of the nineteenth century, by whom are Portrait-medals 
of Karoline Unger-Sabatier, the famous singer, 1837, and others. 

SEGNI, ANTONIO (//a/.). Papal Mint-master at Fuligno, 1500- 
15 16. His issues are signed A.S. 

ary Sculptor and Medallist, born at Toulouse and residing at Paris; 
Prix de Rome, 1897; Officier d'Acad^mie, 1906. 

In 1905 he was entrusted by the " Socidte des Amis de la 
Medaille francaise " with the modelling of a Plaquette, entitled : 
Le Reve du Travailleur. 

SEGUIN, PIERRE (French). Goldsmith, and Coin-engraver at the 
Mint of La Rochelle, circ. 1600; he died in 1602. 

s£GUY, B. (French). Mint-master at Lyons, from anni VIII to XI 
of the First French Republic. His privy-mark on the coins is SB 


SfiGUY, PASCAL (French). Contemporary Gem-engraver, born at 
Paris; pupil of Bissinger. By him is a Portrait-cameo of Czar 
Nicholas II., onyx of two strata, which he exhibited at the Salon in 

SEHLEN (or SOHLE), JOHANN CASPAR VON (Germ.). Mint-warden 
at Magdeburg, 1688; Mint-master there, 1691-1695. His initials 
I. C.S. occur on the currency. 

SEHUSEN, CONRAD and HEINRICH (Germ.). Mint-masters at 
Rostock, 1371-72. 

SEIBOT, "SYBOTO DICTVS" (Germ.). Mint-master at Augsburg, 
circ. 1388. 

SEIDA, WOLF (Ausir.). Mint-Assistant at Hall in Tyrol, circ. 

SEIDAN, CAROLINE (Bohem.). Wife or Daughter of Wenzel Seidan, 
and his collaborator in several of the medals which he engraved 
(Fide yiEHZLL, SEIDAN). 

SEIDAN, WENZEL (Bohem.). Medallist and Coin-engraver, born at 
Prague in May 1817; probably a son of the Prague gold-chaser 

— 4^4 — 

Franz Seidan, who in 1791 applied for a post at the Mint; pupil 
of the Academy of Fine Arts at Prague; died at Vienna on 
20. March 1870. 

In 1 84 1 Seidan obtained a scholarship and again in 1842. In 
1844 he is styled '* Privatgraveur " and allowed to have a medal 
struck at the Mint of Baron von Kubeck. He then visited Italy to 
complete his artistic studies, returning by way of Paris in 1847. In 
that year he cut dies for the medals of Cornelius and Overbeck, for 
which he was rewarded with a prize of 1000 florins by Emperor 
Ferdinand I. and the large Prize medal for Art by King Frederick 
William IV. of Prussia. In 1848 the Engraver applied for the office 
of Mint-engraver at Prague, and in 1850 removed to Vienna. 

IJt. of Medal on the Consiitution of 15. March 1848. 

Between 1852 and 1869 he had a large number of medals struck at 
the Vienna Mint. In 1866 he put his name forward as a candidate 
for the Directorship of the Imperial " Graveurakademie". 

Seidan's most noteworthy medallic productions are : Archduke Fre- 
derick, 1841 ; — Franz Anton Count Kolowrat, 1843 ; — The Cons- 
titution of 1 5 . March 1 848 (issued in 1 849) (1^ illustrated) ; — Franz 
Count Schlick, 1850; — Ban us Josef Jelacic ; — Jan Kollar, poet, 1852; 
— Visit of Emperor Francis Joseph to Prague, 1852 ; — Francis 
Joseph's Visit to Bohemia, 1854 ; — Journey of the Emperor and 
Empress to Hungary, 1857 ; — Josef Count Radetzky von Radec, 
1858 ; — Johann Nepomuk Paris, archaeologist, 1859 ; — Visit of 
the Emperor to Prague, i860 ; — Faculty of Proprietorship granted 
to Israelites, i860 ; — Abbot of Strahov Hieronymus II. Josef 

— 465 — 

Zeidler, 1862; — Franz Palacky, historiographer, 1861; — W. 
Hanka, librarian, 1861 ; — Opening of the Diet at Frankfort-on- 
M.,1863 ; — Vienna enlarged by the absorption of suburbs, 1865 ; 

— Bohemian Industrial Society medal, 1866; — Wolfgang Ema- 
nuel von Graffenried-Burgenstein, 1866 ; — Prize medal of the town 
of Hohenmauth for the Agricultural School of Tetschen-Liebwerd 
(engraved in conjunction with CaroHne Seidan) ; — 1867. Jubilee 
of the Evangelical Districts College of Eperies ; — Wittingau Male 
Choir; — Congress of Physicians and Naturalists at Rimaszombat; 

— Coronation of Queen Elizabeth in Hungary ; — Medals for 
Valour issued for the Principality of Montenegro; — Professor 
Joh. Ev. Purkyn^ (issued in 1868) ; — 1868. Medal on the Constitu- 
tion of the State; — Laying of the Foundation stone of the National 
Theatre at Prague ; — Rifle Meeting Prize Medals for the town of 
Braunau (in conjunction with Caroline Seidan); — Assassination 
of Milos Obrenovic ; — Town of Erlau, Fiinfhauser Rifle Meeting; 

— Visit of Francis Joseph I. to Galicia; — 50''' Anniversary of 
the Transsylvanian Railv/ay ; — Agricultural Show at St. Johann ; 

— Moldavian Deputation at the Hungarian Royal Coronation ; 

— Ritter von Lorenzutti and the Prague Draughts Club ; — Rifle 
Corps of Saaz ; — Choral Society of Werschetz ; — Heinrich 
Fiigner, founder of the Sokol Society; — Sixth Congress of Phy- 
sicians at Vienna ; — Trooping of the Colours of the Karbitz Veteran 
Corps; — Journey of the Emperor and Empress to Croatia; — 
Sanctioning the Constitution; — 1869. Journey of Francis Joseph I. 
to the East; — Sojourn of the Emperor at Rustschuk; — Congress 
of Hungarian Naturalists at Arad (engraved in conjunction with 
Caroline Seidan) ; — Arrival of Francis Joseph I. in E'^ypt ; — 
Karl Ritter von Ghega (1869), in commemoration of the building 
of the Semmering Railway, etc. 

Domanig mentions a manuscript list of this artist's medals, to 
which I have not been able to obtain access. 

The Vienna Mint Museum preserves some dies and puncheons by 
him : Three matrices of 187 1 for Double Gulden with laureated bust 
of Emperor Francis Joseph I. (signed : SEIDAN) ; — Medal on the 
Constitution of 15. March 1848; obv. Ferdinand enthroned; 
^L. illustrated (signed: W. SEIDAN PRAG); — Erection of the so- 
called Hentzi Monument at Ofen, 1849 (only ^.); — Austrian 
Victor}' at Temesvar, 18.^9 (signed : W. SEIDAN F.); — Centenary 
of the Foundation of the Order of Maria Theresia, 1857 (signed : 
SEIDAN); — Prize Medal of the Agricultural Society of Beraun in 
Bohemia, 1855 (obv. signed: W. S. ; 1^. by L. Cossa); — Prize 
Medal of the Austrian Society of Arts, 1859 (issued at a later date, 
and signed : W. SEIDAN F.). 

Besides the medals, etc. mentioned above I have met with the 

L. FoRRER. — Bu^rapkieal Noticti of Medallists. — V. 50 

— 4^6 — 

description of the following other medalHc productions of Wenzel 
Seidan : Medal of the Prague University, 1848; — Radetzky Monu- 
ment, 1858; — Franz Palacky Monument, 1867; — Friedrich von 
Schiller; — Birth of Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria, 1858; — 
Francis Joseph's fortunate escape from accident, 1853 ; — Marriage 
of Francis Joseph I. with Princess Elizabeth of Bavaria, 1854; — 
Projected Visit of the Emperor and Empress to the frontier of 
Moldavia, 1868; — Third German Federal Rifle Competition at 
Vienna, 1868; — Commemorative medal of the Jesuit Mission, 
1861 ; — Opening of the Prague to Dresden Railway, 185 1; — 
Centenary of the Foundation of the Orient Academy in Vienna, 
1854; — Inauguration of the First Council of State at Vienna, 
I. May 1 861; — Austro-Prussian Alliance in the Schleswig- 
Holstein War against Denmark, 1864; — Inauguration of the 
Ringstrasse, i. May 1865; — Commemorative medal of the Bohe- 
mian Constitution, granted on 20. October i860 and withdrawn on 
20. September 1865 ; — Withdrawal of the Constitution, 
20. September 1865 (issued for Hungary); — Campaign of 1866; 
— Naval Victory at Lissa, 20. July 1866; — Bohemian Campaign, 
1866; — Vienna menaced in the Campaign of 1866; - Peace of 
Prague, 23. August, and Peace with Italy, 3. October 1866; — 
Hungarian Coronation, 1867; — Moldavian homage in connection 
with the Coronation at Ofen-Pest, 1867; — Confirmation of the 
Dece-nber Constitution, 1867; — Freedom of Speech and Public 
assembling, 1868; — Second Centenary of the Shrine of Maria- 
Taferl, i860; — The Semmering Railway, 1854; — Austro-Hun- 
garian State Railway, undated; — D"" A, C. Lorenzetti, 1 rieste; — 
D'' J. E. Puskyn, Prague; — Convention of Hungarian Physicians 
at Eger, 1858; — Commemorative medals of the XIV. Congress of 
Hungarian Physicians at Fiume, 1869; XVI. at Mehadia, 1872; 
XVII. at Raab, 1874, and Rimazambat, 1866; at Arad, 1870, 
Karlsbad, 1862 ; Presburg, 1865, etc. 

Bibliography. — Katalog der Miin-en- unci Medatllen-Slempcl-Saniinhnig des K. 
K. Hauptmiiniamtes in Wien, 1904. — Die Medaillen aus der Recrierungsieit Sr. 
Majeslat des Kaisers FraniJosef I, Mitth. des Klubs, etc., 1890-1895. — Domanig, 
Die Deutsche Medaille. — A. Moyaux, Les chemins defer. — Habich, Die Medaillen 
iind Miin-en des Gesammlhauses Wiltelsbach, Munich, 1906. — Nagler, op. cH . — 
Reinimann Sale Catalogue. — Fiala, op. cit. 

SEIDEL (Germ.). A native of Bayreuth, Contractor of mints for 
Wurttemberg, 175 8- 1759. 

at Zellerfeld, 10. May 1783 — f 10. October 1785. The initials 
C.E. S. occur on coins of these years of George III. for Brunswick- 

— 467 — 

the district of Lower Saxony, circ. 1737. 

SEIDLITZ. JOHANN GEORG (Germ.). Gem-engraver, and Medallist, 
born at Koblenz towards the end of the seventeenth century, who 
settled at Vienna, where in the first half of the eighteenth century 
he was working as Die-cutter to the Vienna medal-manufacturer 
Johann Forber, who owned an imperial grant to strike medals, 
and had branches at Ratisbon, Nuremberg, and Vienna. Nagler 
states that the period of his greatest activity at Vienna is comprised 
between 1699 and 171 1, and that he w-as still living in 1730. He 
left many works, which are usually signed with his initials, or his 
name in full, Seidlit:^^. 

One of this artist's best productions is the commemorative medal 
of the Capture of the Fortress of Landau by the Roman King in 
1702 (Num. hist., 190), and Portrait-medals of the Roman Queen 
Amalia Wilhelmina, 1705 (on her Coronation); — Charles IIL, 
King of Spain, undated (1705) (illustrated); — Lille taken and 

Charles III., King of Spain. 

the French frontier forced, 1708 (with bust of Emperor Joseph L); 
— Capture of the Citadel of Ryssel, 1708 ; — Emperor Joseph L ; 
^L. Emblem and motto, undated; — Another, with armoured 
bust of Emperor, and signed on truncation; — Marriage ot 
Joseph L, 1699; ^L. lUNXiT amor, etc. Two hearts, etc. 

This Engraver signed with the initals I. G.S. dies for Thalers struck 
at Pressburg (Schulthess 2538, 2542). Mariette mentions his name 
as an Engraver of gems also. 

Philipp Christoph Becker was a pupil of Seidlitz. 

Bibliography. — Johann Newald, Beitrag :(ur Geschkhte des osterreichischen 

- 468 - 

Muniwescns iiii ersten Vierlel des XVlll. Jahrhunderts, p. i6. — Medallic llhtstra- 
tions, etc. — Bolzenthal, op. cit — Mariette, op. cit. — Ris Paquot, Dictionnaire, 
etc. — Nagler, Allgeitteines Kunslerkxikon. — Domanig, op. cit. 

SEIFRIED (Austr.). Moneyer at Vienna, 1287, 1288. 

SEIFRID DER MUNZER in der Scheffstrasse (Austr.). Moneyer at 
Vienna, 1405 (? 1435, 30 Marz). 

SEITZ, JOSEPH (Germ.). Engraver and Chaser, born at Munich 
in 1820, where he resided. By him are Seals, and other productions 
of similar kind. 

SEIZ. V (Germ.). Medallist and Coin-engraver at Passau, circ. 1688- 
1706. He may have been a son of the Passau sculptor, Johann Seiz 

Portrait-medal of Max Gandolf, archbishop of Salzburg. 

(or Seitz), whose period of activity is comprised in the first half ot 
the seventeenth century, 

V. Seiz's signature occurs on Thalers of Passau, 1703 -1706. A 
large gold medal with facing bust of Max Gandolph, archbishop of 
Salzburg, 1668, is signed : SEIZF., which signature occurs also on 
a Portrait-thaler of Johann Philip, Count Lamberg, bishop of Pas- 
sau, 1703. 

Bibliography. — Domanig, Die Deutsche Medaille, 1907. — Zeller, Sal^burger 
Munieisenschneider, etc., Num. Zeits., XX. — Nagler, o/». cit. 

SELCHE, CARL LUDWIG (Germ.). Die-sinker and Mint-master or 
Inspector at Dusseldorf, circ. 1767-1770 (Exter I, 514). His initials 
C. L. S. occur on the currency issued under his administration at 

SELD, GEORG (Germ.). Goldsmith at Augsburg, circ. 1492-1500. 

SELD HANS (or JOHANN) (Germ ). Medallist at Augsburg, who in 
1 521 obtained from Emperor Charles V. a permission to manufac- 

— 469 — 

ture medals. His signature occurs on Augsburg Goldgulden and 
silver Batzen, and he was probably Die-cutter to the mint. His pro- 
ductions, says Bolzenthal, hardly place him in the rank of artists. 

SELER, KASPAR {Germ.). Mint-master at Wiirzburg, 1556, Nord- 
lingen, 1556, and Augsburg, 1570. 

SELEUCOS (Greek). Gem-engraver of the hellenistic penod, fourth 
century B.C. or later. The signature occurs on an amethyst intaglio 
of the former Carlisle collection, representingPhiloctetes.M.Babelon 
mentions this gem, after Murray (Handbook of Greek Archaeology, 
p. 172), Furtwangler, and Brunn, as a genuine antique work. 

A Head ot Silenus, cornelian intaglio, signed C€A€YK, formerly 
in the Cerretani collection at Florence, is described in Stosch 
(p. 220, n° 1358), but the original appears to have been lost. The 
British Museum, and Hague Museum replicas are modern. Brunn 
did not admit the name as that of an artist, and even the inscription 
is suspected by Furtwangler, while Stephani declares the whole to 
be modern. A paste, in the former Stosch collection, showing a 
Portrait of an unknown person, and of very fine work, bears the 
same signature. 

The following gems signed Seleucos are spurious : — HeadofHerakles 
(Brit. Mus. Cat., n° 2038); — Herme of Priapus, square emerald 
(Thoms) ; — Cupid and a wild boar, amethyst (Worlidge). 

Bibliography. — Babelon, Pienes gravies, p. 132. — King, op. cif., p. 225. — 
Furtwangler, Gemmen mit Khnstlerinschriften, Jahrbuch, etc., 1889, p. 83. — S. 
Reinach, op. cit. — Raspe, Tassie Gems. — Stephani, Angebliche Steinschneider, 
p. 224. — Pierres de Stosch, p. 220, n" 1358. — Brunn, op. cit. 

SELING, PAUL WENZEL(5oZ;e;;/.). Mint-master at St. Joachimsthal, 

SELLAN, G. (Span.). Medallist, and Mint engraver at Madrid, 
under Alfonso XII. and XIII., circ. 1875-1893, when he was 

•'Baby" Dollar of Spain, 1891, 

— 470 — 

succeeded by the present Chief-engraver, Bartolome Maura y 

Besides engraving dies for the regular coinage of Spain, Sellan also 
executed a number of commemorative and artistic medals. The 
coins are signed G. S., except some Pattern pieces of both Kings, 
which bear the signature G. SELLAN. On the occasion of the Visit 
of Alfonso XII. to the Madrid mint, 28. June 1875, a medal in 
gold, struck from the obv. die of a 100 Peseta piece, and with an 
inscription on the I^., was issued in commemoration of the event. 

The first coinage of Alfonso XIII. is dated 1888 ; the dies are by 
Sellan, and were in use until 1893, when the second coinage by 
Maura was issued. The following denominations exist of the 1888 
coinage, either as Patterns, or Official coins : — N. 100, 20 Pesetas ; 
JK. 5, 2, I Peseta, 50 and 20 Centimes; JE. 10, 5, 2 and i Cen- 

Among G. Sellan's medals I will only mention : Portrait-medal 
of King Amadeo I., The Mediterranean fleet, 1870; — Marriage 
Medal of Alfonso XII. and Marie de Mercedes, 1878, etc. 

Bibliography. — Catalogo de la Cohccion de Monedas y Medallas de Manuel Vidol 
Quadras y Ramon de Barcelona, 1892. 

SELLENT {Span.y Medallist of Barcelona, early part of the nine- 
teenth century, by whom I have seen a medal on Charles IV'. s visit 
to Barcelona, 1802. 

SELLER, KASPAR (Germ.^. Coining engineer at Augsburg, where 
he introduced in 1555 a new press and a process of his invention 
to mill the edges of coins. At the diet of 1559 Ferdinand I. allowed 
him an advance of 6000 fl. towards his expenses in the pursuit of 
his minting improvements. 

SELLIGUE (French). Engineer, and inventor of a coining-press. A 
Pattern 5 Franc piece, 1833, was issued from his press, bearing on 
I^. G. TORREZ 1833 within an oval surrounded by rays and a repre- 
sentation of Selligue's press on obv. {Dewamiu, PI. LVII, i). 

SELLIUS, HEINRICH WILHELM (Germ.). Mint-master at Elbing, 
1761. His issues are usually signed H.W. S. 

SELLIUS, ONESIMUS C. (Roman). " Flatuarius de via sacra", prob- 
ably a Coin-engraver of Roman times. 

SELTER, JOHANN (Germ.). Medallist and Coin-engraver, in the 
service of the Counts Palatine at Mannheim, nVr. 1705-1716. Many 
coins and medals by this Engraver are described in Exter's Samtnlun^ 
Chiirpf. Mun^en, p. 324, 335, &c. 351, &c. 365, 373, &c. 381, &c. 
386, &c. 405, 417. 

— 471 — 

Domanig describes and reproduces two Portrait-medals by him 
of Countess Palatine, Anna M. Ludovica, undated (n°^ 360-361), 

Obv. of Portrait-medal of Anna M. Ludovica, Countess Palatine. 

and another of Prince-Elector Johann Wilhelm of Palatinate- 
Neuburg, undated (signed : SELTER). The coins are signed : J. S. 

Bibliography. — Domanig, Die Deutsche Medaille, 1907. — Nagler, op. cit. — 
Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

SELTMANN, JOHANN CHRIST. (Germ.). Die-sinker of the early 
part of the nineteenth century, who worked in various towns of 
Southern Germany, circ. 1800-1815, and finally settled at Dresden. 

SELVATICO. LUDOVICO (IlaL). Mint-master and Engraver (?) at 
Modena 1612-1613, Pesaro 1 621, and Parma 1629. The coins struck 
by him for Cesare d'Este arc attributed to the Engraver Giulio 

SELVATICO, PAOLO (Ital.). Sculptor of the second half of the 
sixteenth century, about whom Bolzenthal makes the following 
comment : " Tiraboschi hardly considers Paolo Selvatico as worthy 
of mention, and speaks of him as a mere official in the Mints of 
Modena and Parma, but this is unjust. Selvatico was long in the 
service of Alfonso II. d'Este at Modena ; he followed later Cesare 
d'Este to Ferrara, and ended his life in the employment of Ranuc- 
cio I. Farnese at Parma in 1606. The beautiful dies for coins which 
were preserved in the Mint at Milan and Royal Cabinet, and now 

— 472 — 

the property of the Estes in Modena, give him a place among the 
great masters of the art. He also applied himself assiduously to 
the study of ancient coins, and his works therefore resemble the 
antique in many respects. Cicognara, by reason of these dies, 
ascribes to him a medal of Giovanni de' Medici, the reverse of 
which is copied from the 'Decursio' sestertius of Nero, and bears 
the legend : PROPVGNATORI ITALIAE. In the portrait of Giovanni 
de' Medici Selvatico has given such a spirited expression, and also 
so much softness, that one wonders at his genius. According to 
Zani, Selvatico was born at Florence in 15^7 and died in 1606." 
(Bolzenthal, p. 158). 

Modern critics ignore however the name of Selvatico altogether, 
and no reliance can be placed on Cicognara and many of the old 
writers' attributions. The dies of coins, ascribed to Selvatico, are 
productions by other artists, under whose names they will be found 

SELVI, ANTONIO (Ital.). One of the most prolific Medallists of 
the first half of the eighteenth centur}% was born at Venice, but 
flourished at Florence, where he died in 1755. He was a pupil of 
Massimiliano Soldani-Benzi. He spent most of his life in the service 
of the Ducal Court of Tuscany, and executed a large number ot 
Portrait-medals of the Grand Dukes. He is said to have visited 
England, and to have resided some time in this country. Cicognara 
(5/ar. II, 414) states that he let a considerable number of medallic 
productions go under his name in the making ot which he had no 
part ._His medals are a lways cast and of poor workmanship. . 

Among Selvi's best known Portrait-medals I may mention : John 
Molesworth, 17 12 (signed : A. SELVI. F.); — Richard Molesworth, 
17 12 (unsigned); — Sir Andrew Fountaine, 171 5 (signed : A. 
SELVI. F.) ; — Professor Francis Hutcheson, undated (1694- 1746) ; 

— William III. and Mary (unsigned : Med. III., I, ^) ; — Galileo 
Galilei; — Count Giuseppe Prospero Giannini ; — Gius. M. S. 
Bertini; — Ant. Cocchi (1695-f 1758), 1745; — Giov. Batt. 
Fagioli; — Manfredo Malaspina; — A. Vallisniesi, of Padua, 1707 ; 

— Empress Maria Theresia, undated; on her Accession (signed : 
A. SELVI. F.) ; — Francis I., 1745 ; on his Coronation (signed : A. 
S. F.) ; — Marc Antonio Mozzi ; — Count Lor. Magalotti; — Large 
Portrait-medallion of the Carmelite preacher. Pater Marcus a sancto 
Francisco, 1748 ; — A. Vallinieri, Padua, 171 3 ; — P. Valcarenghi, 
Padua, 1752; — Large Portrait-medallion of Michael Angelo ; 
^L. Allegorical figures of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture; — 
Pantaleone Dolera, undated (17 10; signed A. F. SELVL F.) ; — 
Series of Portrait-medals of the Grand Dukes ot Tuscany; — Guido 
Grandi, mathematician, 1738, etc. 

Richard Molesworth. 

— 474 — 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Nagler, q/>. cit. — MedaUic Illustrations, 
&c. — Various Sale Catalogues. 

SEMAN, BARTHOLOMEW {Bril .). Gold-beater, usually called 
BARTHOLOMEW GOLDBETER was 'Master of the King's Mints, lo''" 
year of Henry V., until 1 1*'' year of Henry VL, within the Tower of 
London, and in the town of Calais. He died in 1430, and was buried 
in the Church of St. John Zachary. 

The indenture appointing Goldbeter as Mint-master is dated 
j^th February 1422. Henry V. died 31" August in that year. On 
that event Goldbeter was charged to hold his office as before. He 
petitioned the Parliament which met in November for more remu- 
neration, speaking of his already "great and insupportable loss". 
That Parliament accordingly added the profit of the exchange to 
his office; and on the petition of the northern commons ordained 
that he should have a mint at York as well as at London and Calais, 
for gold and silver. On the 16''' February, 142-5, his old indenture 
was endorsed with a memorandum extending the renewal there- 
of to York and Bristol. No Bristol money of this period is known. 
As to York, Goldbeter worked the mint there, and retired. Com- 
plaints were made to the Parliament held at Westminster on 20*'' 
October of the same year, that Goldbeter, after having been at 

Noble of Henry VI,, 'Annulet' Coinage. 

York, and set up his mint there, had since retired, and praying that 
he might be compelled to return, he was ordered back. 

Gold coins exist of Henry V., issued by Goldbeter, and engraved 
by Gilbert Vanbranburgh : they are the Noble, Half-noble, and 
Quarter noble of the 'annulet' type, with pierced cross mint-mark. 
The noble is only known bv a unique specimen in the British 
Museum. The same denominations were issued under Henry VL, 
with fieur-de-lys instead of pierced cross. 

The silver annulet money attributable to Henry V., with his 
special pierced cross, is found in every denomination, Groat, Half 
Groat, Penny, and Halfpenny (except perhaps, the Farthing) from 

— 475 — 

both the London and C:ilais Mints. Tlie Calais coins are ver}' scarce. 
After the accession of Henry VI. these are common. Goldbeter was 
responsible for the London, Calais, and York issues of Henry VL, 
struck under his Mint-mastership. 

' The annulet coins with the pierced cross *: ot following type 
are found of both London and Calais, but are less common ot 
Calais than of London. Mr. Walters attributes these coins to Henry V. 
and believes that they were those first struck by Bartholomew Gold- 
beter under the authority of the enactment of the second Parlia- 

Half-Noble of Henry VI., 'Annulet' coinage. 

ment of the year 142 1 (the 9''' year of Henry V.), which met at 
Westminster on December i'*, and of the subsequent indenture 
dated February 13*'', 1422. Henry V. died on the 31" of August of 
the same year, but there was time before his death to do a good 
deal, and probably no time was lost owing to the urgent need of 
remedying the great scarcity and bad condition of the currency, 
which was as that time causing much trouble and discontent among 
the people. Goldbeter would naturally place the Tower mint in 
working order before proceeding to Calais; and it would have been 
active longer than the latter mint at the death of Henry V., thus 
accountmg for the London groats at least being more common than 
those of Calais, which are not very easy to obtain. 

**As the authority conferred by the original indenture would 
lapse with the death of Henry V., and was not renewed by the 
Regency until the 16''' of February following, an interval of nearly 
six months, it" is probable that work at both the London and Calais 
mints ceased during this time. 

*' With the renewal of his authority and with its extension to 
York and Bristol, Goldbeter would appear to have made a new 
departure with fresh dies, which, while resembling very closely 
(although not exactly) those of the last issue, have all the pierced 
cross of the following type ^ as a mint-mark, which Mr. Walters 
suggests as being the distinguishing mark of the earliest coins of the 
reign of Henry VL We are practically certain that the York annulet 
groats and half-groats were struck by authority of the renewed 
indenture ot the first of Henry VL, and all the known specimens, 

— 476 — 

together with the corresponding penny and halfpenny, have the 
second type of pierced cross as mint-mark." (F. A. Walters, The 
silver coinage of the Reign of Henry VL, 1902, pp. 5, 7-9). 

Bibliography. — F. A. Walters, he. cit., Coitiage of Henry V., Num. Chron., 
1906. — Chaffers, Gilda Aurifabrorum. — Ruding, Annals, &c. 


SEMILLARD, PAROTHE {French). Goldsmith at Troyes, circ. 1595- 
1599. Jn December 1599 he was appointed Die-cutter to the Mint 
there, but does not appear to have held the office (Rondot, Gra- 
veurs de Troyes). 

SEMLER, CHRISTOPH WILHELM (Germ.). Mint-warden at Nurem- 
berg, 1689-1724. 

SEMON (IHMONOl) (GreeJi). Gem-engraver's signature on a sixth 
century gem (Ionian), in black jasper, the subject of which is a 
Female figure, nude, kneelmg to right, and holding a hydria which 

Intaglio, by Semon. 

she is in the act of filling at a fountain. This intaglio is preserved 
in the Berlin Museum. 

The inscription is delicately engraved, without depth and in per- 
fect harmony with the subject. The signature does not draw the 
attention, as becomes an artist's signature, and there is no reason 
therefore to consider it as the name of the owner of the gem. 

Bibliography. — Babelon, op. cit. — Furtwangler, op. cit. — Brunn, op. cit. 

SENG, PAUL (Germ.). Mint-official at Zellerfeld, 1602. 

SENHOUSE, WILLIAM (Brit.). Bishop of Durham, 1 502-1507, 
issued Pennies in the name of Henry VII. His successor was Christ- 
opher Bainbridge, 1 507-1 509. 

SENNI, ARCADIO (Ital.). Contemporary Sculptor, born at Fivin- 
zano ; pupil of Dupr^. At the Paris Salon of 1895 he exhibited nine 

SENSCHHOLCZ, ULRICH (Atistr.). Mint-master at Eger, 1460- 

— 477 — 

Frankfort-on-M., 1535-39, 1540. 

SENZILLO Y LEAL (Span.). Medallist of the latter part of the 
seventeenth century . 

SEPSAUX, JEHAN DE(Frmc/;). Provisional Mint-master at Chalons- 
sur-Marne, 1426. 

(Germ.). "Goldsmith of Augsburg, circ. 1550, who is supposed to 
have been the inventor of a coining-press, introduced in trance by 
Guillaume de Marillac, superintendent of the Paris " Monnaie du 
Moulin "and Mint-master general, 1551-1555. 

SEPDLVEDA, MARIANO GIAQUINTO (Span.). Medallist of the latter 
end of the eighteenth cencury and early part of the nineteenth, 
who was residing at Madrid, where in 1800 he was appointed Die- 
cutter at the Mint. He signed his medals M. G. S., or SEPULVEDA in 

Amongst his medallic productions I may mention the following : 
Proclamation Medal of Charles IV., Madrid, 1789; ^. acclamatio 
AVGVSTA ; — Another, with ^. regnorv.m regimine svscepto, etc., 
MDCCLXXxiiii Spain standing; — Medal, with busts of Charles IV. 
and consort, Marie Louise, struck in illustration of J. P. Droz's 
process of coining, 1801 . 

Bibliography. — Nagler, op. cit. 

Engraver of coins and gems, born at Pescia (Tuscany) circ. 1455, 
was still living in 1522. He was appointed on 24. August 1499 Die- 
cutter to the Roman Zecca, on the decease of Lorenzo Corbolini . 
The terms of the brief of Alexander VI. conferring upon him this 
office for lite, with the option of taking a substitute, establish his 
preeminence over his contemporaries. Leo X. appointed both 
Engravers conjointly. Pier Maria, and Vittore Camelio, on 24. June 
15 15, to the post of * Intagliatori delle Zecca", both for life, and 
with the same emoluments. Traces of payments made to Pier Maria 
for work done are found of the dates 15 16, 1520 and 1522, and 
also one of 1 504, for Pius III. Armand does not ascribe any of the 
coins of Pope Alexander VI. to Pier Maria, and considers them to be 
the w^ork of an inferior artist, probably Lorenzo Corbolini. The fine 
2 I Zecchini, Teston, and Grosso with portraits of Leo X. are no 
doubt by Pier Maria and Vittore Camelio in conjunction. 

SERCLAS, EVERARD (French). Die-cutter at the Paris Mint, 1401. 

SEREGNI, LUIGI (Ital.). Medallist, and Coin-engraver, born at 

- 478 - 

Milan In 1819, was employed at the Mint of Venice from 2. May 
1849 to 6. May 1864, and later at Milan. In 1862 he engraved a fine 
Portrait-medal of Garibaldi, which is a presentation-piece from the 
Italian colony in Peru to Doctors Auguste Nelaton and Fernando 
Zaneiti, in gratitude for their care over the famous vanquished hero 
of Aspromonte. The medal was struck at the Milanese mint, in 1 864. 
By him are also". Prize Medal of the Urbino Exhibition, 1867; — 
Portrait-medal of Carlo Cattaneo; — Jules Favre, 1868, etc. 

SERENA, GIOVANNI (ItaL). Mint-master at Monluel (Savoy) under 
Philibert II. 


SERMAITE, GILLES {French). Die-cutter at the Paris Mint, under 
Philip IV. from 1294 to 1296. By this Engraver is the Agnel repro- 
duced below . 

Agnel of Philip IV. 

SERONO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (ItaL). Mint-master at Milan, in 
conjunction with Giovanni Francesco Caltignano, from 8. Februar}'- 
to 6. April 1582. 

SERRAO, JOS£ (Port.). Mint-master at Rio de Janeiro, appointed 
on 26. September 1777. 

SERSTEVENS, MARC T (Flcni.). Mint-master at Antwerp, from 
17. September 1697 ^o 25. October 1701. 

SERRE, JEHAN DE (Frg«^:/;). Received in 1421 instructions to inspect 
the various French mints. His name occurs in connection with the 
mints of Chinon, Puy-en-Velay, Fontenay-le-Comte, Loches, 
Orleans, Mont- Saint-Michel, etc. 

SERRE, JACQUES (French). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
residing at Ain Tagrout (Algeria). At the Universal Exhibition, 
1900, he exhibited Portrait-medallions. 

SERVET, EMILE (Siuiss). Engraver residing at Geneva, mentioned 
in the "Revue suisse de numismatique", 1899, p. 206, as the 
Engraver of a fine Rifle Competition Watch, presented at the Can- 
tonal Rifle Competition at Yverdon, 1899. 

— 479 — 

SEIIVI, COSTANTINO DE' (Ital.). Florentine Painter, Sculptor and 
Architect, born in 1544, died in 1622. In 1585 he was residing in 
Rome, where he was carving a statue of St. Paul for Pope Sixtus V. 

Milanesi suggested the attribution to this artist of a medal 
signed C. S. ot Sixtus V., on the^. of which is St. Francis of Assisi 
supporting a church crumbling down. 

Bibliography. — Heiss, op. cit. 

(Germ.y Mint-master at Wismar, 30. January 1675 to 26. September 
1 650, and Copenhagen, in the service of King Christian V., 1680- 
1690. He died in the early months of 1691 . 

Sesemann was also a Medallist and Coin-engraver. For Wismar 
he cut dies, amongst others, of Ducats 1676, and Sechslinge, 
Dreilinge, etc. undated, signed G. S. He no doubt engraved 
coin-dies also for the Copenhagen mint. His signature occurs on a 
Portrait-medal of Christian V., with ^. view of Castle Frede- 
riksborg, 1682, and another, dated 1676, commemorating the 
Defeat of the Dutch and Return of Cayenne to Denmark {illustrated'). 

Medal of Christian V., 167c. 

A specimen in gold, 44 mill, in diam., and weighing 85 grammes, 
brought €. 16 at the O'Hagan Sale (London, April 1908, lot 727). 
This medal is reproduced in Fan Loon, French Ed., Vol. Ill, 189. 

SESTIUS, C. This signature occurs on a gem of the former Stosch 
Collection, representing a Wild Boar passant (Raspe, Tassie Gems, 
n° 13006). 

SESTO. A family of Goldsmiths and Engravers of Venice, who 
were employed at the Zecca there lor over a century. 

Numismatists, writes M. Babelon {Revue de Fart ancien et inoderne, 
1908, p. 296) know that from the time of Doge Andrea Conta- 

— 480 — 

rini's government(i368-i382) the Venetian matapans bear, abbre- 
viated, the signatures of the artists who engraved the dies, and that 
the archives furnish ample information on the Engravers of the 
Venetian currency. These documents show that towards the end of 
the fourteenth century, the office of Die-cutter was filled by 
members of a family of goldsmiths named SESTO, who succeeded 
each other from father to son in this position. The earliest we are 
acquainted with is BERNARDO SESTO. Then followed his two sons, 
LORENZO SESTO and MARCO SESTO, who in a document of 1394 
are styled : Incisori ai ccnti dall'argento. Later, at the beginning of 
the fitteenth century, we meet with the names of GIACOMO and 
ALESSANDRO SESTO ; and we hear of another member of the same 
family, GIROLAMO SESTO, who in 1447 was no longer Hving. 
Several of these artists, whose skill may be appreciated in examining 
the Venetian coins, did not content themselves with applying their 
talent to the execution of coin-dies, the necessary uniformity of 
which did not give them scope to alter conventional types, but more 
ingenious than others, and no doubt stimulated by the curiosity 
which Petrarch (who died in 1374) had encouraged, they imitated 
Roman coins, and like the artists in the pay of the seigneurs of 
Carrara, engraved medals, with subjects of their own invention and 
inspired from the antique. We thus possess Restitution coins, 
after the antique, signed by Lorenzo, Marco, and Alessandro 
Sesto . 

'* C'est a Julius Friedlander que revient le merite d'avoir, le pre- 
mier, signale ce groupe curieux de medailles qui, avec celles des 
princes de Carrare, et celles de Constantin et d'Heraclius, forment 
la t^te des medailles italiennes, vers la fin du xiv^ siecle. 

*' L'ancienne opinion a laquelle Alfred Armand parait etre 
demeure fidele, et qui faisait de ces pieces des medailles de restitu- 
tion, aitribuables a une epoque tres posterieure a la date qu'elles 
portent, n'est plus defendable aujourd'hui, en presence des docu- 
ments d'archives auxquels nous avons fait allusion . 

"La seule question qu'il soit aujourd'hui permis de se poser, au 
point de vue chronologique, c'est de savoir si les dates de 1390 et 
1393, lues sur les medailles que nous venous de decrire, donnent 
hien I'epoque veritable de I'apparition de la medaille italienne. Ne 
faut-il pas remonter plus haut encore ? P^trarque n'aurait-il pas 6t& 
lui-meme le promoteur, I'instigateur des premieres medailles? C'est 
a Petrarque, le prince des humanistes, que les critiques modernes 
font remonter les premieres interpretations judicieuses des monu- 
ments de I'antiquite. Lui-meme raconte dans ses Lettres, qu'il ache- 
tait les medailles romaines que lui apportaient les paysans et qu'il y 
d^chiffrait avec emotion le nom des empereurs. II se forma un 
medaillier ; on le voit qui ofFre des medailles en or et en argent k 

— 48r — 

I'empereur Charles IV, en I'incitant a contempler les belles effigies 
dont elles sont ornees. Peirarque mfin sejourne a la cour des sei- 
gneurs de Carrare qui, precisement des 1390, ont des niedailles a 
leur propre effigie, dans le gout romain. Les Sesto sont en rapports 
avec lui ; il leur donne des conseils pour la direction de leurs ten- 
dances artistiques ; il les gourmande en leur proposant des modeles 
et les pousse a iniiter I'antique. Sans doute, Petrarque etait mort 
depuis seize ans lors de I'apparition, en 1390, des premieres 
medailles datees que nous possedions. Mais n'y en eut-il pas 
d'autres, datees ou non, qui furent executees anterieurement, et du 
vivant meme de Petrarque ? II n'y aurait rien de bien surprenant, 
convenons-en, a ce qu'un avenir, prochain peut-etre, r^ponde 
affirmativement a cette preoccupation de notre esprit, toujours 
curieux de sonderde plus en plus la genese des choses. 

Capture of Carrara by Francesco II. 

"Les premiers m^dailleurs furent hantes par le desir de copier 
I'antique, de I'imiter, de le pasticher, de I'^galer en habilet^ tech- 
nique. C'est ce que nous montrent les medailles des Sesto et celles 
qui reproduisent les traits de Francois I" et de Francois II de Car- 
rare. C'est un lieu commun de dire que la meme preoccupation est 
manifeste dans les creations des artistes posterieurs. M. Alfred 
Armand I'a particulierement bien montr^ en etudiant I'ceuvre de 
Pisanello, dont la premiere medaille a date certaine est celle 
qu'il executa en 1439 a I'effigie de Jean VIII Paleologue, a 1' occa- 
sion du voyage de ce prince en Italie, pour assister au concile de 
Ferrare. " . (E. Babelon, La Collection Armand-Valton au Cabinet des 
Midailles, Rev. de I'Art, 1908, pp. 296 sq.). 

C. von Fabriczy thus refers to the Sesti {Italian Medals, pp. 10, 11, 
72) : "Of the same period as the medals of the Carraras we also 
possess three medal-like struck proofs, so-called ' ' essais " or " testoni " 
of die-engravers, the work or a Venetian family of die-engravers, 
the Sesti, with their names and dates (1393 and 141 7). The obverses 

L. FoKREK. — Biographical Notices of AteJaUislt. — V. }i 

-48:2 - 

are direct copies of the imperial coins of Galba and of a Greek coin 
(Alexander the Great or Antiochus of Syria) ; on the reverse are a 
standing figure (Venetia?) and a mythological scene (the Rape of 
Persephone, or the Rescue of Andromeda). These are, to an even 
greater degree than the medals of theCarraras, direct and conscious 
imitations of Roman imperial medallions. Since they possess a 
general striking similarity of style to the Carrara medallions, these 
latter medals have lately been pronounced to be probably works of 
the Sesto family, perhaps of that same Marco who in 1393 produced 
the proof bearing the bust of Galba.". 

Mr. G. F. Hill in a recent article contributed to the Burlington 
Magazine (February 191 1) on "Classical Influence on the Italian 
Medal ", which subject he dealt with also in an admirable address 
before the * Royal Numismatic Society ' at the January 191 1 meeting, 
also refers to the Carrara medals. He observes that "the obverses 
of these medals of the two members of the Carrara family (one is 
illustrated) are most distinctly inspired by Roman sestertii. Even 
the size of the original is adhered to. The reverse, however, is as 
old-fashioned as possible; obviously no attempt has been made to 
improve on the ordinary moneyer's style. Nothing could illustrate 
better the struggle between classical and Gothic influence. That the 
date inscribed on these little pieces, commemorating the capture 01 
Carrara by Francesco II, is the date about which they were made, 
is proved by a description of one of them in the Due de Berry's 
inventories. " 

"These then, are the most remarkable among the precursors of 
the Renaissance medal proper. The Carrara pieces, like the coins of 
Frederick II, however, remained without influence on the develop- 
ment of the medal. Even in the purely external matter of technique 
they had no influence ; nearly all the medals worth consideration 
for the next hundred years are cast, not struck from dies. That is 
to say, the medallist makes his model in wax instead of sinking his 
design with the graver in a metal die. Obviously the wax process 
gave to the medallic art in its infancy just that freedom from the old 
traditions of die-engraving which was necessary for its healthy 
development. " 

Bibliography. — E. Babelon, loc. cit. — Cte Papadopoli. AJcune Notiiie sugli 
IntagUalori delta Zecca di Venecia, 1888. — Ibid., Lc Monete di Venecia, 1907. — 
C. von Fabriczy, Italian Medals, 1904. — Bolzenthal, op. cit., pp. 54. 35. — I. B. 
Supino, // Medagtiere Mediceo. 

SESTO, ALESSANDRO {ItaL). Die-cutter and Medallist at the Mint 
of Venice, in the early part of the fifteenth century. A medal by 
FECIT 1417, and bears on obv. a bust, in which some have 
recognized a portrait of Alexander the Great, and others, amongst 

-483 - 

them, Schlosser, that of Antiochus V. of Syria, copied from a 

SESTO, BERNARDO (ItaL). The first Engraver of the name whom 
we know as having been employed in the cutting of coin-dies at 
the Mint of Venice, in the latter part of the fourteenth century and 
beginning of the fifteenth. He is styled : Iniagliatore dei coni dell' 

SESTO, BERNARDO (IlaL). Son of Luca S. ; appointed Assistant- 
engraver at the Mint of Venice, 27. October 1483. 

SESTO, GIACOMO (ItaL). Die-cutter at the Mint of Venice in the 
early part of the fifteenth century. His tomb in Santo Stefano 
bears the inscription : MCCCCIF sepoltura de S. Jacomo Sesto inta- 
gliador alia tnoneda de Veniesia. 

SESTO, GIROLAMO (Ital.). Die-cutter at the Mint of Venice; was 
no longer living in 1447. 

SESTO, LORENZO {Ital.). Son of Bernardo Sesto, and Die-cutter 
at the Mint of Venice, towards the end of the fourteenth century 
and beginning of the fifteenth (from March 1394, and still in office 
in 141 1). He also executed imitations of ancient coins; one of 
Galba bears the legend : lavrenti sesto me fecit. 

SESTO, LUCA (Ital.). Die-cutter at the Mint of Venice; appoint- 
ed before 1447, and thirty years later, 1483, still in office, and request- 
ing the Council of Ten to adjoin him his son Bernardo as assistant. In 
1447 he was commissioned, in conjunction with Alessandro Leo- 
pardi, to execute the image of the Redeemer for the die cf the 
Ducat. In 1485, on the accession of Marco Barbarigo, he was prob- 
ably no longer living, and Camelio was Chief-engraver at the Zecca. 

SESTO, MARCO {Ital.). Son of Bernardo, and brother of Lorenzo 
Sesto; also a Die-cutter at the Mint of Venice, towards the end of 
the fourteenth century and beginning of the fifteenth. He also 
engraved dies for medals and copies of antique coins. One of these, 
is thus described by M. Babelon : 

+ MARCUS. SESTO ME. FECIT. v. (Marcus Sesto me fecit y Venetia). 
Bust of the Emperor Galba. 

1^. p AX. TiBi. VENETIA. Allegorical figure ot Venice, standing, 
holding standard of St. Mark ; at her feet, a wheel ; in the field, 
the date 1393. 

Others, probably by him, are described above. 

SETTELE, JOHANN MICHAEL {Austr.). Die-engraver at the Vienna 
Mint, 1765. 

- 484 - 

SETTELE, MATTHIAS (Austr.). Die-engraver ; born in 1746, died at 
Vienna on 16. September 1808. He was appointed at the Vienna Mint 
on 23. March 1764, first as an apprentice, and later as Engraver. 
On 30. September 1808, an entry in the Mint Records states that 
the first Assistant-engraver Matthias Settele was no longer living. 

SETZER, KONRAD (Germ.). Contractor of the Mint at Ratisbon, 
SETELE. Fide SETTELE supra. 

SEUD, P. (Ital.) Schlickeysen-Pallmann mention this signature as 
that of an Engraver at Rome, 1705. This is a misreading for F. SEVO. 

SEVER, ANTON (Austr.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist. 
I have seen by him a Portrait-medal of the poet Preseren. 

SEVERO DA RAVENNA (ItaL). Gem-engraver of the sixteenth 
century. Mariette mentions his name, after Pomponius Gauricus, 
who sets this artist above all others, and styles him sculptor, 
scalptor, caelator. King remarks : *' Severo is probably the pupil 
of Marc- Antonio who engraved the copper plates with the mono- 
gram S.R." 

The inscription severus, probably the owner's name, occurs on 
a gem in plasma, Hygiaea offering a bowl to a serpent. According 
to Raspe the inscription is celic severi on one stone, and on 
another H. C60THP0Y. 

Bibliography. — Mariette, op. cit. — Babelon, op. cit. — King, op. cil., 225, 
262. — Raspe, op. cit. 

SEVESTE, CHARLES EMILE (^French). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born at Lille; pupil of Cheret. At the Salon of 1878 and 1879 he 
exhibited two Portrait-medallions. 

SEVO, FERDINANDO (or FRANCESCO) (Ital). Medallist, a native 
of Piedmont, who was working for the Mint at Rome, circ. 1705, 
as Engraver of coin-dies. His signature F. SEVO occurs on the 
reverses of three varieties of Scudi, all dated of An VI of 
Clement XI. (1705), vox de throno basilica liber. The Pope 
reading homily in Santa Maria Maggiore. 

SEWARD, J. S. (Brit.). Engraver of the latter part of the eighteenth 
century, who resided at Lancaster. His signature occurs on a Medal 
commemorating the Building of the Manchester Infirmary and 
Lunatic Hospital, 1796, and on another on the Rebuilding of the 
Liverpool Royal Exchange, burned in 1798. 

SEWELL (Auier.). Die-sinker of New York, of Irish origin, by 
whom is a Fenian Brotherhood Badge, 1866, struck for presentation 
to the members of the association. 

- 485 - 

The Fenian Brotherhood was an Irish poHtical organisation 
having for its object the overthrow of EngUsh rule in Ireland and 
the estabhshment of a Repubhc there. The movement was initiated 
in the United States soon after the great famine in Ireland of 1846- 
47, which, together with the harsh exactions of the landlords, 

,54 <. 

Fenian Brotherhood Badge, 1866. 

compelled many Irishmen to emigrate from their island with a 
deeply-rooted sense of injustice and hatred of the English. The 
Fenians organised themselves so far on the model of a republic, 
having a senate at the head, with a virtual president called the 
"head-centre", and various '* circles" estabhshed in many parts 
of the U. S. They collected funds and engaged in military drill, 
and sent agents to Ireland and England. An invasion of Canada in 
1866 and a rising at home in 1867 proved abortive, as also the 
attack on Clerkenwell prison in the same year. Another attempt on 
Canada in 1871 and the formation of the Skirmishing Fund for the 
use of the Dynamilards and the institution of the Clan-na-Gael leading 
to the " Invicibles ", and the Phoenix Park murders (1882) are 
later manifestations of this movement. The Home Rule and Land 
League movements practically superseded the Fenian. The name is 
taken from an ancient military organisation called the Fionna 
Eirinn, said to have been instituted in Ireland in 300 B.C. 

SEYBEN, ULRICH (Germ.). Mint-master at Rostock, 1526-34. 


SEYMOUR, HORACE ALFRED DAMER (Brit). Deputy Master and 
Comptroller of the Royal Mint, 1894-1902. He was a kinsman of 

— 486 — 

the Marquess of Hertford, and was born in 1843. He entered the 
Treasury in 1867, and had a long period of service as private 
secretary to various distinguished personages, including " Bob " 
Lowe, Lord F. Cavendish, and Mr. Gladstone. The last named 
made him a Commissioner of Customs. In 1890 he became Deputy 
Chairman of the Board, and in 1894 was transferred to the Mint. 
He died on Wednesday, June 25*^, 1902, and was buried at 
North Creake, Norfolk. 

SEYNTLOWE, GILES {Brit.). Also SEYNCHLOWE. Comptroller of 
the Mint of Cilais, appointed in 1437. In 1444 he resigned his 
patent into Chancery, and the King granted him a new one. He 
was again appointed in 1452. 

SEYSSES, AJJGVST (^French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at Tou- 
louse; pupil of Falguiere. At the Salon of 1895 he exhibited a Pla- 
quette representing a Start for the Hunt. 

S. F. Vide SALOMON FRITSCHorFRENZEL. Mint-master at Oppeln, 

S. F. Vide SCHAUBEN FEC. Die-sinker at Copenhagen, 15 90- 15 99. 

S. F. Vide SAMUEL FISCHER. Die-sinker at Berne, 1679. 

S. F. Vide SGHULTZ. Die-sinker at Copenhagen, 1716-1724. 

S. F. Vide SGHOLZ Warden, and FORSTER Master, of the Nurem- 
berg Mint, 1760-64. 

S. F. F/V/^ SGHABEL. Die-sinker at Vienna and Venice, 1765-1797. 

S. (F.) T. Vide SAMUEL TOMSCHtTZ. Mint-master at Frankfort-on- 
M., 1836-37. 

S. F. Vide TOBIAS SGHOBL and JOSEPH FABY. Mint-master and 
Warden at Gimzburg, 1774-1789. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

SF and .S* FR... (Gervi.). Erman mentions two medals bearing 
these signatures : 1591. Christoph Silbereisen, abbot of Wettingen 
(Switzerland); and 1593. Hugo Blotius, Imperial librarian (Berlin 
Museum. Erman, PI. VIII, i). The signature SF occurs in raised 
letters on the reverses of both ; that of Blotius is fully signed on obv. 
but the inscription is illegible. The artist may have been a Viennese. 

Bibliography. — Erman, Dnitsche MedaUlenre, p. 66. 

S. G. H. Vide SAMUEL GOTTLIEB HELBIG. Mint-master at Dresden, 

S. H. r/JcSAMUEL HANHARDT. Mint-engraver at Basle, 1624-1654. 

- 487 - 

S. H. Plde SEBASTIAN HUGGENBERG. Mint-engraver at Salzdah- 
len, 1 689- 1 700. 

S. H. or S. H. S. Fide SALOMON HAMMERSCHMIDT. Imperial Mint- 
warden at Breslau, 1 665-171 1. 

SHAA (or SHAW), SIR EDMUND (Brit.). " Son of John Shaa, of 
Dronkenfeld, Chester, Goldsmith and Engraver to the Royal Mint, 
London, in 1462. He was chosen Sheriff in 1474, and Lord Mayor 
1482-3, Warden of the Company in 1474. At the Coronation of 
Richard IIL, which took place during his mayoralty, he attended as 
cup-bearer with great pomp, and his claim to this honour was 
formally allowed and put on record. He founded and endowed a 
free school at Stockport, in Cheshire, in the year 1487. His will 
contains a bequest to the goldsmiths to support this school. He 
also directs "16 rings of fine gold to be graven with the well of 
pitie, the well of mercie, and the well of everlasting life ", and to 
be given to his friends. 


Noble of Edward IV. 

Anno 2 of Edward IV. ( 146 1 ) Edmund Shaa was appointed Engrav- 
er for life of the London and Calais Mints, with a salary of 20 /. 
perannum. In 1465 a writ directed to the warden of exchange and 
money in the Tower of London, and in Calais, dated in the fifth 
year of the king, recited to above appointment, and ordered seven 
shillings to be paid to Shaa, annually, for making and engraving 
one dozen of irons, to be made by him every year during his life. 
The writ of 1465 respecting Shaa was renewed in the last year of 
Edward IV. (1482 or 1483). 

In all probability many of the dies for the London and Calais 
issues of Edward IV. were engraved by Edmund Shaw. The coinage 
of that reign comprises: N. I. Issue (1464 ?), Noble; — II. Issue 
(1465-1470), Rose Noble or Ryal, Half-Rose Noble, Quarter Rose 
Noble, and Angel; — III. Issue (1471-1483), Angel and Half Angel. 
— JB^. I. Issue (1461-1464), Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, Half- 

— 488 — 

penny, and Farthing; heavy coinage; — II. Issue (1464-1483), 
same denominations; light coinage. 

Bibliography. — Diet. Nal. Biogr. — Chaffers, op. cil. — Ruding, op. cit. — 
Grueber, op. cit. 

SHAA (or SHAW), SIR JOHN {Brit.). Goldsmith, Warden to the 
Mint 1492-97, of Wood street, Cheapside, Engraver to the Mint in 
1483, was Mayor in 1 501-2, probably the son of Sir Edmund. In 
the privy purse expenses of Henry VII. (1497) we find : "To 
Master Shaa for a George of Diamants iiij // iiij sh ". Also "To 
John Shaa for iij rings of gold viij li" . Sir John Shaw was knighted 
on the field at Bosworth. The first Lord Mayor's feast in the present 
Guildhall was given by Sir John Shaw. He was the first mayor who 
caused the Aldermen to accompany him on horseback to the water 
side to take barge for Westminster. 

An entry in Ruding (p. 34) gives the names of John Shaa and 
Bartholomew Rede, Operarii Monete, anni 10-13 of Henri VII. Under 
Richard III., he is the only Engraver mentioned. 

Angel of Henry VII. 

The coinage of Richard III. for which Shaa was responsible consists 
of : M. Angel and Half-Angel ; iR. Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, and 

Shaa no doubt engraved also dies for Henry VII.'s coins. 

In Plantagenet times, and probably later, dies were not engraved, 
as so many numismatists imagine, but produced by striking prepar- 
ed punches, each representino; a portion of the design, into the 
metal — a very simple and rapid process. 

Bibliography. — As above. 

SHAMJI, JEWRAM (Indian). Die-engraver at the Mint of Calcutta, 

SHANNON, C. H. (Brit.). Contemporary Sculptor, and a former 
Member of the London Society of Medallists, at the Exhibition of 
which in 1901 he showed a number of drawings for medallions. 

- 4^9 - 

urer of the Mint at Bristol, born about 1495, came of an old 
Norfolk family, and was the eldest son of Thomas Sherington 
(-j- 1527?) and his wife Catherine, daughter of William Picton of 
Little Bentley, Essex (Blomefield, Norfolk, X, 201-3). ^^ entered 
the service of Sir Francis Bryan, and subsequently became page of 
the king's robes. In 1540 he bought the dissolved Lacock Abbey, 
Wiltshire, for 783 /., and on 3. May 1546 he became vice-treasu- 
rer of the mint at Bv\sio\(Cal. Slate Papers, Dom. 1547-1581, p. 3). 
He was made knight of the Bath at the coronation of Edward VI. 
on 15. February 1546-7. His position at the mint he used to per- 
petrate extensive frauds. In April 1547 the council forbad the 
coining of any more ' testons ' or shillings, two-thirds of which 
were alloy. Sharington nevertheless bought up large quantities of 
church plate from the Somerset villagers, and during May, June, 
and July, coined it into testons. He also made over 4,000 /. in 
three years by shearing and clipping coins, and to conceal his 
frauds he made false copies of the books of the mint and destroyed 
the originals. Fearing discovery, he entered into the plots of Thomas 
Seymour, baron Seymour of Sudeley, who promised to protect 
him. Sharington in return lent Seymour money and put the mint 
at Bristol at his disposal; he also undertook to coin 10,000 /. to 
be devoted to raising adherents for the admiral. With part of his 
ill-gotten fortune he purchased of the king Winterbourne, Aubrey, 
Charlton, and other manors, chiefly in Wiltshire, for 2,808 /. 
But his frauds and Seymour's plots soon came to the knowledge of 
the government. On 6. January 1548-9 Lacock Abbey was search- 
ed by the council's agents, and on 19. January Sharington was 
arrested. He was examined several times in the Tower during 
January and February ; at first he denied his frauds and all knowledge 
of Seymour's designs, but made full confessions on 2., 11., and 
16. February. A bill for his attainder passed all its stages in both 
houses of parHament between 11. February and 7. March. Seymour's 
connivance at Sharington's frauds was made one of the counts in 
his indictment (Cobbett, State Trials, I, 501-2); but Sharington, 
who threw himself on the king's mercy, was pardoned, and an act 
restoring him in blood was passed, 30. December 1549 — 13. Jan- 
uary 1550. 

"In the following April he was again in employment, being 
commissioned to go to Calais and receive an instalment of the 
French purchase-money for Boulogne. He was also able to buy 
back his forfeited estates for 12,000 /. ; he seems in addition to have 
made a voluntar}' restitution of some property to the king, and 
Latimer, in a sermon preached before the king in the same year, 
extolled his example and described him as ' an honest gentilman 

— 490 — 

and one that God loveih' {Frutefiill Sermons, 1575, f. 115 b.). In 
1552 he served as sheriff of Wiltshire. He died in 1553 (Acts of the 
Privy Council, 1552-4, p. 370). His portrait among the Holbein 
drawings in the royal library, Windsor Castle (Cat. Tudor Exhih., 
p. 148), has been engraved by Dalton (Bromley, p. 11). He married 
(i) Ursula, natural daughter of John Bourchier, second baron 
Berners ; (2) Eleanor, daughter of William Walsingham ;(3) Grace, 
daughter of one Farington of Devonshire, and widow of Robert 
Paget, alderman of London. He left no issue, and was succeeded in 
his estates by his brother Henry. " (Lee, Diet. Nat. Biog., vol, LI, 
pp. 3 99-400). 

Sir William Sharington issued the following denominations of 
coins at the Bristol Mint : 

Henry viii. N. Sovereign ; JR.. Groat, Half Groat (Third 

AT, Sovereign ; Crown, Half-Crown ; JB^. Shilling, Groat (Fourth 

N. Sovereign, Crown, Half-Crown; ^R. Groat (Fifth Coinage). 
Irish. J^. Sixpences of 37*^ and 38*'' years of reign. 

The base money of Bristol is very plentiful. 

EDWARD VI. AZ". Half-Sovereign, bearing his own portrait, but his 
father's name (First Coinage). 

Kenvon states that Sharington's counterfeit coins are not known. 

Bristol Sovereign of Henry VIII. 

Chaffers, Gilda Aurifabrorum, p. 47, gives the following data : 
1548-50. — Sir William Sharrington, of Durham House, Master of 
the Mint 3"^, 4"', and 5*'' Edward VI., and Vice-Treasurer of the 
Mint at Biistol, was indicted before the Lord Mayor, and convicted 
on his own confession of having counterfeited, in the Mint at 
Bristol, 12,000 pounds of coins resembling the Testoons, without 
any warrant from the King, and against his Royal prohibition ; 

— 491 — 

also of having defrauded the King in clippings and shearing of the 
coins, making the same thereby too light, and converting the same 
to his own profit, to the amount of €4,000 at the least; and for 
falsifying the indentures and books. He was attained of treason, 
and all his lands, etc. forfeited. This counterfeiting of the money 
was supposed to have been done at the instigation of the King's 
uncle, the Protector, Sir Thomas Seymour, the Lord Admiral, to 
enable him to carry on his treacherous designs. Sharrington received 
a pardon under the great seal in 3'''^ Edward VI., and was after- 
wards restored in blood by an Act passed y^ and 4"' Edward VI. 
His house in Mark Lane, a stately mansion, was bestowed by the 
King on Henry, Earl of Arundel, who made it his residence '. 

Bibliography. — S. Lee, Diet. Mat. Biogr. LI. — Kenyon, ob. cit. — 
Hawkins, o/).n7. — Ruding, op. cit, — Grueber, Hauiibook, etc. 

SHARPE.JOHN (Brit.). Die-engraver at the Royal Mint, London, 
amii r-4, 1509-15 14 (according to Ruding), 1509-1547 (according 
to Schlickeysen). Ruding gives a second Engraver, DEMAIRE, as 
having been employed at the Royal Mint under that reign. It is 
therefore difficult to ascertain the work of either artist. 

The following denominations were issued under Henry VIII : 
N. Double Sovereign, Sovereign, Half-Sovereign, Crown, Rose 
Crown (3 specimens known), Half-Crown, Ryal or Rose Noble, 
Angel, Half-Angel, Quarter Angel, George Noble, and Half-George 
Noble (unique ; illustrateif). — JK. Shilling or Teston, Groat, 
Half-Groat, Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. 

HaU-George'Noble of Henrj- VIII. 

The Half-George Noble which is now in Lieut.-Col. H. Leslie 
Ellis's Collection was thus described in the Vlurdoch Sale Catalogue, 
1903 (lot 418). It brought £495 at the Sale. 

Half George Noble, mm. rose on both sides, obv. bENRlC" 
t>'+G'*R'+A&L' Z + FRA'-DNS'" bYBE', type as the George Nobles 
with rose upon the ship's mast and b K at sides, but the gallerj' 
of the vessel is decorated with circular ornaments instead of the 
usual trellis pattern seen on the three preceding coins ; ^L. ' TTCLI* 
t»ICA';SIG?MES'- FLVCTVARI+ NEQT, St. George on 
horseback piercing the dragon, wt. 36 grs., in almost perfect preser- 
vation y unique. 

— 492 — 

^%From the Shepherd (lot 211) and Montagu (lot 719, €275) 
collections. The following account of this remarkable coin is culled 
from the Montagu sale catalogue, p. 99 : '' This very interesting 
and unique coin was brought from Paris many years ago by 
Mr. Curt, the dealer, who sold it to the Rev. E. J. Shepherd for 
€70; at the latter's sale it was purchased by Mr. Montagu for £25 5. 
It is evident from the style of lettering of the inscriptions, which 
are in Roman characters, that this coin belongs to a later date 
than the George Nobles. The letter K on the reverse is therefore 
probably the initial of Katherine Howard or Katheneri Parr, 
and not of Katherine of Aragon as on the Nobles. This would 
partly account for the great rarity of this coin, which may be a 
pattern ". 

The Rose Crown is another rarity of the reign of Henry VIII. 
A specimen was sold at Messrs. Sotheby Wilkinson & Hodge, 
June 5, 1907, and fetched £220. It was thus described in the Sale 
Catalogue : — 

Obv. A shield crowned bearing the of England and France 
quarterly, all within two inner circles, the innermost one linear, 
the outer dotted, both pierced above by the ball and cross on top 
of the crown, mm. a rose, legend bENRIC'^S x t)EI x GRA' x 
REK i AGL' ' Z i F R A' ;I^. A full-blown single rose of five petals, 
surrounding it four fleurs-de-lys arranged crossways, between these 
a lion passant guardant and the letter b crowned, placed alternately, 
all within inner circles as on the obverse, mm. a rose, legend 
bENRlC" RVTILANS : ROSA : SINE I! SPINA, the letters on 
both sides in Roman characters, except the letter b, the numeral 

Henry VIII., Crown of the Rose. 

^,%The coin is of the same general type and appearance as the 
contemporary French Crown of the Sun. It weighs 51 grains. 
The directions for making the coin and the reason of its issue, 
are given in Ruding, as well as the cause of its withdrawal. 
Money had been steadily removed from this country to the 
continent, in consequence of its superior value, and in spite of 
repeated requests made by Henry to various continental monarchs, 

— 493 — 

till in 1526 matters had reached such a pass, that legislation was 
necessary. On July 24''' a writ was issued to Wolsey " commanding 
him to carry into effect the king's design of reducing his money to 
the standard of foreign coins, and to determine the rate, value, 
fineness, lay, standard and print as by him and the Council should 
be thought requisite ". On August 22'"^ following, a proclamation 
was made and it was ordained " that all persons should receive 
the Crown of Gold of the Sun, and all other crowns of the same 
weight and fineness for four shillings and sixpence being of full 
weight, etc. And whereas the Crown of the Sun was a strange 
coin, the King with the advice of his Council, thought fit that 
there should be a piece of gold of his own coin of like fineness, 
weight and goodness as the said Crown of the Sun to be called 
the Crown of the Rose, and to be current for four shillings and 
sixpence ". 

On the 5''' of November in the same year, an additional value 
was placed upon the current coin by proclamation, and provision 
was made for the striking of the George Noble and Half George 

Sneiling, 1763, gives a picture of a Crown of the Rose with a 
lion mint-mark and some differences in the lettering. It was evid- 
ently copied from a picture, and not known as the Crown of the 
Rose, as Snelling's note says : We constantly meet with this coin 
in all the placarts publish'd in the Low-countries between anno 1546 
and 1650, and yet we esteem it the rarest piece minted by this 
King, nor have we ever had the pleasure of seeing one of them ". 
Ruding, 1841, copying Snelling's picture, notes this coin is not 
now known in any collection. Kenyon, 1888, says the Crown of 
the Rose mentioned in the Proclamation of the 22°'^ of August is 
not known, and was probably never struck. 

Another interesting and rare coin of the reign of Henry VIII., 
is the Pattern crown in silver, a specimen of which brought € 128 
at the Murdoch Sale, 1903, lot 454, and € 79 at the Wakley Sale, 
1909, lot I. 

Pattern Crown, mm. lis on both sides, obv. HENRIC^SDEI- 
figure of the king crowned facing, holding sword and orb ; ^L. 
CTCPVT, the royal arms with lion and dragon supporters, crown 
above, H R (in mon.) beneath, wt. 415 grs. (^Sneiling, 5, 
2), exceedingly fine and of great rarity. 

^% This extraordinary pattern (whether coin or medal being a 
disputed point) is one of the rarest in the English series and the 
finest of the only two specimens which are known, the other being 

— 494 - 

purchased at the Cuff sale (JL 140) for the British Museum. This is 
from the Thomas (lot 271, €130), Wigan (€ 165), Brice, Montagu 
(1888, lot 186, % 106), and Moon (lot 104, £ 107) collections. 

Specimens of this coin exist in the British Museum, St. Peters- 
burg Museum, Bodleian Library (said to be the only genuine one); 
Lord Pembroke had one; and in our times the late R. A. Hoblyn, 
and J. E. T. Loveday possessed each a specimen {Vide Loveday, 
The Henry VIIL Medal or Pattern Crown, The British 'Numismatic 
Journal, I, pp. 137-147). 

The late Mr. J. G. Murdoch also possessed Patterns of the Double 
Sovereign, first coinage (lot 452, €170) and Angel (lot 453, 
€39.10.0). VideSAt Catalogue, March, 1903. 


SHAW, JOHN. VideSm JOHN SHAA supi-a. 

SHAW, J. G. {Brit.^. Mint-master at Madras, from February 1856 
to March of the same year, and April to June 1859. He died in 
November i860. 

SHAW, KATHLEEN (Brit.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
born at Edmonton (Middlesex); pupil of Ch. Desvergnes, and 
Alfred Gilbert. Amongst her medallic works I have noted the follow- 
ing : 1899. Mrs Leigh Brown, Portrait-medallion; — Salon 1894. 
Mrs Hutchinson; — 1897. Miss A. C***; — Lily; — 1901. Five 
Portrait-medallions; — 1904. Henry Bruce-Armstrong Esq.; — 

1905. Miss Helen Dunham, etc. 

SHEKLETON, D-^ J. F. (Brit.). Ofriciating Mint-master at Calcutta, 
7''' February to 7''' March 1866, 9''' August 1867 to 16''' January 
1868, 19*'' November to 26''' December 187 1, 2'"* to 10''' February 
1872, 3'''* to 30''' August 1872. 

SHELLY (Br it.). Designer 01 the commemorative medal of the 
Industrial Exhibition at Plymouth;, 1865. 

SHEPHERD (Brit.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, w^ho 
resided for some time in London, but went back to the Colonies. 
He is the author of some medals, of which however I have omitted 
to make a note. 

SHEPPARD, BENJAMIN (Brit.). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist, residing in London. At the Royal Academy exhibition, 

1906, he had a Portrait-plaquette in silver of Miss Georgina A. 
Brackenbury, an^ in 1907, a Portrait-medal of Master Hugo Tyrrell. 

SHEPPARD, 0LIVER(5n/.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
residing in London. He exhibited in 1907 at the Royal Academy a 

— 495 — 

Portrait-medal in bronze of Sir Joseph Banks, K.C.B. , and another 
in silver of Prof. E. Hallaran-Bennett, M. D. 

SHERIFF {Brit.). A Liverpool Die-sinker of the early part of the 
nineteenth century. Among his productions I have seen descriptions 
of are : Xewcastle-under-Lyme Penny Token, 1813; — Withy- 
moor Penny Token, 1814 ; — Linnaeus medal (Liverpool Botanic 
Gardens); — Birmingham Medical College, with bust of Aescu- 
lapius, etc. 

SHERWOOD, JOHN (Brit.). Bishop of Durham (1485-94); M. A. 
University College, Oxford, 1450; brought Greek authors from 
Italy ; Edward IV. 's advocate at Rome; chancellor of Exeter, 1460; 
archdeacon of Richmond, 1465; prebendary of York, 1^71 ; partisan 
of Richard III. ; went from Burgundy to Rome, where he died, 
1494. Author of 'Liber de Ludo Arithmomachia' (1482). 

He issued Pennies of Richard III. for Durham, with an S on 
King's breast, and others also of Henry VII. 


SHORE, GENERAL SIR JOHN (Brit.). 1751-1834. Governor-general 
of India, 1793- 1798. He went to India in 1768, was created a 
baronet in 1792, and an Irish peer in 1798. His name occurs on 
the gold coin or medal ///M^/ra/^^ in N.C. vol. IX col. 4395 and 
described fully by Mr. W. J. Webster. 

This curious and interesting piece is in reality a "Nisar" or Pre- 
sentation Coin struck at Moorshedabad for the retiring Governor- 
general Sir John Shore, Bart, (atterwards Lord Teignmouth) who 
vacated his high office in 1797. It is also assumed and perhaps 
with some reason to be a pattern piece for a suggested coinage of 
triple Muhrs, as its weight (576 grs.) is sufficiently close to that 
of three " old standard " Muhrs at 190 grs each, to justify this 

However, whether this coinage was intended or not, at any rate 
it was not carried into effect by Sir John Shore's successor in the 

SHORTHOUSE. E. (Brit.). A well-known Collector of Coins and 
Tokens of the British and United States of North America series, 
whose name is mentioned in Montagu's Copper Coins, &c. as the 
originator of restrikes of the 10 Cent piece of Marrian and Gausby's 
decimal coinage. 

Mr. Shorthouse has kindly given me the following information con- 
cerning the restrikes issued by him, in a letter dated i . January 1909 : 
" Showing a member or two of the British Association, then meeting 
in Birmingham, round the city, I made the acquaintance of a well- 
known, highly respected die-sinker, the late Mr. Joseph Moore, 

— 49^ — 

a portrait of whom is in our City Museum. Taken round his place 
he mentioned having submitted to our Government certain designs 
for the i860 bronze coinage. lasked, if amongst the stacks of old dies 
in his warehouse, these dies could be sought tor. They were even- 
tually found, excepting one, with the head of Victoria, crowned. 
They were fairly clean, but a flaw from rust always serves to distin- 
guish the restriices from the originals, which were struck in i860, 
and of which a few (5 or 6) are in my " reserve" coin collection. 
I took my solicitor, the late Mr. E. C. Newey, to see the 9 pieces 
struck in (i) silver, (2) bronze, (3) copper, unbronxed, nnd(4)white 
metal. We then saw the dies placed on a grinding stone and 
destroyed, and they were then placed with Messrs Spink. 
Nine specimens of each, to my knowledge, alone exist. I only have 
5 or 6 in my reserve collection. A set of the white medal specimens 
I gave Messrs Spink at a sale at Messrs Sotheby's, also another I pre- 
sented to Mr. J. Verity. 

"The second of the only two cases of "discovered dies" I have 
ever had to do with or know^ anything whatever about was shortly 
after the above. This was the discover}'' of the rusted spoilt dies of 
the Marrian and Gausby's Decimal Coinage. The 10 Cent was the 
only die possible to be used. The rest were utterh' ruined. Again 
Mr. E. C. Newey the solicitor, and I, saw nine each struck of these 
10 Cents, but on a very thick blank, so that they are at once distin- 
guished from the originals. We had nine each struck in (i) silver, 
(2) bronze, and (3) copper, as before". 

SHREVE & CO {Atner.). Jewellers and Die-sinkers of San Francisco. 
Their name occurs on the reverse of a Portrait-medal of D"^ Enno 
Saunder, of St. Louis (^Amer. Journ. Num., 1521). 

SHULTS & CO (Amer.). Issuers of a Californian 5 Dollar piece, 
185 1 ;obv. Head; ^. Eagle. This coin is not very uncommon. 

S. I. Vide SPAGNOLI, JACOBUS. Mint-master and Engraver at 
Ferrara, 1654- 165 6. 

S.I. Vide SALOMON, JACOBSEN. Mint-engraver at Copenhagen, 

S.I. F. ?.(ItaL). Armand describes a Portrait-medal of Charles VIII. 
of France thus signed, with ^L. Horseman (after an equestrian 
statue of Marcus Aurelius); and he further states that a similar 
medal, in the Goethe collection at Weimar is signed: OPVS.CORA- 
DINI.H., but has a^. belonging to a medal of Ercolel. d'Este, and 
representing a ring adorned with a diamond cut in a point. Vide 
Armand, I, p. 105 ; III, 33. 

— 497 — 

SIBELNIKOFF, IWAN (Russ.). Mint-master at St. Petersburg, 

SIBER. GUSTAVE (Swiss). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
born at Kiissnacht, near Zurich, on 22. November 1864. He is a 
pupil of Kissling, and studied also at Paris under Chapu. Some of 
his works of sculpture may be seen at the Mus^e Rath, at Geneva. 

By him are also Portrait-medallions, one of which was exhibited 
at the Paris Salon in 1890. 

SIBER or SIEBER, JACOB (5u'/55). Chaser and Medallist, born at 
Morges, 16. July 1807, died at Lausanne, 7. January 1880. The 
family was of Prussian origin, but became naturalized Swiss in 1826. 

Siber was apprenticed to his father, who was an armourer; his 
aptitude for drawing decided his parents to send him to Berne to 
be taught engraving on metal. In 1825 he went to Paris, when he 
was fortunate in obtaining employment with Roqueby, Engraver 
to King Charles X. He resided for two years in the French capital, 
and became an efficient craftsman, especially on the engraving of 
seals, stamps, reliefs for printing, etc. 

Towards the end of his life he occupied himself also with 

At the Lausanne Exhibition of Arts and Industries 1839 he was 
awarded the silver medal, the dies for which were cut by him. 

By Siber is a commemorative medal of the Conflagration at Claris, 
1861; also a Franc of Canton Vaud, issued as a Prize for rifle 
shooting and commemorating the Acceptance of the Constitution, 
10. August 1845 ; — Choral Festival at Lausanne, 1842 ; — Vint- 
ners' Festival at Vevey, 1865; — School Prize of the College of 
Lausanne, undated; — Dissolution of the Sonderbund, 1847; — 
Adoption of the National Constitution, 1848; — 5 Francs of 
Chaux-de-Fonds, 1863 (I^. by Ant. Bovy) ; issued as a Rifle 
shooting Prize; — Musical Festival held at Sitten, 1854; — 
Masonic Badge of the Lodge "Esperance et Cordiality", ofLausanne, 
1822 (reissued in 1896); — Industrial Exhibition at Lausanne; — 
Prize medal of the Horticultural Society of Canton Vaud, etc. 

Siber directed with success an evening class for modelling and 
sculpture at the Lausanne School of the Industrial and Commercial 

Bibliography. — D"" C. Brun, Schweiierisches KunstUr-Lexikon. 

SIBILLE, M""' JULIETTE (French). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist, born at Paris ; pupil of Chapu, and E. Dubois. At the 
Salon, 1892, she exhibited a Portrait-medallion of M"* E. M***, 
and in 1893, another of M.C.C***. 

L. FoRRER. — Biographical Notices of Medallists. — V 3a 

SiBOT (G^rm.). Moneyer at Donauworth, 1333. 

SIBREC, g£RARD {French'). Sculptor and Medallist of Lyons, circ. 
163 5-1 643. None of his works are however known to exist. 

SIC, SIGI (Germ.). Moneyer at Ratisbon 976-1004 (Grote, 321, 
VIII, 148. Dannenberg, I, 410-413. Sedlmaier, Pi. IV, 85, 86, 92). 

SIGH (Austr.) Engraver, by whom I have seen a Jubilee Badge of 
the Emperor Francis Joseph I., 1898. 

SICHEL, ERNEST (Brit.). Contemporary Metal-chaser, residing in 
London, and by whom I have seen at the Royal Academy Exhibi- 
tion, 1906, a silver panel orplaquette, entitled "The Shipbuilder". 


SICINIUS, Q. (Rom.). Moneyer at Rome, circ. B.C 49 in which 
year he was triumvir. One of his denarii bears his name in conjunc- 
tion with that of the praetor, C. Coponius. Vide Babelon, Monn. 
consul., II, p. 458. 

SIGK (Germ.). Founder of tin medals of Landshut, 1835 . 

SIEBER, J. Vide SIBER supra. 

SIEBERG (SEEBERG), GILLIS VON (Germ.). Elect, palatine Mint- 
master, 1598, domiciled at Frankenthal. 

SIEBERT, BARTL (AuHr.). Mint-engraver at Prague, 1626. 

Sondershausen, 1763-64, and Harzgerode, 1767-96. His initials 
H.G.A. S. or also H. S. occur on his issues, as on Thalers, Gulden, 1764; 
^ Thalers 1763, '64; | Thalers 1764; ^2 Thalers 1763/64; 2I Thalers 
1763, '64 of Prince Christian Giinther III. (f 1794) of Schwarzburg- 

Detmold, 171 1, and Mint-master at Eisenach, 1716. 

SIEGEL, JOHANN HEINRIGH (Germ.). Mint-master at Harzgerode, 
1744-1754. He signed H. S. or I. H. S. 

SIEGERIST, JOHANNES (Swiss). Medallist, of Schafthausen, born 
22. September 1774; was residing at Leipzig about 1804. 

SIEGLING (Germ.). Director of the Mint at Erfurt, 1801-1802. 

— 499 — 

SIEGMUND & CO. (Dutch). Engravers and Die-sinkers of Hamburg. 
Their name occurs on the obv. of a medal ot the Hamburg; Society 
for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (in Boston collection). 

SIEGWART (^w'/w). Contemporary Sculptor of Lucerne, by whom 
are models for the ** Medaille de maitrise" of Swiss federal rifle 
competitions, which were not adopted . 

SIEMENS. AUGUST OJDWIG (Germ.). Warden of the Mint at 
Berlin, 1 741-176 5. Resigned: ALS. 

SIEMSSEN. SIMON (G^rw.). Watchmaker at Rostock, issued copper 
currency : 28. October 1728, Witten to the value of lOooThalers; 
29. April 1735, Pfennige for 300 Thalers; from 1737 to 1742 he 
was Master of the Mint there. Vide Ed. Gnmm, Miin:(en und 
Medaillen der Stadt Rostock, 1904. 

SIESS SOHNE, JOSEF (^//^/r.). Jewellers in Vienna, who published 
in 1897 St. Hubert medals^ and have employed Prof. Stephan 
Schwartz and other artists at various times to cut medal-dies for 

SIEVERSEN, CASPAR (Germ.). Mint-master at Stralsund, 1636- 
1662. He signed: C.S. 

SIEVERT, DANIEL (Germ.) Mint-master at Stettin, 1672-1681, 
and later at Colberg, 1684. His issues are usually signed: D. S 

SIEVERT. DANIEL (Germ.). Mint-warden at Danzig, 1698-1734. 

SIEVERT, HEINRICH (Germ.). Mint-master at Thorn, 1668-1671, 
and Konigsberg in Prussia, 1674; he died in 1694. His name also 
occurs as SYVERZ, and SIEBERTS. The coins issued by him are 
usually signed : H. S. 


SIFRID (^«j/r.). Mint-master at Vienna, «V^. 1287, 1288, 1300. 

SIGEFRIDUS (Germ.). Moneyer at Worms, 1 197. Vide Paul Joseph, 
Mihi:;j.'n und Medaillen von Worms, 1907. 

SIGELO (Germ.). Moneyer at Worms, 1233. 

SIGEL (Germ.). This Engraver's signature occurs on a Portrait- 
medal of Schiller. 

SIGNARD, CLAUDE (French). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist, born at Gray (Haute-Saone) ; pupil of C. Gautherin. At 
the Salon, 1890, she exhibited Portrait-medallions in bronze of 
M""-" L*** and other persons. 

— )00 — 

SI6N0RET-LEDIEU, M""' L. {French). Contemporary Sculptor, born 
at Nevers; pupil of Gautherin. She is the author of a number of 
Portrait-medaUions : 1879. M""= Louise B***; — 1880. Portrait du 
petit Zezet; — 1891, M«^ A. B***; — 1894. M. R***, etc. all ot 
which are cast in bronze. 

SIGNORETTI, ANTONIO (ltd.). Mint-master at Parma, 1559-1568. 
He signed : A. S- 

SIGNORETTI, GIAN ANTONIO (ItaJ.). Mint-engraver at Reggio 
Emilia, circ. 1560, to whom have been attributed certain medals, 
signed S, but on insufficient evidence. These medals bear a strong 
analogy in style to the works of the medallist Ruspagiari {q. v), 
and seem to indicate that their author was a pupil of the latter artist. 
Among these I may mention : Gabriele Lippi, uniface ; diam. : 
72 mill, (lead; 72 mill.); — Camilla Rugeri (a copy of Ruspagiari's 

medal; illustrated); — Giulia Pratoneri ; 68 mill, (signed S); — 
Costanza Bocchi ; diam.: 65 mill.; dated mdlx (signed S.); — 
Isabella Riario; diam. : 71 mill, (unsigned); — Unknown Female 
portrait; diam.: 68 mill, (signed S). Cf. Armand, III, 94, A. All 
these medals are uniface and similar in treatment. 

In the Ga:(ette des Beaux-Arts, 1892, t. II, p. 316 a NICCOLO 
SIGNORETTI is mentioned as Mint-engraver at Reggio, 15 56-1602. 

BiLLlOGRAPHY. — A. Balletti, AlfoHSO Ruspagiari e Gian Antonio Signoretti del 
secolo XVI, Rassegna d'Arte, Marzo 1904. — I. B. Supino, // Medagliere Mediceo. 
— Armand, op. cit. 

master of the Mint at Sydney, 1 898-1 906. 

— 501 — 

SILIPRANDI, GIUSEPPE (ItaL). Mint-engraver ^ and Medallist at 
Parma, 17 84- 1787. His signature : SILI or S, and S occurs on coins 

of Ferdinando Borbone, duke of Parma (i785-r8o2) : Doppia da 
tre, 1784 (illustrated) ; Doppia, 1784-86 ; Zecchini, 1784-85 ; 
JK. Scudi, I Scudi, 6 and 3 Lire, Lire and subsidiary currency of 
various dates, and also Patterns for coins. 

Triple Doppia of Parma. 

Scudo of 1784. 

14. April 1744 the Lisbon Mint, as pupil of the School of engraving, 
at the head of which was at the time a French medallist, Antoine 
Mengin. He gave up the art after a short time. 

Bibliography. — V. Aragao, op. cit., I, 80. 

SILVA, DOMINGOS JOS£ DA (Portug.). Medallist of the end of the 

eighteenth century and early part of the nineteenth ; he studied 
drawing and engraving first under his brother Simao Francisco dos 
Santos, and at the school of engraving of Arco do Cego (Lisbon). 
In 1804 he was working with Bartolozzi, the f;imous Florentine 
artist who was then domiciled in Lisbon. His speciality was line- 

— 502 — 

engraving. On 6. March 1830 he was entrusted with the finishing 
of dies for a 7500 Reis piece, which his brother Simao Francisco dos 
Santos was prevented by death from completing. Thereupon he was 
appointed Engraver at a yearly salary of 240 Milrcis, with the obli- 
gation of maintaining two assistant-engravers. Silva executed a 
number of dies for the coinage of D. Miguel (1828- 183 3), which 
shew a remarkable perfection in the design, and uncommon delicacy 
and fineness in the engraving. He resigned his office of Engraver at 
the Mint in 1833, and was named Professor of engraving at the 
Fine Arts Academy of Lisbon, in which city he died not many years 
later at a fairly advanced age. 

BiBLiOQRAPHY. — A. C. Teixeira de Aragao, Descripfuo geraJ e historica das 
Moedas ctinhadas em noiue dos Rets, Regeutes e Governadores de Portugal, Lisboa, 1874. 
A. de Raczinski, Dictionvaire historico-arlistique du Portugal, p. 273. — Lista de 
algunas Artistas Portugueses pelo Bispo Conde, D. Francisco, p. 55. — Inforniatiov 
kindly supplied by Sefior Don Arluro Lamm. 

SILVA, JOAO DA (Portug.). Contemporary Sculptor, Medallist, and 
Cha.ser, born at Lisbon on i. December 1880. At the age of twelve 
he began to work as a Chaser for the goldsmith M. Leitao, in 
whose service he remained for eight years, using his leisure time to 
study drawing and sculpture at the industrial classes ' Principe 

Atala's funeral. 

— 503 — 

Real ' and ' Affonso Domingues '. In September 1900 he went to 
Paris and spent a year in that city. He then obtained a grant from 
his government to complete his studies at Geneva (Switzerland) 
and entered the classes of sculpture of the Ecole des Arts Industriels 
of that city, where he was rewarded with the Diploma of that 
Institute. Among his professors I may mention Georges Hantz and 
Charles Richard. From Geneva he returned to Paris, was admitted 
at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, in the workshop of the master, 
J. C. Chaplain. During his two years' stay in the French capital 
he won the first distinctions each year and the special recommend- 

4^^^>:l^- -^ 

Mut-i^*" iR^ 



j - >,V ,F 

t: ..,,.^_---~ 



M.A.F.S. de Salazar-Moscoso. 

ation of the famous Medallist. In 1906 he returned to Lisbon, and 
has since devoted himself to the medallic art. 

Most of the artist's productions are Portrait-medallions and 
Plaqueties, which not being in the market are little known. It is 
therefore difficult to compile a list of his works, but the medals 
reproduced here will give a good idea of his talent and versatility. 

The portraits of M.A.F.S. de Salazar-Moscoso and his consort and 
that ofM"^ iMariaJose Arroyo are fine examples of his workmanship. 

To Joao da Silva and Simoes de Almeida Sobrinho belong the 
glory of having introduced into Portugal the modern art of the 

— 504 — 

medal. They mark an epoch in the history of medalHc art in 


Portrait of a Lady 

Mile Maria Jose Arroyo. 
Silva has been exhibiting at the Paris Salon annually since 1904, 

— 505 — 

and he was granted in 1908 a Mention honorable for his plaquette, 
Les funerailles d'Atala. 

His habitual signature is JOAO DA SILVA, or J. DA SILVA ; one of 
his portraits is however signed SILVA. 
Bibliography. — Information kindly supplied by Senor Don Arturo Lamas. 

SILVA, JOSt SERGIO DE CARVALHO E {Portng.). Contemporary 
Medallist and Engraver, born at Evora, 9. September 1856. He 
studied at the Lisbon Academy of Fine Arts from 1870 to 1873, 
and later worked for some time with his father, the ivory carver 
Francisco Ignacio das Neves e Silva. This particular branch of art 
not being any longer in much demand, he turned his attention to 
engraving steel-dies for decorations and took commissions from 
Joaquim Augusto da Costa. In 1886 he was admitted at the Lisbon 
Mint as student of medal-engraving. On the invitation of the 
famous French engraver Mouchon, who had recognized his ability, 
Silva accepted employment with him at Paris; but in 1898, the 
Portuguese engraver obtained a post at the Lisbon Mint. 

Silva also worked for the Die-sinking establishment of Frederico 
Caspar da Costa. 

The artist's signature is usually S. SILVA or simply SILVA. 

Among his medallic productions are : Military medal of Don 
Luis (one of the types); — Military medal of Don Carlos for 
services abroad ; — Medal on the first Monument to D"^ Sousa 
Martino ; — Championship medal of the Faga Lishoa (Lisbon Cup), 
unsigned ; — Medal presented to Senor Don Grandella (unique), 

Bibliography. — Information kindly supplied by Senor Don Art. Lamas. 

SILVA, JOS£ RODRIGDES DA (Porttig.). Appointed Assistant- 
Engraver at the Mint of Lisbon, 14. October ij2/\. On the 14. May 
following he was ordered to work under the direction of the 
French engraver Antoine Mengin, who was at the time Chief- 
engraver and Professor at the Lisbon Mint. 

Bibliography. — Aragao, op. cit., I, p. 78. 

SILVA, MANOEL JOS£ DA {Portiig.). Apprentice-engraver at the 
Lisbon Mint, from 23. December 1739 to 10. May 1747, at which 
date he changed office at the Mint. 

Bibliography. — Aragiio, op. cit., I, p. 79. 

SILVA, MANOEL RODRIGUES DA (JPorttig.). Engraver at the Lisbon 
Mint, in the seventeenth century. D. Antonio Gaetano de Sousa in 
the fourth volume of his ' Historia Genealogica da Casa Real 
Portugueza' p. 421, says that he was the inventor of the graining 
on the edge of coins. 

— 5"^ — 

' The milling ' of the gold coins was ordered by decree ot 
9. August 1686 and of silver coins by that of 14. June 1688. 
Bibliography. — Aragao, op. cit., I, p. 74. 

SILVANUS. The inscription SILVANI occurs on a gem of the 
former Stosch collection, representing Mercury standing, wearing 
petasus, and holding purse and caduceus.Raspe, who describes this 
stone, calls it a good engraving and states that the inscription is 
perhaps the name of the Engraver. 

SILVANUS, BERNARDO SER {Ital.'). An official at the Mint of Rome, 
under Pope Julius II., to whom payments are recorded in the 
Archive documents, 1504, 1507, 1508. FideEug. Muntz, V Atelier 
monitaire de Rome, 1884. 

SILVESTRI, METRO (Ital.) Medallist of the first half of the eight- 
eenth century, whose two best-known productions are the Portrait- 
medals ot Cardinals Pietro Ottoboni, and Livio Odescalchi. 

SIMGOX (Brit.). A Die-sinker of the early part of the nineteenth 
century, whose Counters in imitation of Spade Guineas and Half 
Guineas are well-known. Signed specimens of the Spade Guinea 
1 79 1 have come under my notice. 

SIMIER, JEHAN (French). Silversmith of Nancy, who under 
Ren^IL, Duke of Lorraine, filled the office of Warden of the Mint 
at Nancy, circ. 1484. 

SIMMONDS, ARMAND (Belg.). Sculptor and Medallist, of British 
origin, born at Verviers; pupil of Joseph Geefs. At the Paris 
Salon, 1894, he exhibited a Portrait-medal of M"'^ A. Simmonds. 
which is not without merit. 

SIMMONS, ISAAC (5n7.). This Engraver's signature occurs on an 
early Victorian Temperance Badge, hall-marked, representing an 
Allegorical subject. 

Nephew of a distinguished sculptor of the same name. Sculptor 
and Medallist, residing in Lisbon ; born at Figueiro dos Vinhos, 
near Thomar, on 17. June 1880 ; entered the school of Fine Arts of 
Lisbon at the age of 12 years, when for eight years he was a pupil 
of his uncle and other teachers. He entered as apprentice-engraver 
the School of engraving at the Lisbon Mint in 1892. In 1904 he 
was sent to Paris by the Portuguese government, at the expense of 
Viscomte de Valmor's legacy. There he frequented the Academie 
Julien (Atelier Verlot) and studied sculpture and modelling. 

In 1906 he returned to Lisbon to devote himself to sculpture and 

— 5o: 

especially to the modelling of medals. He has, in conjunction with 
Joao da Silva, the merit of having introduced in Portugal the 

Medal of the Portuguese Society of Architects. 

modern art of the medal. He is now officially employed at the 
Lisbon Mint, but undertakes also private commissions. 

— 5o8 — 

The artist signs SIHOES, SOB. followed by the date of the produc- 
tions. The medals reproduced show the merit of his talent. 

Prof. Miguel Bombarda. 

Among his medallic productions the best known are : Memorial 
medal of D"" Sousa Martino, 1902 (signed : Simoes); — Medal of the 

— 509 — 

Society of Fine Arts of Lisbon. These two medals were executed 
before the artist's departure for Paris ; — Portrait-medal of Senor Don 

Centenary of the Battle of Busaco, 1910. 

A. J. da Cunha, director of the Lisbon Mint, 1905 ; — Prof. Miguel 
Bombarda, physician, organiser of the XV. International Congress 

— 510 -^ 

ofPhysiciansat Lisbon, 1906, killed during the insurrection 01^1910; 
(illustrated) ; — Medal of the Society of Portuguese Architects, 
1907 (illustrated); — Portrait-medal of A. Texeira Lopes, statuary, 
1907 : — Prize Medal forthe "Raid hippique national", 1908 ; — 
Commemoration of the Centenary of the Battle of Busaco, 1910 
(illustrated), etc. 

At the Brussels ' International Exhibition of Modern Medals ' 
1910, the artist showed : A. Texeira Lopes, 1907 ; JK. medal; — 
Professor Miguel Bombarda, 1906; JE. medal; — Augusto Jose da 
Cunha, 1906; JK. medal. 

Bibliography. — Information kindly supplied by Senor Don Arluro Lamas. 

SIMON (French). Seal-engraver at Maubeuge, 1326. He executed 
a tablet in lead for the tomb of King John, and is styled in official 
documents Gravator sigilloruin. 

SIMON DER MtJNZER (Aiistr.). Moneyer at Vienna, 1438. 

SIMON mit derlahmen Hand (Germ.). A Goldsmith of Augsburg, 
in the first half of the sixteenth century. Bolzenthal suggests that he 
may have done medal work also. 

SIMON ME FECIT (Flem.). Inscription on early Flemish coins. 
Vide H. Dannenberg, Die dltesten MuriT^en der Graf en von Stade, 
Zeitsch. fiirNum., 1886, p. 239. 

SIMON, MEISTER (Siuiss). Mint-master at Lucerne, 15 17 (Bull. 
Suisse de numistnatique, IX, p. 4). 

SIMON, ABRAHAM (Brit.). (1622 ?-i692 ?) Modeller in wax, and 
Medallist, born about 1622, brother of Thomas Simon, and one of 
the sons of Peter and Anne Simon. '*He was educated" (states 


Portrait of Abraham Simon, by Stuart. 
Wroth) ** with a view to the church, but, being a skilful 
modeller in wax, he devoted himself to art. During a visit to Sweden 

— )II - 

he made portraits in wax of several eminent persons, and was given 
a position at the court ot Queen Christina, who employed him as 
her agent in procuring works of art, and presented him w^ith a gold 
medal and chain. In his wax-model portrait of himself he appears 
wearing this decoration, and Horace Walpole said he was supposed 
to have been in love with the queen. He attended her on her visit 
to Louis XIII., and, on account of his odd appearance, was arrested 
as a suspicious person while trying to model the king from the gallery 
of the roval chapel. He subsequently worked for some lime in 
Holland. " 

" He came to England in 1642 or later, and for several years was 
much employed in making medals and wax models of leading par- 
liamentarians and others. He also made a large number or wax 
models (some now in the British Museum) for the portrait medals 
executed by his brother, Thomas Simon. His own medals are cast 
and chased, and are signed A. S. They are graceful and simple in 
treatment, but, being usually in lowrelief and of small module, seem 
occasionally deficient in vigour. 

"After the Restoration, Simon modelled the portrait of Charles XL 
for the medal of the " Royal Oak " at the price of one hundred 
"broads". The Duke of York afterwards had his portrait done by 
him, but only proposed to pay him fifty ' broads'. Simon then took 
up the wax model, and in the duke's presence deliberately defaced 
it by squeezing it together. By this conduct he lost favour at court, 
and other sitters complained of his impatience when they offered 
any criticism of his w^ork. In the later years of his life he seems to 
have received no further commissions, and he died in obscurity, 
and perhaps In poverty, about 1692. He was married, and had two 
daughters named Anne and Judith. 

'* Simon's portrait was painted by Sir Peter Lely and Sir Godfrey 
Kneller. Of Lely's portrait there is a mezzotint by Blooteling. 
There is, in the British Museum, a portrait in wax of Simon by 
himself, and from this original a chased medal was made by Stuart 
circ. 1750. Simon was a little man, *of a primitive philosophic 
aspect', and always wore his hair and beard long. His eccentric 
dress excited derision in the street, but he was an excellent artist, 
and a man of the same independent character as Benedetto Pistrucci. 
Evelyn (Diary, 8. June 1653) calls him ' a virtuoso fantastical Simons 
(^sic), who had the talent of embossing so to ye life'. (^Warwick 
Wroth, Diet. Nat.Biog., LII, p. 264). 

Abraham Simon's principal Portrait-medals are the following : 
Earl of Loudoun, 1645 (Af^i ///., I, qf-'); — William Pope, 1645 
(Med. III., 1,^1); - Lord Inchiquin, 1646; (Med. III., I, |||). 
[Murrough O'Brien, Lord Inchiquin, commanded in Ireland for the 
King until 1643, when he joined the Parliament, and was afterwards 

— 512 — 

President ot the Province of Munster. At the end of 1646 he returned 
to the King's^ party. Lord Inchiquin's name is remembered in 
numismatics from the Inchiquin money, which was struck from 

Earl of Loudoun, 1643. 

platein 1642, and which consists of AT Pistoles, and ^Crowns, Half- 
Crowns, Shillings, Ninepences, Sixpences, Groats, and Threepences 

Lord Inchiquin, 1646. 

(Fide Wo\. Ill, p. 26)]; — Albert Joachim, ambassador, 1646 (Med. 
ill-* 1, 1); —Sir Sidenham Poyntz, 1646 (Med. III., I, f|) ; — Earl 

Manteau van Dalem, 1647. 

of Dunfermline, i646(Med. IlL,l, |||); — Earl of Lauderdale, 1646 
(Med. III., I, f^); — Martinay, 1647; ^L. IE ne vis qv'a regret 

— 513 — 

(Med. III., fif); — Manteau van Dalem, 1647 (not in Med. III. ; 
illustrated) [The Murdoch specimen, 1904, realized €. 44.10.0]; — 
Sir Charles Erskine, 1647 {Med. III., —); — Colonel Fleetwood, 
no date (Med. III., I, j^j ; — Unknown Portrait, undated (Med. III., 
I, ffi); — John Cleypole, 165 1 (Med. III., I, ^); — Henry 
Cromwell, 1654 (Med. III., I, ^); — Colonel Desborough, 1657 
(onlv known from a later imitation) ; — Edward Montague, 1658 
(Med. III., I, ^0; — Unknown Portrait, 1662 (Med. III., I, '-^); 

Sir Sidenham Poyntz, 1646. 

— Queen Catherine, 1662 (Med. III., I, irf); — Earl of Southamp- 
ton, 1664; — Abraham Simon (only known from an imitation by 
Stuart); — Sir Edward Nicholas, 7 1669 (only known from a later 
imitation) ; — Medal on the introduction of a Chimney Tax, 

Sir John Hotham, 1644. 

offered to the Burgomaster of Leyden, 1666 ; obv. Alchemist seated 
at the fire side; ^L. argentvm ex fvmo &c, , 56 mill. (Fan Loon, 

II, 516). 

As joint-works of Abraham (as modeller) and Thomas (as 
engraver and chaser) we may note the following: — Sir John Hotham, 
1644 (only two specimens known) (Med. III., I, j^^); — John 
Thurloe, 165^; — Bulstrode Whitelock, 1653; — William Len- 
thall, 1653 (only known from a later chasing by Stuart); — Sir 

L. FoRxER. — Biographical Noticts of Mtdalliits, — V, 53 

- 5M - 

James Harrington, 1653; — Unknown Portrait, 1653 i.^^'^- HI-, 
I, '*f|) ; — Elizabeth Cleypole, 1658; — General Monk, 1660; — 
Earl of Clarendon, 1662; — Lady Lane, 1662, etc. All these 
medals will be found mentioned again under Thomas Simon 

*' It is difficult " (says Miss Helen Farquhar) " to say exactly how 
much Thomas Simon was indebted to the eccentric and clever Abra- 
ham for the designs of some of his medals and coins; although the 
signature T. S. appears on pieces which may have been the joint 
work of the two brothers, this might be because of Thomas's official 
position ; that either was capable of working alone is abundantly 
proved, but it is said that Abraham often made the original wax 
sketch, Thomas the finished portrait from it, Abraham excelling in 
portraiture, Thomas above all men in die-sinking, engraving, and 
chasing. We know that Abraham was in the habit of carrying in 
his pocket a small piece of wax-covered glass, and whenever a face 
struck his fancy, he hastily modelled a sketch. " (^Portraiture of the 
Stuarts on the Royalist Badges, Brit. Num. Journ., II, 285). 

Bibliography. — W. Wroth, Abraham Simon, Diet. Nat. Biog., LII, 264. — 
Hawkins, M-dallic Illustrations, ed. Franks and Grueber. — Grueber, Guide to 
English medals in British Mtiseuni. — Vertue, Medals, Coins, &c., by T. Simon, 
1753. — Notes and Queries, 2°^ Series XII, 2,3. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Cochran- 
Patrick, Medals of Scotland — Babelon, Pierres gravees, 1894. 

SIMON, DfiSIRfi {French^. Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
born at Bar-le-Duc (Meuse); pupil of Claudius Marioton. He has 
exhibited at the Paris Salon : 1904. Bronze Plaquette of St. John 
the Baptist; — 1907. J^. gilt Portrait-medal of Jean Dubois, etc. 

SIMON, F. {French). Line-engraver and Die-sinker of the second 
half of the nineteenth century. He engraved the 'Bons' of theSociete 
generale of i, 2 and 5 Francs, issued on 18. November 1871. 

SIMON, JEAN HENRI {French). Gem-engraver and Medallist, born 
at Brussels, 28. October 1752, where he died, 12. March 1834. 
According to M. Babelon, he was a great-grandson of Thomas 
Simon. He was taught engraving by his father, Jacob Simon, who 
also did very good work. In 1767 we find the youthful artist already 
in the service of Prince Charles of Lorraine. Eight years later he 
visited Paris, where on the recommendation of his patron, Prince 
de Ligne, he obtained an appointment of gem-engraver to the Duke 
of Chartres, who later, as Duke of Orleans, continued to favour 
him, and granted him a yearly allowance of 1000 Francs. 

Baron Breteuil having sold his cabinet ofgems to the Czarina Cather- 
ine II. of Russia, it was found that a two-strata cameo, representing 
a Tiger reclining, was missing. Several engravers were consulted as 
to replacing this gem, but none would undertake 10 do the work 

— 515 — 

in a less period than three months. Simon successfully completed 
it within three days, and so much enhanced his reputation thereby 
that Louis XVI. granted him the title of Engraver to the King, with 
apartments in the Louvre galler}'. 

In order to escape the troubles of the French Revolution he 
enlisted in the army under Dumouriez and did service as captain in 
the light infantry. He was wounded several times, and returned to 
Paris, later on crossing over to Spain, where he refused an offer of 
Ferdinand VIL to open a school of engraving with a yearly salary 
of 30.000 reals. On his return to France, he was appointed Professor 
of gem-engraving to the Institute for Deaf and Dumb. Napoleon 
favoured him with his patronage, and the Empress Josephine made 
him "Graveur du conseil du sceau des titres". In 1813, he was 
decorated with the Legion of Honour for an act oi bravery. 

In the early part of 18 16 he w^ent back to Brussels, and was 
appointed Engraver of gems and medals to the Royal College of the 
Low-Countries, and on 4. August 1817 Engraver to the King. The 
Academy of Fine Arts of Antwerp elected him a member in the 
following December. 

On the outbreak of the 1830 Revolution at Brussels he took the 
command of a company of Civic guards. 

Two years later, after a long and painful illness, borne with 
stoic resignation, be ended his career at the age of 82. He was 
buried with military honours, and the Chief Rabbi pronounced his 
funeral oration. 

J. H. Simon's most important work is his Series of medals of 
illustrious men of the Low-Countries, "Galerie metallique des 
hommes qui ont illustre les Pays-Bas", on which he spent six years 
of arduous labour. This series consists of 100 medals. 

It cannot be said that Simon acquired a great reputation as an 
artist, but he was certainly a clever gem-engraver, and is praised as 

At the Salon of 1799, Chevalier Jean Henri Simon, who was 
then residing at the Palais-EgaUt^, n° 88, exhibited the following 
gems : Head of Demosthenes, in relief on agate-onyx ; — Female 
head, in relief on agate-onyx ; — Marine Love, in relief on sar- 
donyx ; — Intaglio in cornelian representing Apollo drawn in 
chariot by two horses ; — Heads of Aspasia and Pericles, in relief 
on chalcedony. 

In 1800, the artist sent for exhibition at the Salon a Portrait of 
the First Consul, engraved in cornelian, and several other works, 
in 1 80 1, 1 8 10 and 181 2. M. Babelon adds that Simon is no doubt 
the engraver of a fine Portrait-gem of Joseph II., signed S. 

The Hague Museum preserves a Bust of Homer, in cornelian, 
and Portrait-cameos of King William I. of the Netherlands, and his 

- $16 - 

consort; also Portrait-medals of William I. and Queen on their 
Visit to Brussels, 1817; — Portrait-medals of the Crown Prince of 
the Netherlands and consort on their Visit to Brussels after their 
Marriage, 1816; — Portrait-medals of William I.; his Queen; 
Crown Prince William ; Crown Princess Anna Paulowna; Princess 
Louise Auguste Wilhelmina; — Princess Marianne of the 
Netherlands; Prince Frederick of the Netherlands; — Foundation 
of the Masonic Lodge "Grand Orient" with Prince Frederick 
as Grand Master, 18 18 (2 types); — Opening of a new harbour 
at Middelburg, 18 17 (2 t3'pes); — Presentation medal to King 
William L, By the County of Hainault, 18 17; — The town of 
Jodoigne thanks the King for his help during the Conflagration, 
1820 (2 var.); — Decoration for faithful service in the Army, 
1825 (3 var.); — Prize Medals for the Universities of Leyden, 
Utrecht, and Groningen; — Memorial medal of Lieut. Admiral 
Johan Arnold Zoutman, 1793; — Vankinsbergen, 1819; — Louis 
Englebert Duke of Arenberg, 1820; — Medals of the Universities 
of Liege, and Louvain, 1822; — J. H. van Swinden, 1823 ; — 
Marriage of Prince Frederick of the Netherlands, 1825 ; — Modeste 
Gr^try, 1827; — Badge of the Brussels Civic Guard, 1830, etc. 

The usual signature of the artist is : SIMON F. ; — SIMON G. P. DD 
ROI; — S. ; — F. ; SIMON. 

Simon's *' Galerie metallique " consists of 100 medals, which 
all measure 47 mill, in diameter ; they are : Guillaume de Croy ; 

— Auger Busbeck ; — Jean de Barneveld ; — Philippe de Comines ; 

— Hubert Goltzius ; — Emmanuel de Meteren ; — Gabriel Mud^e; 

— Michel Coxie ; — Nicolas Clenard ; — Pierre Nannius ; — 
Francois Sonnius ; — Jean Stadius ; — Christophe de Longueil; — 
Didier Erasme; — Corneille Scryver; — Jean Gorop-Becanus ; 

— Adrien Junius; — Juste Lipse; — Albert Pighius; — Hugo 
Grotius; — Daniel Heinsius ; — Eryce Puteanus; — Balthazar 
Moretus ; — Gerard Mercator; — Abraham Ortelius ; — Theodore 
Rombouts ; — Jean Second ; — Quentin Metsys ; — Lucas de 
Leyde ; — Jean Mayo ; — Lambert Lombart ; — Pierre Breughel 
the Elder ; — Martin de Vos ; — Michel Mirevelt ; — Barth^lemy 
Spranger ; — Henri Corneille Vroom ; — Abraham Blommaert ; — 
Otho Venius; — Martin Richart ; — Pierre Paul Rubens; — 
Antoine Van Dyck ; — Mathieu Wesenbeec ; — Gaspard de Crayer ; 

— Rodolphe Agricola ; — Daniel Segers ; — Rembrandt Van Rhyn ; 

— Herman Boerhaave; — Pierre Forest; — Jacob Cats; — 
Orlando Lassus; — JeanTaisnier; — Vigliusde Zuichem; — juste 
Vondel ; — Andr^ Vesale ; — Pierre Heyn ; — Michel Andre de 
Ruyter ; — Martin Happertz Tromp ; — Jean Dewitt ; — Vander 
Werf; — Rembert Dodon^e; — Roger Vander Weyde; — 
Francois Remain ; — David Teniers ; — De Feller ; — Louis 

— 517 — 

Englebert d'Arenberg ; — Prince de Ligne ; — Brederode ; — Horn ; 

— Egmont ; — Modeste Gretry; — Prince Charles de Lorraine; 

— Philippe de Marnix; — Simon Van Slingeland ; — Andre 
Corneille Lens ; — Guillaume Louis de Nassau ; — Jean de Knuyt ; 

— Guillaume Buys ; — Pierre Pecquins ; — Gaspard Fagel ; — 
Jean Henri Van Kinsbergen; — Jean Henri Van Swinden ; — Pierre 
Coeck; — Jean Shorel ; — Antoine Moro ; — Jean Arnould 
Zoutman ; — Philippe, comte de Hohenlohe; — Guillaume Krul ; 

— Antoine de Montfort ; — Guillaume L, born in 1533 (the Silent); 

— Maurice de Nassau ; — Frederic Henri, Prince of the Nether- 
lands ; — William IIL (of Great Britain); — Jean Guillaume Friso 
d'Orange; — Guillaume Henri, born i. Sept. 171 1 ; — William L, 
King of the Netherlands ; — His Queen ; — Prince of Orange; — 
Princess of Orange ; — Princess Frederick ; — Princess Marianne. 

Simon is the author of an Armorial general de Vempire frangais,, MDCCCXIL 

Simon's brother, MAYER SIMON (^.z'.). and his son, JEAN MARIE 
AMABLE SIMON ((/. i'.) were also talented Gem-tngravers. 

Bibliography. — Babelon, La Gravtire en pier rts fines, 1894. — J. F. Leturcq, 
Jacques Gtiay. — Mill in, Introduction a V etude de V archeologie , 1826. — Collection 
des livrets des ancicnnes expositions depuis i6js jusquen iSoo, re^ditee par 
M. J. Guiffrey (Paris, 1869-1871). — J. Immerzeel, De Levens en Werhen der 
Hollandsche en Vlaamsche Kiinstschilders, Beeldhouwers, Graveurs en Bouwmeesters, 
Amsterdam, 1843. — De Historiepenningen en Miniten tan Oranje-Nassau. — 
Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit., II, 508. — Marvin, Masonic Medals, 1880. — Van 
Loon Supplement, II, X. — Guioth, Jean Henri Simon, Revue de la numismatique 
beige, 1850, pp. 149-161. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Piot, op. cit. — A. de Witte, 
La Medaille en Belgique, 1906. 

SIMON, JEAN MARIE AMABLE HENRI {French). Son of the last, 
Jean Henri S., and also a Gem-engraver, was born at Paris on 
28. January 1788, and resided a very long time at Brussels. He was 
a chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Under the Restoration and 
Louis Philippe's reign, he was entrusted with numerous official 
orders. He thus engraved in cornelian the portraits of Charles X., 
Duke of Angouleme, Duke of Berry, Louis Philippe, and numerous 
Princes and Princesses of the French royal family. But, remarks 
M. Babelon, " he did not add to the artistic reputation of his 
ancestors, and although his work is careful and consciencious, it is 
difficult to meet with works of art so devoid of charm and life ". 

This artist made the following exhibits at the Paris Salon: 18 19. 
Louis XVIIL, cornelian; — Alexander L of Russia, cornelian; — 
Portrait of a Lady, cornelian ; — Bust of Aesculapius, cornelian ; 

— Cupid, cornelian ; — Arms of the Duke of Treviso, marshal of 
France, cornelian ; — 1822. Bust of Louis XVIIL, wax; — Duke 
and Duchess of Berry, and Duke of Bordeaux, gem ; — Duke of 
Berry, engraved stone ; — Duchess of Orleans, cornelian ; — Prince 


Poniatowski, engraved stone; — Alexander I. of Russia, cornelian ; 
— M""' B***, cornelian ; — 1824. A Frame containing cameos and 
intaglios, amongst which the Portraits of Louis XVIII., and 
Marquis & Marquise C.T'***; — 1827. A Frame of gems, amongst 
which the Portraits of Louis XVIII., Talma, and a Head after the 
antique; — 183 1. Portrait-gems of Charles X., his Queen, and 
the Crown Prince; — 183 3 Portraits of the Royal family ; — 1841 . 
Bust of M""" de B*** ; — 1847. Twenty-seven Cameos and Intaglios, 
&c. ; — Head of Christ ; — Portrait-gems of the French Royal 
family, engraved between 1830 and 1840. (Vide Chavignerie et 
Auvray, op. cit., II, 508). 

There is a Portrait of this artist by L. Th. Simon, which was 
exhibited at the Salon, 1848. 

SIMON, H. (French). This Engraver's signature occurs on the 
reverse of a medal commemorating the Epidemic of typhus at 
Maasluis, 1865. 

SIMON, HIRSCHCG<;rw.). A Jew who under Frederick III. contract- 
ed for the working of the Mint of Breslau, 1779. 

SIMON, JOSSE (French). Mint-master at Angers from 26. November 
1 33 1 to I. December 1333. He officiated in conjunction with 

SIMON, MAYER (French). Better known as SIMON DE PARIS, a 
brother of Jean Henri Simon, son ot Jacob, and great grandson 
of the famous British artist, Thomas S., was born at Brussels in 
1746 and died at Paris on 17. March 182 1. He was a pupil of his 
father, and of Jacques Guay, under whom he worked for some 
time. On the death of the latter, he appears to have bought the 
house in the Marais, rue Portefoin, n° 6, where the Master had 
lived and carried on his profession for so many years. That same 
house was left by Simon in his will to one of his pupils, Henri Beck, 
who in his turn bequeathed it to J. F. Leturcq, the author of a 
' Life of Jacques Guav ', to which I have had occasion to refer 
(Vol. n, p. 326). 

Mayer Simon is the author of several Portrait-gems of Louis XVI., 
Bonaparte as First Consul, and other celebrities; by him are also a 
cameo, signed SIMON F. depicting Jupiter and Antiope, and an 
intaglio cut in amethyst representing a Nymph playing with a term 
of Priapus. Babelon further mentions figures of Lions, and a Cat, 
engraved by this artist, whose productions are unfortunately lacking 
in inspiration and originality, and too often hard and Hfeless. 

SIMON, NICOLAS (French). Mint-mister at Neuville, 1674-1675. 
Vide Natalis Rondot, La Monnaie de Vimy oii dc Neuville, Rev. 
num., 1890, p. 444. 

— 519 — 

SIMON, THOMAS (Brit.). Medallist, Coin- and Seal-engraver, 
born circ. 1623 ;appointed joint-graver to the Royal Mint in 1645 ; 
Chief-engraver from 1649 to 1660; died of the plague in 1665, 
His fame as an Engraver of coin-and medal-dies stands unrivalled 
in the British series. It must be noted, however, that Thomas 
Simon usually worked from his brother Abraham's models. 

I borrow the following details from Wroth's admirable notice of 
this artist, in Sidney Lee's Dictionary of National Biography, LII, 
pp. 265-267. 

"Thomas Simon, medallist and seal-engraver, born about 1623, 
was one of the sons of Peter (or Pierre) Simon by his wife Anne, 
daughter of Gilles Germain of Guernsey. He was a younger brother 
of Abraham Simon {q. t-.), the medallist. Peter Simon is described 
as a native of London, but he probably belonged to a Guernsey 
family named Simon. His marriage took place at the Wallson 
church in Threadneedle Street, London, on 12. September 161 1. 

Medallic Portrait of Thomas Simon, 
by Stuart. 

Vertue records the tradition that Thomas Simon was born in 
Yorkshire, and that he there chanced to attract the notice ot 
Nicholas Briot, the mint engraver. All that seems certain is that 
Simon was introduced (about 1635 ?) into the service of the 
London mint by Sir Edward Harley, and that he there received 
instruction from Briot. In 1639 he made the" Scottish RebeUion" 
medal, and Hawkins (Silver Coins) supposes that some of the 
Tower mint ' crowns' of Charles I. were his work. From about 
1645 his productions as a medallist and seal-engraver become 
numerous. In official documents his name sometimes occurs as 
Simons and Simmonds. 

— 520 — 

*'In 1645 Simon was appointed, with Edward Wade, joint chief 
graver of the stamps for coins, with authorization to engrave all 
the royal arms and seals. The salary was 30 /. shared with his 
colleague, together with the usual lodgings and perquisites. In 1648 
he was authorized to engrave the great seal of the Commonwealth, 
and in 1649 was appointed sole chief graver to the mint and seals. 

Battle of Dunbar, 1650. 

'* In September 1650 he was sent to Edinburgh to take the 
portrait of the lord-general for the ' Dunbar' medal. Cromwell, in 
the same year, recommended him for promotion at the mint, for 
'indeed the man is ingenious and worthy of encouragement'. 
In 165 1 Simon made the great seal of England, On 20. March 
1654 he was given a salary of 13 /. 6 ^. 8 ^. per annum for the 
sole making of all medals for his highness and tor the public service; 
in addition to this he had 30/. per annum as the salary attached to 

' Fifty-Shilling ' piece, 1656. 

his post of sole chief graver of the mint and seals. On 16. March 
1654 he was ordered to engrave the great seal, privy seal, and seal 
manual; and in 1655-6 he also made many seals for the public 
service, including the great seals for Scotland and for Ireland, and 
seals for the English, Scottish, and Irish councils, and for the 
English law courts and the Admiralty. 

— 521 — 

" Simon engraved the dies for Cromwell's projected coinages ot 
1656 and 1658, probably the finest in the English series. Simon's 
bust for the so-called ' fifty-shilling piece ' (struck from the die of the 
Broad) is now in the Royal Mint, together with other punches anddies 
made by him. The frosting observable on these coins appears to 
have been introduced ly Simon. The actual striking of the specimens 
was undertaken by Blondeau. On 14. January 1657-8 Simon laid 
before the council his account for making medals, badges, silver 
boxes for treaties, presses for seals, &c., amounting to 1,728 /. $s. 
Sd., of which 700 /. had been paid in 1655. On 3. August 1658 
he again petitioned the council to discharge the debt. ' I beg you ' 
(he says) ' to consider that I and my servants have wrought five 
years without recompense, and that the interest I have to pay for 
gold and silver eats up my profit". Simon was employed to model 
the face of the efiigy of Oliver, carried in the Protector's funeral 
procession on 23. November 1658. 

Simon's Petition Crown, 1663. 

"At the Restoration, Thomas Rawlins, the Royalist medallist, 
was reinstated as chief engraver, but Simon successfully petitioned 
for employment, and was actively occupied in making dies for the 
'hammered' English coinage ot 1660. On 31. May 1661 he obtained 
the grant of the office of one of the gravers of the king's arms, 
shields, and stamps; and on 2. June 1661 was made by patent one 
of the king's chief gravers of the mint and seals, with the salary of 
50 /. ** At this time he prepared the following seals : the great seal 
and privy seal, the great seal for Ireland, the great seal for Jamaica, 
and seals for the order of the Garter, the lord high admiral, the 
council of Wales, and the Royal Society. 

" In Januar}' 1662 Simon and John Roettiers (q-v.) were ordered 
to engrave dies for the new ' milled ' coinage, but, ' by reason of 
a contest in art between them ', they could not be brought to an 
agreement. They were therefore each directed (7. February 1662) 

— 522 — 

to engrave a trial-piece for a silver 'crown', to be submitted to 
tiie king. Charles decided in favour of Roettiers, and Simon's 
employment at the mint then practicall}' ceased. In 1663 Simon 
produced as a sample of his abilities his famous pattern for a crown 
piece known as the 'Petition Crown', from the following petition 
engraved in minute letters on its edge : THOMAS SIMON most . 


PIECE . WITH . THE . DVTCH (/. i. John Roettiers's crown) and. if. 


Chronicle, 1854, xvi.135, where fifteen specimens of the petition 
crown are mentioned). In April and September 1664, Simon was 
employed in engraving seals for the king's service. He died in June 
1665 of the plague, leaving directions in his will that he was to be 
buried in the church of St. Clement Danes, London, in which 
parish he had long resided. 

" Simon married Elizabeth, daughter and sole heiress of Cardin 
Fautrart of Guernsey, and had by her several children. The will of 
Thomas Simon, citizen and goldsmith of London, was proved in 
the Consistory Court of Canterburv on 23. August 1665. He left 
his son Samuel his farm in Shorne, near Gravesend, Kent, and also 
his paintings, drawings, and medals. To his nephew William, son 
of his brother Nathaniel, deceased, he left his punches and graving 
tools. Simon's widow petitioned the king about 1669 for the sum 
of 2, 164 /., claimed by her as arrears of payment due to her 

" A portrait of Simon occurs on an oval medal, cast and chased 
by Stuart in the eighteenth centur}% from an unknown original 
probably executed by Abraham Simon circ 1660. A seventeenth- 
centur}^ miniature, formerly in the possession of Sir A. W. Franks, 
has been identified as probably a portrait of T. Simon. 

" In the preparation of many of his portrait medals Simon had 
the advantage of working from the admirable wax models of his 
brother Abraham, but his own work on coins and seals proves 
that he was an accomplished designer, endowed with a keen sense 
of what was appropriate for the circular ' flan ' of the coin and the 
seal. His technical skill is triumphantly evinced by his Petition 
Crown, and, taken altogether, he must be pronounced the finest 
medallist who ever worked in England. His usual signature is T.S. " 

The following is a list of Simon's principal medallic works. 
Many of his medals are not struck, but cast and chased. 

Medals. Scottish Rebellion, 1639 (4 var.; Med. III., I, 282, 91- 
94); — Sir John Hotham, 1644 (Med. III., I, ^{4); — Sir Thomas 
Fairfax, general, 1645 (3 var.; Med. III., I, 317, 150-152); — 
Baron de Reede, 1645 (Med. III., I, '1); —Death of Earl of 

— 523 — 

Essex, 16^6 (3 var. ; Med. III., I, ^-); — Edward Rossiter, 
general, 1646 (Med. III., I, ff|) ; — Charles I ., Badge (Med . III., I, 

Memorial of the Earl of Essex 1646. 
i-TTY and other varieties) ; — Cromwell, Lord-General, 1650(2 var.; 
Med. III., I, ^0; — Henry Ireton, 1650 (Med. III., T, =f ) ; — 

Battle of Dunbar. 

Naval Reward, 1650 (Med. III., I, '■^); — Battle ot Dunbar, 1650 
(3 var.; Med. III., I, 391, 13, 14 ill nitrated, 15) ; — Naval Reward, 

Naval Reward, 1653. 

— 524 — 

1653 (3 ^^^'', ^^d. III., I, 398, 26-28). Of the first two varieties 
of this medal only four specimens each were struck, by order of 

Cromwell, Lord Protector. 

the Parliament, to commemorate the naval victories over the Dutch 
in February, June and July 1653, to be given to the flag officers 

Kenrv Scobell. 

of the vessels engaged. The piece reproduced here, which was in 
Messrs Spink & Son's possession (1908), is the one presented to 

Memorial medal of Cromwell. 

Captain Haddock; — Cromwell, Lord Protector, 1653 (2 var. ; 
Med. III., I, 409, 45-46). [The portrait of Cromwell was copied 


from a miniature by S. Cooper, now in the collection of the Duke 
of Devonshire]; — Saving the Triumph (Blake's flagship), 1653 
(Med. III., I, ^ ; believed to be unique, Brit. Mus.); - Henry Scobell, 
undated {Med. III., I, -f; believed to be unique in gold; formerly 
in the Meyrick, Montagu and Murdoch collections ; now Spink and 
Son U) ; — John Thurloe, 165 3 (Med. Ill, I, 'f^ ; — Sir James 
Harrington, 1653 {Med. III., I, ^); — Bulstrode Whitelock, 1653 

General Monk, 1660. 

{Med. Ill, I, '%\ — Unknown Portrait, 1653 {Med. Ill, I, ^g) ; 
— Cromwell and Fairfax, 1653 {Med. Ill-,''-i^', — Elizabeth 
Cleypole, 1658 {Med. Ill, I, '-fl); — Death of Cromwell. 1658 
{Med. Ill, I, ^). [This struck medal was furnished with a ring 
that it might be worn by his friends and partisans. The reverse 
alludes to his son Richard succeeding him in the Protectorate]; — 

I 11. Coronation medal. 

General Monk, 1660 {Med. Ill, I, *§). [This is one ot Simon's 
finest productions. The medal is very rare. The Murdoch specimen 
in gold realized i loi; June 1904, lot 195]; — Restoration of 
Charles II., 1 660 (several types: i.^.oriar. Sun rising out of the sea; 
Med. Ill, I, ^ ; 2. Obv. Moses. ^. Inscription, in . aeter : memor : 
etc.; Med. Ill, I, 462, 56-58; — 3. ^. magna opera domini. 
Square shield of Great Britain and Ireland, crowned; Med. Ill, I, 
463, 59-60; — 4. Obv. etc.; Med. Ill,^; — 

- 526 - 

5- ^L. MAGNALiA.DEi; Mc'd. III., I, '^. [This piece is sometimes 
considered as a pattern for a coin] ; — Solicitor-general Cooke, 
executed 1660 (Med. III., I, ^,); — Coronation medal of 
Charles II., 'struck for distribution among the spectators of that 

Ladv Lane. 

splendid ceremony' (Med. III., I, ^) [Simon's charge for the dies 
was i no]; — Coronation, i66r; obv. Bust of Charles II.; 
^L. iAM.FLORESciT.23 .APR. 1661. Oak-tree (Med. III., I, -^jj; — 
Earl of Clarendon, 1662 (Med. III., I, '^); — Earl of Southampton, 
1664 (Med. III., I, fif) ; — Lady Lane, Dorcas Brabazon, 1662 
(Med. III., I, ^; illustrated); — Dominion of the Sea, 1665 (Med. 

Dominion ol the Sea, 1665. 

Other medals have been attributed to Thomas Simon, but as 
they are unsigned, or only known Irom later imitations by Stuart, 
I shall not mention them here. 

Seals. This list is taken from Vertue's Catalogue : The Great 
Seal of the first year of the Commonwealth, 1648; — Seal for the 
Court of Common Bench at Westminster, 1648; — Seal for the 
Common Pleas for the County Palatine of Lancaster, 1648; — 
Seal of the Duchy of Lancaster, 1648 ; — The Parliament Seals ; — 
Great Seal of the Commonwealth, 165 1 ; — Great Seal Oi 
the Lord Protector; — Great Seal of Richard Cromwell; — 
The Parliament Seals, 1659; — Scotch and Irish Seals; — 

— 5^7 — 

Council Seal ; — Cinque Ports Seal ; — The Great Seal ot 
Charles II., 1660; — Seal for the Office of the Lord Privy Seal, 
1661 ; — Royal Society Seal; — Seal ofHenr}' Cromwell; — Seal 
of Oliver Cromwell; — Seal of Charles II. and Catherine, 1662; 
— The Great Seal of Charles II. ; — The Great Seal tor the Order 
of the Garter ; — Great Seal of Jamaica ; — Great Seal for the Lord 
High Admiral James Duke of York; — Cromwell's Privy Seal, and 
Seal manual; — Great Seal of England, Privy Seal, and Seal 
manual temp. Charles II. ; Vertue, PL XXXIX, XL, etc. 

Coins. Charles I. Hawkins supposes that some of the Tower mint 
crowns were his work; those of his type 5 (PI. XXXIX, 477), 

Crown of Qiarles I., Mm. Sun. 

bearing the mint-mark Sun, with horse large, tall, head erect, 
elegant and spirited, the mane extending in front of the chest 
{Riiding, XVIII, 7). Probably struck in 1645. "The spirit, the 

Unite, or Twenty-Shilling piece, 1630. 

neatness, and minuteness of some of the details of this and of some of 
the other pieces, except the first type, induces us to believe that 

- 528 - 

they are the earlier productions ofThos. Simon." {Hks., p. 310). 
Commonwealth. Hammered money. N. Twenty Shillings, 1649- 

1657, ^^^ 1660; — Ten Shillings, 1649-165 4, and 1660; — 
Five-Shillings, 1649-1654, 1657, 1658, and 1660; — iR. Crown, 
1649, 1651-1654, and 1656; — Half-Crown, 1649, 1651-1656, 

1658, i659(?) and 1660; — Shilling, 1649, 165 1-1658, and 1660; 
Sixpence, 1649, 1651-1660; — Half-Groat, Penny and Halfpenny, 

Oliver CrotnwelL P' Issue (1656). Al. Fifty-shilling piece 



Halt-Broad, by Simon. 

(illustrated) ; — Broad, or Twenty Shillings ; — Half-Broad, or 
TenShillings(///M5/rd:/^£?); — ^R. Half-Crown. — 2°*^ Issue. .^. Crown, 
1658 (illustrated); — Half-Crown, 1656-1658; — Shilling, 1658; 
Sixpence, 1658 '. 




Crown, by Simon. 

Both coinages of 1656 and 1658, were struck by Blondeau's 
*• Most of the crowns have a flaw across the bust, the obverse die 

I . These coins are masterpieces of the coiner's art, and the neatness of the 
design, the sharpness of the impression, and the beautiful gloss upon their surface, 
exhibit the patience and skill which was lavished upon their production ". 
(T. H. B. Graham, Cromwell's Silver Coinage, "Hum. Chron., 1908). 

— 529 — 

having cracked after a few specimens were struck. The Crown was 
also struck in gold, but only two examples are known. There are 
two imitations of this piece, one made by Tanner, the other in 
Holland and commonly called " the Dutch crown ". They vary 
from Simon's crown in the modelling of the bust and in the shape 
of the letters" (Grueber, p. 126). 

Broads and Half-Broads struck in copper and pewter are known 
of Simon's type. 

Charles II. Hammered money. AT. Broad (two issues, 1660-1661 
with and without mark of value XX behind bust); — Half-Broad 
(also two issues); — Crown (also two issues) ; — JB^. ?• Issue (1660): 
Half-Crown ; — Shilling ; — Sixpence ; — Half-Groat ; — Penny ; — 
IH Issue, 1661 : Same denominations, with marks of value and no 

Half-Crown, by Simon. 

inner circle; — IIP'^ Issue, 1 661-1662: Same denominations; and 
also Groat and Threepence, with marks of value and inner circle. 
The first issue of Maundy money, which is of Simon's third type, 
dates from 166 1-2. These coins ' (says Grueber) ' are of much neater 
work than the previous ones of the same denominations and are the 
last specimens of the hammered money. 

Milled Money. Pattern Coins. N. Broads; several types; 
I. ^L. MAGNALiA DEI 1660, a cross, composed of II, 3C and crown 
four times repeated, etc.; 2. ^L. florent.concordia.regna. 1662. 
Square shield of arms ; — JB^. Broads; several types: i. ^L. magna- 
LiA.DEi. 1660, with edge inscribed : * reversvs . sine . clade . victor 
(laurel-branch) simon fecit (Rud., pi. XXIV, i); 2. Similar, with 
edge grained ; 3 . Two reverses combined, magna . opera . domini . 
1660, andpROBASTi.ME.DNE.etc. ;edge inscribed (i?Mflf., XXXIV, 3); 
4. Obv. Large bust crowned; ^. magna. opera. domini. 1660 
{Rud., pi. XXXIV, 4); 5. As last, but bust of King laureated 
Rud., pi. XXXIV, 2); 6. ^L. florent.concordia.regna. 1662 
{Rud., pi. XIV, 8); JB^. Angel, amor popvli, etc. Rud., pi. XIII, 


The two most famous Pattern coins by Thomas Simon are his 

" Petition Crown " and the " Reddite Crown ". The former I have 

L. FoKRER. — BiogTCfhicai Notices of Medallists. — V. }4 

already described above. Referring to this piece, Mr. Webster 
writes in his Catalogue of the Mint Collection (p. 77) : " The 
famous contest in art between two such engravers as Simon and 
Roettiers, produced the finest pattern piece in the English series, but 

Pattern-Broad by T. Simon, 1660. 

unfortunately it failed in obtaining any favour at the hands of a 
monarch who never possessed the artistic taste for which his father 
was so celebrated. Evelyn, in speaking of the contest remarks : 
"For the honour of our countrymen, I cannot here omit that 
ingenious trial of skill which a commendable emulation has produc- 
ed in a medal performed with extraordinary accuracy by one who 
having been deservedly employed in the Mint at the Tower, was 
not willing to be supplanted by foreigners. " 

The " Reddite " Crown, by Simon. 

The ' Reddite ' is of the same type and bears the same legends as 
the * Petition ' crown, and is from the same dies, but the edge is 
inscribed reddite. qv^e.g^s a ris.c^sari, &c. 

A most interesting paper was contributed by Mr. W. J. Hocking, 
Curator of the Mint Museum, to the Num. Chron., 1909, pp. 56- 
119, on Simons Dies in the Royal Mint Museum, with some Notes on 
the early history of coinage by machinery. This paper describes twenty- 
six Cromwell dies, matrices and punches, nineteen of which were 
purchased by Mr., afterwards Sir, Isaac Newton, from the artist's 
successor, whilst seven dies were manufactured in the Mint at a 

— 531 — 

later date (about the fourth decade of the eighteenth century) and 
attributed to Tanner. Beside these a set of dies for Half-broad, 
Shilling, and Sixpence were acquired by the Mint in 1900, which 
are not by Simon, and show unskilful work, emanating probably 
from the same source as the so-called "Dutch" crown, perhaps 
all done in Flanders. 

Commonwealth Seal, by T. Simon. 

'* Thomas Simon was also, according to the universal rule of his 
times, a gem-engraver; this a priori conclusion is confirmed by 
Giulianelli who quotes, from Stosch's collection, pastes taken from 
his gem-portraits of Cromwell and Clarendon. In the Devonshire 
Cabinet is a cameo head of the Protector, in all probability his 
work; in fact his head on the coins are treated precisely in the style 
of cameo in flat relief, to which unusual mode of treatment much 
of their effect is due" (King, Antique Gems and Rings, 1872). 

The two brothers Simon produced medals singly or together ; in 
the case of a joint work, it seems that Abraham made the model, 
while Thomas, a more skilful engraver, did the after-chasing. The 
Simons appear to have first made their models in wax, and then 
to have cast the medals from models in sand. 

— 532 — 

Thomas Simon signed : Siman ; — T. S. ; — T. S. ; — THO : 

Bibliography. — W. Wroth, Thomas Simon, Diet. Nat. Biogr., LII, 265-7. — 
George Vertue, Medals, Coins, Great Seals, and other IVorks of Thomas Simon, 
London, 1780. — Hawkins, Medallic Illustrations, ed. Franks and Grueber. — 
Grueber, Guide to English Medals in the British Museum. — Henfrey, Numismata 
Cromwelliana. — Ruding, op. cit. — Kenyon, op. cit. — Hawkins, op. cit. — 
Wheathy and Cunningham, London; Notes and Queries, especially 2nd ser., II, 115, 
276, XII, 2, I. — Numismatic Chronicle, IV, 211 ff . ; V, 161 ff. (Simon's 
will), VII. 22 f. — Calendars of State Papers, JDomestic. 1649-65. — Bolzenthal, 
op. cit. — Wyon, Great Seals of England, 1887. — Cochran-Patrick, Medals of 
Scotland. — Lecoy de la Marche, Les Sceaiix. — Grueber, Handbook to the Coins of 
Great Britain and Ireland. — Crowther, op. cit. — Miss Helen Farquhar, Por- 
traiture of the Stuarts on the Royalist Badges, Brit. Num. Journ. II. — Olla Podrida, 
361. — Burns, op. cit. 

SIMONOFF, Prof. (Russ.^ Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
residing at St. Petersburg. On the occasion of Tolstoy's 80''' Anni- 
versary, 9. September 1908, he modelled a Portrait-plaquette of the 
great novelist and philosopher, a reproduction of which was publish- 
ed by the Berliner Miin-^bldlier ^ 1908, p. 166. 

SIMONNET, MONNET {French). Master Engraver at Grenoble, and 
Die-cutter at the Mint there from 1580 to 1620. He resigned in 
favour of his son. 

Mazerolle gives his name as Simons {Vide Medailleurs fran^is, 
I, 616). 

SIMONNET, PIERRE (French). Son of the last, born in 1591 ; Mint- 
engraver at Grenoble, 1620-1629. 

SIMONS, ADRIEN {French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Cappelen (Belgium), but naturalised a Frenchman, He is the 
author of some good medallic works : Plaquettes in silver, Sunrise 
and Sunset; — Portrait-medallion in bronze, M"^ Lydie, etc. 

SIMONS, AMORT C. {Amer.). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Charleston (U.S.A.) in 1865 ; pupil of the Academy of Fine Arts 
at Philadelphia. He is at the present time (1908) residing in Paris. 
By him is a pleasing Plaquette entitled " Surprise ". In Paris he studied 
under Puech, and J. Dampt. 

SIMONS, HENRY {Amer.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
born in the United States; studied in Paris under Chapu, Gautherin, 
and other Masters. 

He is the author of some Portrait-medallions, and exhibited at 
the Paris Salon, 1908, four Portrait-plaquettes in bronze. 

SIMPSON, HENRT W. {Brit.). Contemporary Die-sinker, residing 
at Birmingham. He is a maker of badges, seals, masonic jewels, 
souvenirs, enamel work, challenge shields, etc., and has also prod- 

— 533 — 

uced some medals and plnquettes which show a distinct advance on 
the ordinary productions of Birmingham ; thus a Plaquette of the 
Birmingham Photographic Society with portrait of Sir OHver Lodge, 
and a coronation medal of King George V., 1911. 

SIMSON, W. (Brit.). Mint-master at Bombay (1849- 185 3); G. J. 
Blane and Captain J. H. Burke acted under him as officiating 


SINIBALDI, LODOVICO (ftal.). Pontifical Mint-master at Ancona, 

SINAYEFF-BERNSTEIN, LEOPOLD (i?«55.). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born in Russia; pupil of Dalou. At the Paris Salon, 1907, he 
exhibited a Portrait-medal of Eugene Manuel. 

SINGER. GEORG HEINRICH(Gm».). Mint-warden at Breslau, 1746- 
1750; Mint-master 1750-1764; Mint-director, 1764-1770. In 1770 
he was transferred to Berlin on his appointment to the office ot 
General-director of the Mint (Ober-Miinzdirecktor) in the place ot 
Von Studnitz. He died on 22. June 1779. His initials occur on two 
medals of 1757, by Ulitsch. 

SINGLETON (Brit.'). Counterfeiter of ancient and modern coins 
and medals, circ. 1825- 1840. The sketch reproduced below gives a 
humorous portrait of this sorry individual, who is described in the 
Sale Catalogue of a Clergyman, &c., Sotheby's, July 1839, p. 14, 
as " the now well-known dealer, whose sanctified appearance, and 
deceptive demeanour, have but too well enabled him to succeed in 
disposing of his forgeries as genuine, and by so doing injure the 
science of numismatics and defraud the unwary ". 

Singleton's forgeries are mostly casts, some from originals, others 
made up from ideal coins, which he hawked through the country, 
and took care to sell mixed up with genuine specimens, to collectors. 
His fabrications comprise imitations of the coins of Athens, Caulonia, 
Syracuse, Metapontum, &c., Denarii of Julius Caesar, Nero, Galba, 
Titus, and others, including rarities; Anglo-Saxon Pennies of 
Eadwald, Regnald, Vigmund, Eanbald, &c. ; Halfpence of John, 
Edwards IV., etc.; Pennies of William I., Henry II., 
John, etc.; Half Groats of the Edwards and Henries; Groats of 
Henry VIII., Elizabeth, Charles I., and others; Shillings of 
Henry VII., Philip and Mary, Charles I.,&:c. ; Halfcrowns of 
EUzabeth, Charlesl. (two Siege pieces) ; Crowns of Edward VI. , 
Charles I., various, one of Oxford with the City under the horse, 
also Half Crown of same type ; Scottish Pennies and Groats, 
various; a Crown of Mar}' and Henry; a medal, purporting to be 
of gold, of David II. (imitation of the English Noble); Unicorn, 
and Half Unicorn of James III.; Medal of the Saviour, etc. 

— 534 — 

In the Dean of St, Patrick's auction sale catalogue, 1842, a 
number of other forgeries by Singleton are enumerated under lots 

R R.R.R Liu-C ^/ *»w^iv tvo^kun^ ouLoM^ 

440-442, Imitation British gold coins (3); M, coins of Offa, 
Eustace, Stephen, Richard L; Richard II. Groat; Henry VII. 


Shilling ; Cromwell Shilling ; Charles I, Ten and Five-shiUing 
pieces, and Half Crown, Oxford {illustrated). 

Oxford Half Crown. 

Forgeries by Singleton still turn up now and then. They may 
not all be his work, but his name is associated with them as the 
seller. He traded under the aliases of D' Edwards, Mr. James, &c. 

SINISTRI, GIUSEPPE (Jtal.'). A famous Forger of ancient coins, 
who was residing at Rome during the second haif of the eighteenth 
century. Caroni, Rag^tiaglio del viaggio compendioso di un dilettante 
antiquario condotto in Barberia (Milan, 1805, t, II, p. 183) mentions 
that this counterfeiter executed amongst others three imitations of 
a fragment of Aes rude, of rectangular form, with corners rounded, 
bearing on one side a sword scabbard with the inscription nromanom, 
and on the other a sword, the pommel of which represents a ram's 
head, and with the guard bent in the form of an «\) {Vide Babelon, 
Monnaies consulaires, I, pp. 8-9). 

SIRIES, CARLO (Jtal.). Engraver at the Mint of Florence, 1819-1836. 

SIRIES, LOUIS {French). Gem-engraver of the eighteenth century, 
whose productions are dated between 1733 and 1760. He was a 
Frenchman, Goldsmith to Louis XV., but settled at Florence in 1740 
where he held the appointment of Director of the Grand Ducal 
Gallery. Born about 1686, he died some time after 1766. 

According to Giulianelli, he learnt, self-taught, the art of gem- 
engraving, in the space of seven years. Gori speaks in high praise of 
the artist, and St. Laurent wrote a special volume to eulogise 
his work. 

The best known gems by Siries described by Raspe are : Saturn 
and the Zodiac, lapis lazuli ; — The tvs'elve great divinities grouped 
in a circle around a nude figure of Venus, lapis lazuli ; — Gany- 
mede and the eagle (signed : L. S.) ; — Bust of Pallas, with the aegis, 
helmet ornamented with figure of Victory (signed : L. S.) ; — 
Another, the helmet adorned with a dragon (L. S.) ; — Others {Raspe, 
T. G., n° 1685-7); — The assembly of the gods to decide the 
contest between Pallas and Neptune, about naming the city of 

- 536 - 

Athens, and about the oHve-tree and the horse, lapis lazuH (signed : 
LOVIS SIRIES. FLORENCE. 1750); — Another, smaller (signed :L. S.); 

— Triton, sardonyx (L. S.) ; — Fall of Phaeton, cameo (signed : 
LOVIS. SIRIES) ; — Segment of the Zodiac separating an assembly of 
the gods from a man tilling the ground, sardonyx (L.